Oro de Filipinas: tesoros de reinos olvidados

Oro de Filipinas: tesoros de reinos olvidados

Publicado con motivo de la inauguración de la exposición "Philippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms", organizada por la Asia Society, Nueva York y el Museo Ayala en Filipinas en 2015, este catálogo de la exposición homónima presenta al público la misteriosa pre -Reinos hispanos del archipiélago filipino. Editado por la curadora del Museo de la Sociedad de Asia Florina H. Capistrano-Baker, Oro filipino es un excelente estreno sobre la artesanía de las antiguas Filipinas.

Escrito sucintamente en solo 100 páginas, Oro filipino sitúa los artefactos encontrados en la exposición dentro de un amplio contexto sociohistórico del este y sudeste asiático. Los reinos de las antiguas Filipinas fueron poblados por sociedades avanzadas con tecnología metalúrgica superior mucho antes de la llegada de Fernando de Magallanes y los exploradores españoles en 1521 EC. Las antiguas Filipinas estaban ubicadas en la intersección del comercio entre los océanos Índico y Pacífico. Los monzones trajeron comerciantes, marineros y misioneros al archipiélago filipino durante cientos de años antes de la llegada de los españoles, por lo que no es de extrañar que muchas de las piezas expuestas compartan similitudes estilísticas, iconográficas y técnicas con culturas distantes y vecinas. Si bien esto puede parecer obvio dados los patrones climáticos predominantes de los monzones, lo que se reconoce menos es que Filipinas fue y sigue siendo un centro de extracción de oro. (Filipinas tiene el segundo depósito de oro más grande del mundo, y ciertamente puede darse cuenta de esto al leer Oro filipino!)

El texto delinea primero la importancia de hallazgos y tesoros específicos, como el 'tesoro de Surigao' descubierto en la década de 1980, y luego profundiza en temas relacionados con la metalurgia antigua, el antiguo reino de Butan y el Códice Boxer del siglo XVI d.C., que proporciona evidencia pictórica sobre vestuario y joyería prehispánica. La verdadera utilidad de Oro filipino radica en la exploración y posterior análisis de los 117 objetos de la exposición: exquisitos adornos para la cabeza, el cuello, el torso, la cintura y las orejas; armas ceremoniales; retenedores rituales; y las piezas religiosas votivas atestiguan una influencia definida de la antigua India y los reinos indianizados del sudeste asiático en muchos de los objetos perfilados. (Algunos artículos exhiben una influencia limitada de China). Aquellos que no saben nada sobre Filipinas y su historia podrán apreciar las obras de oro en el nivel más básico. Aquellos de nosotros que ya sabemos algo sobre el arte y la cultura asiáticos también veremos algo completamente nuevo. Estos objetos notables amplían nuestra comprensión del comercio marítimo temprano y el intercambio cultural.

En el catálogo se incluyen un mapa útil de Filipinas, una cronología de la historia de Filipinas y una lista de control de la exposición con imágenes de todos los artefactos. Las referencias bibliográficas en inglés, francés y español también aparecen al final de Philippine Gold, pero uno se sorprende al no ver ningún título en tagalo. No obstante, esta lista es útil para los investigadores que desean obtener más información.

AHE recomienda este magnífico catálogo a aquellos interesados ​​en la historia, arqueología e historia del arte de Asia. Las imágenes de Philippine Gold son espléndidas e impresionantes. Los lectores pueden sentir curiosidad por ver solo las imágenes.

Oro filipino. Asia Society, 2015, tapa dura, 100 páginas, imágenes a todo color. Disponible en la Sociedad de Asia


Philippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms en Asia Society Museum en Nueva York, 11 de septiembre de 2015 & # 8211 3 de enero de 2016

& # 8220La exposición muestra objetos recientemente excavados que destacan la prosperidad y los logros de los poco conocidos reinos filipinos que florecieron mucho antes de que los españoles descubrieran la región y la colonizaran. Con aproximadamente 120 objetos del siglo X al XIII, la exposición demuestra sofisticadas técnicas de trabajo en oro desarrolladas durante este período. La gran mayoría de las obras de la exposición están prestadas por el Museo Ayala y la Colección de Oro Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas y nunca se han exhibido fuera de Filipinas ”. - Museo de la Sociedad de Asia

Kinnari. Surigao, ca. Siglos X-XIII. Oro. Alto 4 ¾ x Ancho 2 15/16 pulg. (12 x 7,5 cm). Colección del Museo Ayala, Cat. Nº 81.5189. Fotografía de Neal Oshima Imagen cortesía del Museo Ayala

Adorno de oreja. Visayas orientales o el noreste de Mindanao, ca. Siglos X-XIII. Oro. Diam. 4,2 cm (1 5/8 pulg.). Colección del Museo Ayala, Cat. Nº 73.4192. Fotografía de Neal Oshima Imagen cortesía del Museo Ayala

Conjunto de tres grandes brazaletes. Baggao, provincia de Cagayán, Luzón, ca. Siglos X-XIII. Oro. A: W.2 11/16 x Diam. 2 15/16 pulg. (6,8 x 7,5 cm). B: L.1 9/16 x Diam. 2 13/16 pulg. (4,0 x 7,2 cm). C: L.1 1/16 x Diam. 2,7 x 7,5 cm (2 15/16 pulg.). Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, G6P-1983-0003, G6P-1983-0005, G6P-1983-0006. Fotografía de Wig Tysmans Imagen cortesía de Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (Banco Central de Filipinas)

Adornos para los oídos. Butuan, Augusan del Norte, ca. Siglos X-XIII. Oro. Alt. 1 1/2 x W.1 1/4 pulg. (3,5 x 3,3 cm). Colección del Museo Ayala, Cat. Nº 75.4229AB. Fotografía de Neal Oshima Imagen cortesía del Museo Ayala

Copa. Surigao, ca. Siglos X-XIII. Oro. H. 1 1⁄4 x Diam. 3,1 x 7,8 cm (3 1/6 pulg.). Colección del Museo Ayala, Cat. Nº 81.5166. Fotografía de Neal Oshima Imagen cortesía del Museo Ayala

Cabestro. Surigao, ca. Siglos X-XIII. Oro. L.59 1/16 x L.1 1/16 (150 x 2,7 cm). Colección del Museo Ayala, Cat. Nº 81.5186. Fotografía de Neal Oshima Imagen cortesía del Museo Ayala

Juego de dos contrapesos para cordón de cintura. Tesoro de Surigao, provincia de Surigao del Sur, ca. Siglos X-XIII. Oro. Cada uno: H. 2 3/8 pulg. (6 cm). Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, G7P-1981-0003. Fotografía de Wig Tysmans Imagen cortesía de Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (Banco Central de Filipinas)

Adornos para los oídos. Arasasan, Mindanao. California. Siglos X-XIII. A: Alt.4 11/16 x An. 3 1/8 pulg. (11,9 x 7,9 cm) B: Alt. 4 11/16 x An. 3 1/16 pulg. (11,9 x 7,8 cm). Colección del Museo Ayala, Cat. Nº 76.4479AB. Fotografía de Neal Oshima Imagen cortesía del Museo Ayala

Pretina. Surigao, ca. Siglos X-XIII. Oro. L.26 7/8 x L.1 15/16 (68,2 x 4,9 cm). Colección del Museo Ayala, Cat. Nº 81.5176. Fotografía de Neal Oshima Imagen cortesía del Museo Ayala

Juego de dos hebillas de cinturón. Butuan, provincia de Agusan del Norte, ca. Siglos X-XIII. Oro. Cada uno: H. 4 ¼ pulg. (10,8 cm). Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, G7P-1981-0001, G7P-1981-0002. Fotografía de Wig Tysmans Imagen cortesía de Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (Banco Central de Filipinas)

Adornos para los oídos. Isla de Mindoro, ca. Siglos X-XIII. Oro. Cada uno: W.2 ¾ pulg. (7 cm). Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, G5P-1983-0018. Fotografía de Wig Tysmans Imagen cortesía de Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (Banco Central de Filipinas)

Máscara. Butuan, Augusan del Norte, ca. Siglos X-XIII. Oro. Alt. 8 7/16 x W.6 7/16 pulg. (21,5 x 16,3 cm). Colección del Museo Ayala, Cat. No. 76.4795. Fotografía de Neal Oshima Imagen cortesía del Museo Ayala


Oro filipino: tesoros de reinos olvidados

Esta exposición presenta espectaculares obras de oro descubiertas principalmente durante los últimos cuarenta años en las islas filipinas de Luzón, Visayas y Mindanao. Las insignias, las joyas, las armas ceremoniales y los objetos rituales y funerarios dan fe de la evidencia recientemente descubierta de prosperidad y logros de la política filipina que floreció entre los siglos X y XIII, mucho antes de que los españoles descubrieran y colonizaran la región. Aunque las formas y estilos de la mayoría de estas obras se desarrollaron localmente, algunos indican que los artesanos filipinos habían estado expuestos a objetos de más allá de sus fronteras a través de las sólidas conexiones culturales y el comercio marítimo en el sudeste asiático durante lo que fue un temprano auge económico asiático.

El archipiélago filipino de más de 7.000 islas se encuentra entre el Océano Pacífico y el Océano Índico en la región del continente asiático conocida como Isla del Sudeste Asiático. Durante el tiempo en que los artistas y artesanos crearon las obras de esta exposición, marineros, comerciantes, misioneros y emisarios surcaron las aguas que conectaban las islas tropicales con tierras lejanas como China e India. Los vientos monzónicos dictaban las idas y venidas de los barcos mercantes: la época del año en que atracaban, cuánto tiempo permanecían y cuándo zarpaban. Los asentamientos portuarios cerca de calas protegidas como la antigua Butuan en la desembocadura del río Agusan, donde desemboca en la bahía de Butuan en el noreste de Mindanao, atrajeron a barcos y marineros que buscaban refugio de los fuertes vientos del suroeste que soplaron de mayo a noviembre. Algunos de estos barcos mercantes comerciaban por los recursos naturales de lo que los primeros textos indios denominan Survarnadvipa, o "Islas de Oro", un nombre de lugar geográfico que los estudiosos creen que se refiere a las islas del sudeste asiático, incluida Sumatra en Indonesia y la cercana Mindanao y Luzón en Filipinas.


Reseña: "Philippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms"

Más de medio milenio antes de que Fernando de Magallanes llegara al archipiélago ahora llamado Filipinas en 1521, varias sociedades afines prosperaron allí. Poco se sabe de ellos. No dejaron arquitectura, monumentos ni literatura perdurables. Sin embargo, una cosa es segura: eran orfebres asombrosamente hábiles.

Una muestra generosa del trabajo en oro de esos pueblos desconocidos se presenta en "Philippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms", una exhibición hermosa e históricamente intrigante de aproximadamente 120 piezas de los siglos X al XIII.

Organizada por Adriana Proser de la Asia Society y, como curadora consultora, Florina Capistrano-Baker del Museo Ayala, Filipinas, al que pertenecen la mayoría de los artículos expuestos, la muestra incluye pulseras, brazaletes, collares, colgantes, pectorales, collares, dedos. anillos, platos, cuencos, una balanza hecha completamente de oro y piezas triangulares con esquinas redondeadas llamadas “cubiertas de castidad” diseñadas para ser usadas por las mujeres sobre sus genitales. Muchos objetos de la exposición son tan pequeños y están tan finamente hechos que es casi imposible apreciar sus detalles a simple vista. Afortunadamente, se proporcionan lupas y se aconseja a los espectadores que las utilicen por las maravillas de la destreza técnica que revelan.

La estrella del espectáculo y la pieza más grande es una banda reluciente que podría confundirse con un cinturón de municiones futurista. Hecho de una miríada de cuentas de oro, está diseñado para llevarlo sobre un hombro, cruzando el pecho y hasta la cadera, donde un extremo se enhebra a través de un lazo y concluye con el engaste de un remate ahora perdido. Con casi cinco pies de largo y una sección cuadrada (aproximadamente una pulgada de lado), pesa alrededor de nueve libras.

Otra pieza llamativa, llamada kamagi, consta de 12 collares ensartados en una cadena de casi 15 pies de largo salpicada por pequeñas piedras de colores. Los collares individuales están compuestos de cuentas lisas entrelazadas que se combinan para formar largos de oro flexibles, en forma de serpiente.

Hay varias cinturillas con hebillas suntuosamente decorativas. Aproximadamente dos pulgadas de ancho y dos o más pies de largo, los cinturones se fabrican principalmente utilizando una técnica de "bucle en bucle", que crea patrones como los de un suéter de punto. Tubulares y otros tipos de cuentas tejidas en los cinturones intercalan patrones en zigzag y rayas.

Pocos de los objetos exhibidos involucran imágenes figurativas, pero aquellos que lo hacen son especialmente dignos de mención. Una pieza plana con un contorno parecido a una llama enmarca el rostro grande y triangular de una mujer dibujada en líneas nítidas con pequeños hombros y brazos levantados en un gesto de adoración. Sobre su cabeza hay un símbolo del árbol de la vida. Si bien las influencias hindúes y budistas son evidentes en algunas otras obras, esta sugiere una religión basada en la naturaleza. También hace que el espectador se pregunte qué otros tipos de tradiciones pictóricas tenían estos primeros filipinos, pero parece que nunca lo sabremos.

¿Cómo fue que el conocimiento de una cultura - o colección de culturas - capaz de un trabajo metalúrgico tan exquisito y sofisticado fue olvidado y dejado sin nombre? Esa es una historia enredada.

El oro siempre abundaba en Filipinas, y se recogía fácilmente mediante el lavado. Hoy se dice que el país tiene los segundos depósitos de oro más ricos del mundo. Cuando los españoles desembarcaron, encontraron a los nativos luciendo muchas joyas y adornos de oro. Las ilustraciones de un libro de alrededor de 1590 llamado "El códice del boxeador", que se exhibe en la exposición, muestran a los indígenas vistiendo ostentosos adornos de oro sobre prendas coloridas y fluidas. Pero los colonizadores españoles perdieron poco tiempo diezmando las culturas nativas y arrebatándose su oro, que fundieron para sus propios fines.

Los primeros descubrimientos modernos de oro precolonial fueron realizados por el explorador francés Alfred Marche, quien, en 1881, descubrió unas 10 piezas en ataúdes de madera y tinajas de exportación chinas en cementerios en la isla de Marinduque. (Mediante la datación por carbono de las vasijas de cerámica en las que se encontraban enterradas regularmente piezas de oro, los arqueólogos determinaron más tarde que la mayor parte del oro que ha salido a la luz se produjo entre los siglos X y XIII).

Más artefactos de oro aparecieron aquí y allá durante las décadas siguientes, pero no fue hasta cien años después que ocurrió el siguiente hallazgo importante. Un día de abril de 1981, un operador de maquinaria pesada llamado Edilberto Morales estaba trabajando en un proyecto de riego en la provincia de Surigao del Sur en la isla de Mindanao cuando accidentalmente desenterró un cuenco de metal, que resultó ser de oro. Ese recipiente parcialmente abollado y elegantemente simple está en la exposición. Durante el resto del día, Morales descubrió muchas más piezas de oro, por valor de 22 libras, de lo que se conoció como el Tesoro de Surigao.

Los saqueadores acudieron rápidamente al sitio, recogiendo una cantidad incalculable de objetos que vendieron a comerciantes y coleccionistas, destruyendo efectivamente gran parte de la evidencia arqueológica. Morales y su familia se escondieron por temor a ladrones y secuestradores interesados ​​en su presunta riqueza repentina.

Todo ese oro habría permanecido esparcido por todo el mundo si no hubiera sido por los esfuerzos de tres personas decididas a preservar esta dimensión fundamental de la herencia filipina. Entre 1960 y 1981, la arqueóloga Cecilia Y. Locsin y su esposo, el arquitecto Leandro V. Locsin compraron piezas de oro a comerciantes, así como a sepultureros, agricultores y pescadores que habían adquirido obras por medios más o menos turbios. La pareja acumuló los más de 1.000 objetos de oro que ahora posee el Museo Ayala.

A principios de la década de 1980, Jaime C. Laya, entonces gobernador del Banco Central de Filipinas, adquirió muchos objetos del Tesoro de Surigao para la colección del banco. Aproximadamente 28 de los objetos de la exposición pertenecen a esa colección.

Si bien se ha salvado mucho de esta manera, se ha perdido mucho más. Una de las piezas más hermosas del espectáculo refleja inadvertidamente la fragilidad de las tradiciones antiguas. Es una pequeña escultura en forma de pájaro con cabeza de mujer, un tipo de criatura mítica conocida como kinnari. (Como tales híbridos humano-aviarios aparecen a menudo en el arte hindú y budista, éste sugiere influencias de otras partes de Asia probablemente a través de rutas comerciales náuticas.) Aproximadamente del tamaño de un jilguero, su cabeza está fundida en oro y su hueco, delgado- cuerpo amurallado inscrito con un patrón de plumas. Lamentablemente, sus alas han sido amputadas, probablemente por un cazador de oro sin escrúpulos, y su cuerpo está parcialmente aplastado. En este estado herido, sin embargo, tiene una calidad poética conmovedora, como si se hubiera hecho así para lamentar la naturaleza efímera del arte y la vida.


Philippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms Exposición en Nueva York

Es una locura lo poco que sabemos sobre la historia prehispánica y la gran parte de nuestra historia que es. En la escuela dedicamos aproximadamente un mes a la prehistoria / historia prehispánica. Con esa velocidad, uno tiene la idea de que los negritos, los malayos y los indones se siguieron, y luego los españoles nos descubrieron, todo en un par de décadas.

La línea de tiempo es más como, los aborígenes se mudaron hace unos 30.000 años y los proto-austronesios o malayos, llegaron hace unos 5.000 años. Y luego están los huesos del Callao que demostraron que ya había humanos viviendo en la prehistoria hace unos 60.000 años.

En términos de generaciones, desde nuestra generación hasta el momento en que llegaron los españoles, que & # x27s 16 generaciones (suponiendo que una generación aparezca unos 30 años después), pero cuando llegaron los españoles, la migración malaya de Taiwán, la ÚLTIMA de las grandes migraciones. , ya había estado sucediendo durante 115 GENERACIONES. ¿Alguna vez imaginaste cuán antigua fue tu niñez de Lola & # x27? Eso es solo 3-4 generaciones. Imagínese cuánto tiempo son cien generaciones.

¿Qué edad tienen estas joyerías? Pon eso en contexto en cuanto tiempo crees que los españoles estaban por aquí. El oro más antiguo en ese video es aproximadamente 1000 EC, lo que significa que es tan antiguo para los españoles cuando llegaron como lo es para nosotros la llegada de los españoles en la actualidad.

Sospecho que muchos filipinos no lo saben, e incluso si lo supieran, no les importaría. Muchos de nosotros definimos nuestra historia y cultura. puramente desde un punto de vista colonial, que todo lo que vino antes que los españoles y los estadounidenses no es, por definición, cultura filipina, al menos no genuinamente. Harán ruido sobre el cristianismo, agradeciendo a los colonizadores, nunca fuimos un país antes de que llegara España, déjalo ir, etcétera.

El peor de ellos incluso podría decir que esto era, no sé, propaganda satánica, artículos paganos, falsificaciones elaboradas (como lo era el Código Kalantiaw), o que todo el material venía de otra parte de Asia, que no es nuestro.

Quiero decir, todo el mundo habla de nuestra historia de "300 años en un convento y 50 en Hollywood". Jessica Zafra agregó que hay & # x27s también más de 66.000 años de los que no sabemos casi nada, y yo & # x27m me inclino a estar de acuerdo con ella.

Por ejemplo, si lees a H. P. Lovecraft, debes sentirte como si estuvieras descubriendo las civilizaciones alienígenas prehistóricas de las Cosas Antiguas, que construyeron grandes y complejas ciudades millones de años antes que los primeros humanos.

Ah, ¿y sabes por qué queda tan poco de nuestra herencia precolonial? No es la única razón, pero una gran parte es: Los españoles destruido eso. Los frailes. Ellos y sus militares, quemaron los ídolos de madera y las casas de madera precoloniales. Claro, la conversión fue mayormente pacífica (al menos según los libros de historia), pero nuestros ídolos a nuestros antepasados ​​y a nuestros dioses nativos… si eran madera, se quemaban si eran arcilla, se rompían. Sospecho que los aztecas, incas, mayas, etc., tuvieron suerte porque tenían estructuras de piedra mucho más grandes, en selvas mucho menos accesibles, la mayoría de las cuales no pudieron ser destruidas totalmente por las fuerzas coloniales españolas.

Entonces la gente se pregunta por qué tenemos hoy una crisis de identidad cultural como esa. Extrañar más. España fue probablemente uno de los imperios coloniales más exitosos en la remodelación de sus colonias & # x27 cultura; tanto es así, de hecho, que incluso hoy en día hay bandas enteras de hispanistas en este país, ¡que quieren regresarnos a los días coloniales!


Se discute la historia del oro en Filipinas

En la foto: Capistrano-Baker y Chuasoto

Los AMERICANOS tuvieron la oportunidad de aprender sobre el oro y su papel en la historia de Filipinas durante una conferencia impartida por la Dra. Florina Capistrano-Baker en la Embajada de Filipinas en los Estados Unidos.

Apodada como “Oro filipino: tesoros de reinos olvidados”, la conferencia fue parte de la celebración del Mes de la Herencia Filipino-Estadounidense. Fue organizado por la Sociedad Filipinas-Estados Unidos, con el apoyo de la Embajada de Filipinas.

El foro fue un complemento de una exhibición en curso en la ciudad de Nueva York de objetos de oro de las Filipinas precoloniales cocurada por Capistrano-Baker, curadora consultora del Museo Ayala, y Adriana Proser, curadora senior de John H. Foster para Arte Tradicional Asiático en Asia. Sociedad.

Durante su discurso de apertura, el vicejefe de misión, Patrick Chuasoto, comparó los rasgos del raro metal precioso con los filipinos.

“Lo que la mayoría de la gente no sabe es que el oro es el más maleable de todos los metales. Se dobla fácilmente a las fuerzas externas sin romperse ni agrietarse. Cambia de forma, sin embargo, es capaz de conservar sus propiedades naturales. Visto de esta manera, el oro puede simbolizar la esencia de ser filipino. Como individuos y como nación, los filipinos son reconocidos por su capacidad de recuperación, capacidad de adaptación y asimilación al tiempo que preservan lo que es verdad sobre ellos mismos ”, dijo Chuasoto.

Capistrano-Baker compartió la historia de Butuan en el sur de Filipinas y el hogar de varios objetos de oro, principalmente insignias de élite que se cree que forman parte de la herencia colectiva de una familia gobernante.

El director ejecutivo de la Sociedad EE.UU.-Filipinas, Hank Hendrickson, dijo que están encantados de ayudar a traer más información sobre ese período al público estadounidense y alienta a la gente a visitar la exhibición en el Museo de la Sociedad de Asia en la ciudad de Nueva York.

“El programa sobre oro filipino prehispánico mostró diseños intrincados, reveló estructuras sociales complejas y lazos comerciales expansivos en Filipinas desde los siglos X al XIII, una era que se ha perdido en gran parte en la historia hasta ahora”, dijo Hendrickson.

Capistrano-Baker recibió su doctorado, M.Phil. y M.A. del Departamento de Historia del Arte y Arqueología de la Universidad de Columbia.

Fue curadora de la exposición permanente de Gold of Ancestors en el Museo Ayala en 2008 y escribió el catálogo Philippine Ancestral Gold en 2011. Ha recibido numerosos premios, incluidas becas de la Universidad de Columbia, el Museo Metropolitano de Arte, el Consejo Cultural Asiático, Ford Fundación, Asociación Estadounidense de Mujeres Universitarias y el Instituto de Investigación Getty.

La exposición se compone de más de 100 artículos de oro, en su mayoría insignias, joyas, armas ceremoniales y objetos rituales y funerarios descubiertos accidentalmente en 1981 en la aldea de Magroyong cerca de Butuan. Estará en exhibición en el Museo de la Sociedad de Asia en la ciudad de Nueva York hasta el 3 de enero de 2016.


Historia que vale su peso en oro

¿Sabías que teníamos reinos? ”, Me preguntó Doris Magsaysay Ho durante el lanzamiento de & ldquoPhilippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms & rdquo, una exposición histórica que se extenderá durante cuatro meses a partir del 11 de septiembre en el Museo de la Sociedad de Asia en Nueva York. Ciudad de York. & ldquo (Había) reinos de Butuan, Agusan y Surigao. & rdquo

Aunque otros reinos florecieron durante la época prehispánica, Magsaysay-Ho mencionó estos sitios como tesoros de joyas de oro, que datan desde el siglo X, fueron desenterrados de ellos. Si bien todavía tienen moneda real hoy en día, su valor máximo radica en haber sido entretejidos con hilos de la vida y la civilización en sus diseños y objetos exquisitos y bien trabajados impresos con la historia.

Prestada por el Museo Ayala y Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, la colección de oro cuenta una historia del pueblo filipino y mdash incluso si sus usuarios originales aún no se habían referido a sí mismos como tales. Son testimonios brillantes de sociedades bien establecidas, comercio marítimo robusto, artesanía sofisticada y nociones de poder y belleza.

Doris Magsaysay Ho, presidenta de Asia Society Filipinas, espera que los más de 120 espectaculares objetos de oro en & ldquoPhilippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms & rdquo brinden una visión más precisa del pasado precolonial del país y se coloquen dentro de la erudición histórica en el contexto austronesio. . & rdquo

"Hemos estado trabajando en ello durante todo un año", dijo Magsaysay Ho, presidenta de la Sociedad de Asia de Filipinas, sobre su preparación. (Ayudándola en esta iniciativa están Fernando Zobel de Ayala y Loida Nicolas Lewis.) & LdquoBásicamente, con APEC (Cooperación Económica Asia-Pacífico) y el mundo entero interesado en Filipinas en lo que respecta al aspecto económico del país, nosotros pensé en lo maravilloso que es tener una historia sobre nuestra cultura y herencia. & rdquo

Desde collares, cadenas, cinturones y brazaletes hasta cuencos rituales, implementos y armas ceremoniales, estos artefactos ocuparán el centro del escenario para brindarles a los neoyorquinos (así como a sus millones de visitantes y a la considerable comunidad de Fil-Am) un vistazo de cómo éramos , antes de las llamadas misiones civilizadoras de Occidente. Otras piezas del Metropolitan Museum of Art de Nueva York, el Musee du Quia Branly de París, la Lilly Library de Indiana y algunas piezas de la colección personal de la familia Locsin complementarán y ampliarán la exposición y la narrativa rsquos forjada en metales preciosos.

Para Magsaysay Ho, es importante que la colección se abra camino en los libros de historia y encuentre su lugar en la historia más amplia de la civilización humana. "Uno de nuestros objetivos es tener una beca sobre estas (piezas de oro) realmente establecidas y entendidas", dijo. & ldquoQueremos que la gente sepa sobre el oro prehispánico en Filipinas para que pueda encontrar su lugar en la historia. Los simposios en los Estados se centrarán en cómo se coloca nuestro oro en relación con el sudeste asiático. & Rdquo

Uno de estos simposios es & ldquoEncounter with Early Gold, & rdquo, que será dirigido por las curadoras de & ldquoPhilippine Gold & rdquo Nina Capistrano-Baker, ex directora del Museo Ayala y Adriana Proser, curadora sénior de arte tradicional asiático de John H. Foster en Asia Society New York. La charla contará con una nueva beca que reexaminará y ldquoour comprensión de los pueblos asiáticos en el contexto del comercio y el movimiento del oro entre los siglos X y XIII. Junto a los curadores se encuentran MJ Louise Bolunia, arqueóloga en jefe del Museo Nacional de Filipinas y John Guy , el curador Herbert Irving de Arte del Sur y Sudeste Asiático en el Museo Metropolitano de Arte.

Las piezas de joyería de oro, como este adorno de oreja de las Visayas orientales, demuestran que durante la época prehispánica existieron sociedades bien establecidas, un comercio marítimo sólido y una artesanía sofisticada.

Para Capistrano-Baker y Proser, la exposición es significativa porque proporciona una evidencia sorprendente de que Filipinas tenía una cultura sofisticada antes del contacto occidental. La calidad superior de los adornos de oro también disipa el estereotipo occidental de filipinos precoloniales como salvajes ignorantes y primitivos ante las influencias civilizadoras de España y América. & Rdquo

Esperan que el & ldquoPhilippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms & rdquo genere más investigaciones, discursos y estudios sobre las Filipinas precoloniales y, en el proceso, & ldquo; profundice nuestro sentido de quiénes éramos como pueblo antes de que el Islam y el cristianismo llegaran a nuestras costas, y el pasado colectivo de múltiples capas que nos hace quienes somos hoy. & rdquo


Historia de Filipinas, forjada en oro

MANILA - Durante demasiado tiempo, muchos filipinos y extranjeros han trabajado con la percepción errónea de que el país languideció en una era de ignorancia hasta la llegada de la influencia occidental. Una exposición espera contribuir a disipar esa noción, arrojando una luz dorada sobre el asunto.

Del 10 de septiembre de 2015 al 3 de enero de 2016, la Sociedad de Asia presentará "Philippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms", una exhibición que coincidirá con una serie de conferencias sobre los diversos aspectos de la cultura filipina precolonial que empleaba oro en adornos cotidianos, comercio y ritos funerarios. Será la primera vez que se lleve una exhibición de esta magnitud a los Estados Unidos, destacando la habilidad y el arte de las Filipinas precoloniales.

Al mostrar un caché espectacular de más de 120 objetos descubiertos en los últimos 40 años en varios sitios de Luzón, Visayas y Mindanao, el enfoque de la exhibición estará en comunidades antiguas ubicadas en Butuan, Samar, Cebu, Leyte, Palawan, Mindoro, Marinduque y Luzón. Los tesoros recuperados incluyen collares, brazaletes, cuentas, cinturones, armas ceremoniales, vasijas rituales y otros implementos que muestran una mano de obra intrincada y un gran arte. Los artículos cuidadosamente seleccionados serán prestados por el Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, que alberga la colección de oro del Met y por el Museo Ayala, que alberga la colección Loscin.

Los artículos preciados de la exhibición incluyen el kinnari (actualmente en el Museo Ayala), un recipiente encontrado en Butuan que representa a una mujer alada cuyos rasgos distintivamente filipinos fueron formados por la misma mano hábil que representaba sus elegantes alas y plumas de pájaro, el cabello cuidadosamente peinado y un moño pulcro, y una diadema adornando su frente. El hecho de que las subculturas filipinas prehispánicas fueran lo suficientemente sofisticadas como para tener siete grados diferentes que distinguen la calidad del oro ("dalisay" o 24K se considera la mejor calidad) apunta a una historia o narrativa perdida cuando Filipinas tenía una rica cultura comercial que no solo usó oro como pago por bienes y servicios, pero también lo utilizó en la otra vida.

Con la colaboración de Florina Capistrano-Baker del Museo Ayala y Adriana Proser de Asia Society, la exhibición también mostrará a los diseñadores de accesorios actuales: Wynn Wynn Ong Tina Ocampo de Celestina Bea Valdes y Rafe Totengco.

Celebrando los tesoros de un pasado histórico, "Philippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms" espera infundir orgullo, un fuerte sentido de identidad nacional y legado para los filipinos que tienen la suerte de contemplar estos artículos. Cargados de historia y orgullo, estos son artefactos que ahora valen mucho más que su peso en onzas troy.


Encontrado: Antiguo tesoro perdido de Filipinas & # 8211 Gulf News

Una exposición ÚNICA de artefactos de oro de Filipinas, que data del siglo X al XIII, ha capturado la imaginación del público de Nueva York. Además de estos artefactos únicos de la historia precolonial de Filipinas, esta colección de adornos de oro, artículos decorativos y otros objetos con una fuerte influencia cultural hindú-budista también arroja una luz diferente sobre la historia de Filipinas.

No se sabe mucho sobre la historia de la nación antes de que la conquista española hiciera que el país fuera una colonia durante 400 años. Muchos eruditos, investigadores e historiadores dicen ahora que la colección promete anunciar una "comprensión completamente nueva" de la historia de Filipinas.

La exposición, "Philippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms", se inauguró a mediados de septiembre en la Asia Society de Nueva York.

El cónsul general de Filipinas en Nueva York, Mario de Leone, quien fue invitado a una vista previa con los medios, dijo a Weekend Review que la exposición era el evento filipino más grande de este tipo que se celebra en Nueva York. "Esta es la primera vez que estos artefactos de oro se muestran fuera de Filipinas", dijo.

Algunos expertos han llegado al extremo de comparar el intrincado trabajo en oro con la colección mostrada en la exposición de la tumba del rey Tutankamón y sus tesoros.

Una pieza exquisita es la vasija “Kinnari” de Surigao. Designed as half-woman and half-bird, it reflects the Indian mythical “kinnari”, a celestial female with wings and legs of a bird personifying beauty, grace and accomplishment.

Another masterpiece is a heavy gold caste cord that denotes the existence of a prosperous upper class with a strong Hindu cultural influence. And then there are lotus ear ornaments from Butuan, belt buckles from Mindanao and burial ensembles from Daet and elsewhere.

Florina Capistrano-Baker, who has a doctorate in the history of Asia-Pacific and in-depth knowledge of precolonial Filipino art, is a special consultant for international operations as well as consulting curator at the Ayala Museum in the Philippines. She told Weekend Review that “we ourselves were not aware of the Philippines’ Hindu past. As the gold artefacts here suggest, we had strong links with the Hindu culture in India or through Bali, Indonesia … this culture was ubiquitous in the Philippines”.

She rues that the period before Spanish colonialism was de facto “erased from the Filipino consciousness”. She cited similarities between the customs, culture, architecture, etc. that were prevalent at that time in Southeast Asia.

Capistrano-Baker says that the discovery of these gold artefacts had uncovered evidence of a lost civilisation, which was “revolutionary”.

“The economic implications will also be immense. By highlighting and depicting this past, we can attract tourism from countries that will have an inherent interest in such artefacts,” she said, adding that it will appeal not only to Hindu and Buddhist tourists from India, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia, but also from the West.

She said she would also seek material and research help available from India and other countries that should be interested in this discovery.

Adriana Proser, an Asian arts specialist and senior curator at the Asia Society, said that the spectacular works in the exhibition — including exquisite regalia, jewellery, functional and ritualistic objects, ceremonial weapons and funerary masks — stemmed from collections in the Philippines and were supplemented with objects from the United States.

“This exhibition showcases recently excavated objects that highlight the prosperity and achievements of the little-known Philippine kingdoms that flourished long before the Spanish discovered the region and colonised it,” Proser told Weekend Review.

The collection, which comprises about 120 objects, also reflects sophisticated gold-work techniques developed during this period. Most of the works in the exhibition are on loan from the Ayala Museum and the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas Gold Collection.

Many of the works, excavated between the 1960s and 1981, affirm the unprecedented creativity, prosperity and sophisticated metalworking tradition of the precolonial period. They also bear testimony to the flourishing cultural connections and maritime trade in Southeast Asia during what was an Asian economic boom.

Experts now want to find out the reasons behind the Spanish attempts to hide or even obliterate the Philippines’s precolonial history. Would it be an oversimplification to say they wanted to “Christianise” the country?

Filipino experts told this writer that in addition to the array of gold objects from various sites throughout the archipelago, archaeologists had recovered hundreds of clay crucibles for smelting gold, gold-working tools, and raw and wrought gold during the excavations of precolonial wooden plank boats (balangay) in Butuan in 1976.

In precolonial Philippine politics, village chiefs, called “datu”, ruled through consensus. Some of the objects showcased in the section Adornments for the Datu contain remains of the adornments, weapons and garments that marked the prosperity and power of the datu, whose similarity with the present-day Malaysian title “Datuk” or “Dato” (knighthood granted to Malaysians) is quite striking, though it is premature to claim historical etymological links between the terms.

An affluent datu who actively engaged in foreign trade assumed the loftier Hindu title “rajah”.

The exhibition is divided into four sections: archaeology, trade, the Kingdom of Butuan and the surrounding kingdoms.

Most objects trace back to the Kingdom of Butuan — a still scarcely understood civilisation centred on the island of Mindanao that rose to prominence in the 10th century before mysteriously declining in the 13th. But it took more than seven centuries for the objects to be found, and even after their discovery, they were not seen in the West for several decades.

Like in India and China, gold played an important role in the history of the Philippines, a country that, some geologists say, may have huge gold deposits.

According to Filipino experts present at the exhibition, many artefacts were dug out in the 1970s during the construction of a network of drainage canals. Among them were ceramics of Southeast Asian and Chinese origin, as well as boats used in trading. These details have been supported by records from China’s Song Dynasty, whose officials maintained contact with Butuan in the early 11th century. There is evidence to suggest that an enterprising and wealthy seafaring civilisation existed in the Philippines centuries before Spanish colonisation began with explorer Ferdinand Magellan’s arrival in 1521.

The discovery of these gold artefacts reads almost like a thriller. A construction site in Mindanao in southern Philippines in 1981 turned up what would be the most valuable Butuan cache. It was by sheer accident that Berto Morales, who was using heavy digging machinery, discovered a gold bowl. He dug further and discovered gold bracelets, vessels, necklaces and other ornaments. By the end of the day he had piled up a tidy collection of artefacts.

But Morales, unaware of the true value of his find, took the artefacts home and hid them for a while before approaching his parish priest to find out how he could benefit from the discovery — a decision he would later regret.

As word spread, gold hunters and other dubious characters thronged the site. And allegedly, even the military, on the pretext of protecting the finding, moved to the site to get “a fistful of gold”, as Filipinos like to say.

Meanwhile, Morales found his own life and that of his family in danger. His family was kidnapped and released when he paid ransom. He then fled the island and lived under a new name. But when he returned, the priest told him that the remaining items were not there any longer.

Luckily, some of the artefacts landed at the Central Bank whose governor Jaime Laya, an art collector, recognised the value of the objects. Many of the artefacts were also bought by Leandro and Cecilia Locsin, who prevented the objects from being melted and sold in the market — a fate that many other objects had faced.

Cecilia Locsin, an archaeologist, spared no effort to preserve the artefacts. In 2008, the Butuan gold artefacts were displayed at the Ayala Museum, protected by a special security force.

The exhibition has aroused interest in the Butuan Kingdom. As Capistrano-Baker put it, she would like the world to help unearth the “rich culture and history of the Philippines”.

Manik Mehta is a commentator on Asian affairs.

“Philippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms” will run at the Asia Society, New York, until January 3, 2016. (By Manik Mehta. Special to Weekend Review – Gulf News)


12 thoughts on &ldquo3,500 Ton Philippine Gold Bars Unlawfully Shipped Out, But for Whose Benefit?&rdquo

yeah [email protected]&K THEM! not men who would throw them out., but God will (Isaiah 27:1)

Anyone read “GOLD WARRIORS” by Sterling and Peggy Seagrave? If so,don’t be surprised if any “Certified True copy of a Gold Bullion Certificate, claimed to be issued by Union Bank of Switzerland (UBS), covering 3,500 MT of 99.999 Gold” is later declared to be a forgery. Remember, possession is nine tenths of the law. Once someone has possession of any asset, what simpler way of paying nothing for it is there than claiming the receipt they gave is a forgery?
No one knows for sure how much gold, silver and precious stones were plundered up to the end of WW 2, but we do know that a hell of a lot of it ended up NOT in the possession of its rightful owners or their heirs.

This bugs me ..
Another attempt by the OP to talk about something he knows little or nothing about ..
We are talking about the Yamashita / Golden Lily Treasure ..
Are we not?
This goes back to Edward Lansdale of the OSS ..
He’s dead, we can’t talk to him ..
Col. Fletcher Prouty knew Lansdale ..
He’s dead, we can’t talk to him ..
Marcos is dead ..
They are ALL dead, aren’t they?
Who is alive, that IS an expert on this matter?
Anyone, anyone?
Bueller, Bueller?
Who spent an entire year in the Philippines, in 1986 assisting Marcos ..
Under orders of President Reagan, under the Truman Doctrine?
This same person who would later purchase 2,000 metric tonnes ..
Of gold bullion from the Soviet Union, soon to become ..
The Russian Federation, with same purchaser’s of said gold, assistance?
Do you think he just might be a “subject matter expert” here?
And, he is alive and well ………. for the part ..
It boggles the mind, why so many spend time and energy ..
On certain subjects, omitting certain “subject matter experts” ..
That could really shed some light here ..
Especially tying into what is going on this very nanosecond!
Like, say for instance ..
Why isn’t Trump telling us about the $60,000,000,000,000+ ..
In the US Treasury?
That is TRILLIONS ………….. with a “T”
Why would anyone in his right mind ..
Wish to, and/or feel/think they must BORROW ..
Another $8/9 TRILLION, over the next DECADE ..
To “rebuild America?”
When enough of us know for certain ..
That the so-called existing

$20,000,000,000,000 in national debt ..
Is ……………….. COMPLETE FRAUD!
.
And this has nothing to do with what is being reported going on in ..
The Philippines at this very nanosecond?
https://youtu.be/8tYTSR9gheQ
https://youtu.be/R1LhQ48L-Ls?list=PL1yWdjkeR-5JpXPL92NHlupE2E3xz6hIu
(Time spent in the Philippines is mentioned in Part 4, towards the end. Good to begin at Part 1 for full context.)

INTEL Update via email (Real News you Won’t Find on MSM “FAKE” Evening News)
1) Maryland Congressman Elijah Cumming’s secretary was responsible for the Rumor regarding the Russian Hacking of the election. Her house was hit with a “Direct Energy” Weapon and 6 children were killed. She is in hiding. At 4a.m. this morning, the military told the CIA, FBI, DHS and other agencies that if anything happens to Trump, they will take over the U.S. Government by massive force.
2) Yesterday, Donald Trump was sworn in as the next legal President of the U.S.
3) The European Union will be rearranged to include Russia.
4) The FBI is in 150 cities demolishing the Clinton foundation and exposing all terrorist Mosques.
5) China began its Tribunals yesterday.Up to 80,000 crooks will be tried in the coming months.
6) A Cache of weapons was found yesterday under a pile of trash in Washington D.C. by a woman who was out for a stroll.
7) The Duke of Luxemburg, who is a Draconian like Pope Francis, has been exposed as the real leader of the Order Of The Garter who gives orders to the elites who own the big corporations and are Millionaires and Billionaires.
8) The RV will go within 72 hours of the inauguration ceremony and N.E.S.A.R.A. will be announced. Currency exchanges have paid Tier #1, #2, and #3. Tier #4 is next. The gold to back this massive financial transaction is stored off planet at the Planetary Facility on Venus. Space shuttles have been secretly taking it there for months.
9) Colonies on Planet Mars began settlements in 1967. Mining operations have been ongoing since.
10) The secret arrests of 15,000 crooks is ending. The next phase will arrest even more as the FBI moves down the governmental chain to Lieutenant Governor.
11) We are living in a time of a world secret revolution and a large segment of citizens still have no idea what is going on which shows just how mind controlled the populations of the planet are.
________________________________

Nesara funds from Kennedy, being pillaged. OUR millenial nation building funds, being absconded by the banksters.

Do was buriedes anyone consider that some of the gold from the Philippines should go into relief of the children who run the streets without shoes, begging for food. The Japan military buried gold and many treasures into caves within the Philippine Islands, they hired the Filipino people to bury their treasures so that after bombing the United States the Americans would not find it when they countered Japan. This unsuspecting Filipino workforce was buried alive with the treasures so that their location would not ever be talked about. So on and so on, still the poor in the beautiful Philippine Islands are kept poor by their very own government and priest, without care or consideration. SHAME TO ALL WHO DESERVE IT.

Haven’t you all heard of Tiburcio Villamor Marcos Tallano Tangean IV, he is the successor, owner, heir, sole signatory to the world wealth? Google his name, The wealth is for the benefits of the Filipino people.

Gold for gold. Find the gold. Share the gold. Philippine Islands are “Riches Country in the World!” There are 950,000 metric tons of gold ( declared missing in the International Court of Justice in Hague) picked up by Yamashita from its European Ally, Hitler and another 250,000 metric tons of the Japanese loot around Southeast Asia are both now in the Philippines. Very few Filipinos knows this( Wall Street Journal, November 15,1985 issue wrote: “ Two Thirds of all the gold in the world is in Philippines and One third is divided among the rest of the countries of the world”) During A TALK SHOW in a U.S. TV , the week following the bombing of the New York Twin Towers, President George Bush was asked this question: Which is the richest country in the world today? With a smile he said “The Philippines.” In a US TV interview as well with President Barrack Obama, in his “700 Billion USD stimulus funds” for US economy, he was asked a question where will he get the billion dollar substantial funds needed and quoted saying. “We have friends outside US who will support us”.
The branded Yamashita Treasure was considered “booty”. There were varied country claimants who are victims of the said WWII loots and these countries filed protest and claims after the war in the International Court of Justice. Though, there was a passage of law for thirty years starting 1946, that without a valid claim against it this “booty” it would belong to its new possessor. That would have been in 1976. However, the International Criminal Court (ICC) extended the deadline of the claims to 10 years up to 1986. With the conspiracy of the International Banking Cartel, neither the ICJ denied the existence of these gold and claims. Sadly, Successive governments of the Philippines denied its existence and failed to acknowledged the gold. For almost 24 years, Information has been conspired to keep from being known to Filipino people.
This country is approximately a holder of estimated 1.2 Million Metric Tons of buried Gold excluding gold bullions way back to history of the “Maharlika” time. Only some of the Yamashita and Prince Chichibu buried gold in the Philippines has been found and the bulk of it is still around all over the archipelago to this day. Up to now, thousands of local individuals, company and foreign groups ventured secretly digging for it, including Japanese Treasure Hunters.
These gold loots are kept, transported, hoarded, concealed and buried in said to be 175 “imperial” vaults constructed in a maze of underground tunnels in the Philippines under the command and implementation of General Chichibu . The looting started in December 1937 in China’s Chinese Capitol of Nanking up to the advent and action of WWII .
Prince Chichibu is the younger brother of Emperor Hirohito and had been selected to head the ultra-secret treasure recovery team. The Prime Minister, Prince Asaka had come from the Emperor with instructions to fully implement the plan. This led to the Rape of Nanking and the death of 300,000 Chinese civilians and military. Many had been tortured to reveal the locations of treasures and summarily executed. This secret team was given a code name of the Golden Lily after a poem the Emperor had once written. 6000 metric tons of gold were recovered from Nanking alone plus silver and precious stones.
Prince Chichibu
Top military and government officials meet in Mukden, Manchukuo in late 1936 to discuss the forthcoming war with the Chinese, Americans, Netherlands and French. The Emperor of Japan and others had developed a plan to finance the expansion of their military and to construct the ships, planes and other military hardware that would be required in order to implement their plans.
In December 1937 Japan had openly declared war on China and had surrounded the Chinese Capitol of Nanking. Prince Chichibu, the younger brother of Emperor Hirohito had been selected to head the ultra-secret treasure recovery team code name: Golden Lily.
In July 1940, Winston Churchill, the wartime Prime Minister of Great Britain, met with Lord Beaverbrook. France had just fallen to Hitler’s blitzkrieg. The Germans had amassed their troops in the ports of France ready to cross the English Channel and invade Britain. Churchill had learned that the French had transferred their national treasures to French Indochina just before they had signed an armistice with the Germans. He had also learned from the Queen of The Netherlands that they had moved their treasures to the Dutch East Indies. He and the King of England decided to move the British treasures to the supposedly safe island fortress of Singapore off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula.
In 1941, Japan had sunk most of the American Pacific fleet with a sneak attack on Pearl Harbor. On December 1941 Christmas Day, Japan had taken most of the major port cities of China and had forced the British into surrendering Hong Kong. By early January 1942 Japan’s victories had been nothing short of miraculous. Guam and Wake lands had fallen. Japan had assimilated Thailand and the northern part of French Indochina. The Japanese had launched a vigorous invasion of the Philippine Islands and were pushing the Americans into a final defensive position on Bataan. Her armies were fighting their way down the Malay Peninsula approaching Singapore. Although the Japanese were encountering little resistance they were greatly outnumbered by the British and Indian troops. The Golden Lily team had been greatly expanded to handle these rapidly changing situations. It is fair to say that they were actually overwhelmed.
Emperor Hirohito had requested Prince Chichibu to fly to Hanoi in French Indochina to meet with his younger brother Prince Mikasa.
The Japanese secret police had learned that France had sent their National Treasures there.
But, where were they hidden? Prince Chichibu had ordered the torture of the Bankers and former Diplomats in order to find out. They learned the treasure had been sent to Saigon by rail just before the Japanese troops had moved into Hanoi. The treasure had been hidden in the ruins of an ancient temple at the end of track. The excitement of this recovery was only overshadowed by later events.
The fortress of Singapore fell to General Yamashita and with General MacArthur being ordered out of the Philippines, the last American and Filipino troops on Bataan and Corregidor surrendered to General Homma. The infamous Death March began. The Japanese victories on all fronts were extremely heady. They began to believe in their own invincibility. Burma was now in Japanese hands and invasion plans had been drawn up for a move into Northern Australia. Asia and Southeast Asia and most of the Islands in the Pacific were as good as theirs.
Prince Chichibu in Singapore was elated when his team found the treasures of Britain stored in the banks. The collection of wealth throughout the conquered lands continued. With over 5000 years of Asia’s antiquity to pillage, the amounts collected were astronomical. Far surpassing what was thought to be the total amount of gold ever mined throughout history. With Shanghai in their hands the Golden Lily team found themselves stretched to the limit in keeping up with the collection and melting down of the precious metals. Another surprise experienced by Prince Chichibu was the discovery that the Dutch had moved their treasures to Batavia in the Netherlands East Indies. Now, not only did Japan have the wealth of the Asian continent, but they were rewarded with much of the European treasures as well. Hitler’s loss was Japan’s gain.
Japan’s luck had begun to run out by May 1942. Their first setback was the Battle of the Coral Sea where the Allies had forced Japan to turn back her invasion fleet which they had planned to land in New Guinea. The following month they suffered a further major setback with the Battle of Midway where Japan lost four of her front line fleet carriers and the cream of her trained aviators. These were the same ships and pilots that had attacked Pearl Harbor five months earlier. In August 1942 the Americans landed an invasion force on Guadalcanal. Japan tried for months to dislodge the stubborn American Marines but eventually had to concede this unknown but important island base. After that Japan could never again launch another major offensive anywhere. The war would continue for another three years while the Japanese slowly lost the lands that they had conquered. Japan’s dream was over and their nightmare had begun.
By mid-1942 American submarines and aircraft had begun to take a serious toll on Japanese shipping. Prince Chichibu could no longer send the many tons of treasure back to Japan with any guarantee that it would get there and not end up on the bottom of the ocean floor. Actually he had to revise his thinking about where to send the treasures after the Midway fiasco. Following a meeting with his brother, the Emperor, it was decided that the treasures should be hidden in the Philippine Islands. Why the Philippines? Because Japan was certain that they would end up with these islands during surrender negotiations with the Allies. Also, it was the shortest distance from Hong Kong and Singapore where the material was being processed.
Prince Chichibu had begun shipping material to the Philippines even before this decision was made. It was originally intended to be sent on to Japan in returning war ships. The Prince was still nervous about these shipments even after the decision was made. He commandeered four large freighters and had them painted all white with a red cross on their sides. These were “hospital” ships which he loaded with the many treasures. To be absolutely sure that even these ships were not molested he announced their movement on a clear radio channel so that the Americans would know their times of departure and their courses.
PRINCE CHICHIBU IN THE PHILIPPINES
Prince Chichibu had moved his Headquarters to Manila in the Philippines. He had entrusted his younger brother Prince Mikasa and his cousin Prince Asaka to continue the collection of the treasures. Before he left he had begun to cut up the many golden pagodas and Buddha’s which were being melted down and poured into 75 kilo bars. This amassing of the treasures would continue until Japan ultimately surrendered.
Prince Chichibu was now faced with new challenges, Where and how to hide the treasures so that they could not be accidentally discovered after the war. The Prince was not as certain as his brother, the Emperor that Japan would end up with the Philippine Islands following their defeat. He decided that these treasures would have to be hidden in deep, well-engineered tunnel systems. He had no experience in mining and basically that was what was going to be required.
Major Nakasone was the only member of the Golden Lily team who had any mining background. He had studied mining engineering but never had any on the job training. He sent for him anyway. In the meantime he asked The Emperor for help and he responded by having someone locate twenty experience men in underground excavation in Japan who were quickly sent to the Philippines. If the Prince needed more workers, he would have to get them from the Filipinos. In addition the Emperor had reminded Chichibu that the POWs of the Americans and the British contained a lot of engineering experts especially those who served in the construction battalions.
Manpower was the least of his problems. There were thousands of POWs who the Japanese considered expendable. If that wasn’t enough then there were millions of Filipino males that could be used. As soon as here received his experts he immediately began work in a dozen locations. While this was going on the treasure ships were arriving weekly and their precious cargo had been added to the other treasure already stored in heavily guarded warehouses. There were other problems the movement of the cargo from the ships to the warehouses attracted a lot of attention. Chichibu decided to construct an underground tunnel system from the piers to the warehouses which were in the capture American base named Fort McKinley. Eventually this tunnel would branch out under Manila and run for 35 miles. The entrance was in Intramuros, the ancient walled city of the Spaniards, which was near the docks. It terminated at MacArthur’s headquarters in Fort McKinley.
Prince Chichibu had to make some other major decisions. Why not hide all the treasure in one large location? The Emperor had answered that question. Security. Too many people who had worked on the location would know where it was, also if someone should accidentally find the location all would be lost. Early on the Prince had made the decision that except for a few foreign engineers the entire work force would have to be exterminated. The next question was where could this work be done where the local population would not be aware of what was going on there. Japanese military bases were perfect. Only the military had access to them and most bases had POW camps nearby. Prince Chichibu visualized that when the Americans returned to recapture the Philippines that there would be massive bombings. The map makers needed permanent landmarks in order to relocate these sites after the war. The Americans had shown in Europe that they would avoid bombing historical buildings. The four hundred year old historical Spanish Churches and fortifications were perfect. But just to make sure he would house American POWs in them, mainly women and children. He would then arrange for clear radio communications to announce this fact. It worked, the Americans spared these sites.
Major Nakasone was at Fort Santiago, a 16th century Spanish fortification, collecting slave labors from the Kempeitai Headquarters’ dungeons and torture chambers. One of the physically strong Filipino’s he selected was Leopoldo Giga. Nakasone knew a Colonel Kantaro Giga who was one of his instructors at the military academy. Out of curiosity he decided to personally interview Giga. He found him an intelligent, 28 year old, who spoke fluent Japanese. He also learned he was a nephew of his academy instructor. Giga’s father was the brother of the instructor who was a minor diplomat who had been attached to the Japanese Embassy in the Philippines 1913. Giga’s mother had met the Diplomat and had become his common-law wife. Another advantage that Nakasone found in Giga was that he spoke two of the main dialects of the Filipino people. Instead of making him a slave laborer he assigned him to his staff. Giga came to the attention of Prince Chichibu who had him commissioned as a sub-lieutenant in the Imperial Army. He was sent to Japan to attend schooling on tunneling and inventorying the treasure. He returned a Captain and worked on most of the treasure sites.
Prince Chichibu was in Nueva Vizcaya in early 1942. He was examining a major excavation outside of the town of Bambang. He and his staff had a young Filipino boy who had come down with a fever and had died. He had been a houseboy who did the laundry of the Prince and his staff as well as kept their boots and other equipment cleaned and polished. He sent his aide out to locate a replacement. The Aide came back with a 14 year old uneducated farm boy whose name was Benjamin Valmores. During the next three and a half years Valmores traveled with the Prince to many of the sites all over the Philippines. He learned Japanese and a smattering of English. He was never allowed to go down into the tunnels, but he watched them being constructed and filled with the treasures. He and Giga would survive the war.
As the war reached its inevitable climax in early 1945 the Japanese were receiving more treasure than they could prepare sites for in which to hide it. Their warships became useless due to the American air- superiority, so they loaded them with these newly arrived treasures and pretended they were being sent back to Japan. Instead the Japanese deliberately sank or scuttled these ships and machine-gunned their own men so that the ships would go down in predetermined locations and no witnesses would be alive to tell the tale. There were thirteen of these planned sinking’s. Some of these went down in Manila Bay others were sunk in not to deep Philippine Waters throughout the archipelago.
The bloody war was over. The hopes of Emperor Hirohito and others to force the Americans to agree to a treaty that would allow Japan to keep some of the lands they had taken by conquest had been shattered. They had planned the final battle that they were certain would cause the Americans over a million casualties when they invaded the Japanese home islands. The two atomic bombs and Russia’s invasion of Manchuria in an attempt to annex some of Japan’s conquered lands had cause the Emperor to agree to an unconditional surrender. Now the conquerors wanted to bring to justice those who were responsible for the many atrocities. Over 4000 war criminals were charged. Of these 2400 received a prison sentence of three years or more and 809 were ultimately hung.
THE BRANDING OF “YAMASHITA GOLD”
The famous Yamashita Gold treasure trove takes its name from General Tomoyuki Yamashita, who assumed command of Japanese forces in the Philippines only in 1944, a year before the war ends. But, the irony of it, the whole treasure troves was not all buried by Yamashita as many believe. There are team of Japanese Officers and Generals assigned who lead the 14th Army in the Philippines ahead of him since the Japanese invasions and occupations in 1941 .
These generals were Lt. General Masaharu Homma Vice Admiral Ibo Takahashi Vice Admiral Nishizo Tsukahara Lt. General Shizuiki Tanaka Lt. General Shigenori Kuroda and some of their Chief of Staffs Major Gen. Takaji Wachi Lt General Haruki Isayama Lt. Gen. Tsuchino Yamaguchi Lt Gen. Ryuzo Sakuma and Lt. Gen. Akira Muto were burying already the bulk of gold loots carried over by the command and implementation of Prince Chichibu or General Chichibu way back starting 1942 up to early 1945. Only why it was branded as “Yamashita Gold” due to first news informed treasure recoveries in the late 70’s particularly of “Roxas – His Golden Budda” and the gold recoveries of “Sta Romana” in Northern Luzon buried by Yamashita who also was in charge then for the quick burying concealment because Japan is already losing the war . He was as well-known as “Tiger of Malaya” and strongly identified as the general tasked to transport the bulk of gold loots from Singapore to Philippines by Japanese Navy Fleets carrying himself to his new command post in the Philippines in September 1944 as 14th Area Army Commander. And the fact that, Yamashita was the last General on command of the Japanese forces in the Philippines during the unconditional surrender of Japan in 1945. The “gold” includes many different kinds of valuables looted from banks, depositories, mosques, temples, churches, shops, museums and private homes. It was intended that loot from South East Asia would finance Japan’s war effort. Most of the loot was first shipped to the port of Singapore, where it was then relayed to the Philippines. From the Philippines, it was intended that the treasure would be shipped to the Japanese home islands which did not materialized.
When the gold was buried, it was done in anticipation that the Americans would defeat the Japanese and the underground vaults, tunnels, and entrances were booby trapped with gas, explosives, and water. The water traps were created by digging 300 – 350 feet underground in the dry months, at which time the water table was at its lowest.
As the Pacific War progressed, Allied submarines and aircraft took a heavy toll on Japan’s shipping. Some ships carrying gold loots back to Japan were sunk. The Japanese military began to hide the loot in caves and underground complexes throughout the Philippines, hoping to recover it after the war was over. Many of those who knew the locations of the loot were either executed or incarcerated for war crimes, including Yamashita. Thus, the whereabouts of the treasure locations were lost. Many years later, Former Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos located some of the treasure and obtained part of his personal fortune from it. His recoveries are known as the “Marcos Gold “or “Marcos Wealth”. Aside from these finds, others finds are not sufficiently documented.
HITLER’S NAZI LOOT OF EUROPE, THE VATICAN AND ANTONIO DIAZ STA ROMANA CONTROVERSY:
In the early 1930’s, Europe was in depression and Germany was financially bankrupt, An unknown party leader emerged and promise the German people that he could create jobs and boost the economy. The Germans dared him and put him in power. His name is Adolf Hitler. In 1933, the Vatican and Hitler, a Roman Catholic signed a concordat and mutual protection and enhancement. That was apparently that Vatican was spared of the ruins of war in Europe during WWII. “Hitler was loaded with gold and money”. He built a massive army and manufactured weapons of war. Then Hitler took Poland. Before 1918 there was no Poland. That land was part of Germany and used as a buffer zone to separate Germany from Russia. But when Hitler reclaimed it, England declared war on Germany.
By the advent of the WWII, Germany and Japan made strong allies and positioned their army forces and manufactured weapons not only for war or expanding their empire but conquest for wealth and connived for the European and Asian Looting.
After the War, accordingly “Fr. Jose Antonio Diaz,”aka Fr Hayes Severino Garcia Sta Romana, et al and other used names formerly of the OSS and CIA was entrusted by the Vatican to take charge of Vatican gold buried on the Philippines. The claims of the “Vatican gold” was identified as bullion that had been “captured by Hitler” and that had belonged to the royal families of Europe and been placed under the trusteeship of the Vatican. It also includes gold bullions that was plundered by the Japanese under General Chichibu and buried in the Philippines.
P. Diaz had “assumed several names when he moved to the Philippines.” One of these was “Col. Severino Sta. Romana.” Being with the OSS after the war, he was able to retrieved, unlock on only some of the buried gold bullion treasures in Northern Part of Luzon, Philippine Island. By peacetime, he was also the major catalyst for the safe return of 640,000 metric tons of Gold owned by the royalty family of the former “maharlika” or the Philipines borrowed by the Vatican in 1939 and facilitated its return to the original owners in Philippines and rewarded with paid commissions of 30% of the returned gold. The value of the gold now estimated at $4 trillion in which anyone could raise eyebrows its existence. Where it is now? It was noted that Sta. Romana during that time had “hired the young Marcos as his lawyer and trustee.” By 1949, It was said the Two (2) richest man in the world were Fr. Jose Antonio Diaz and Atty. Ferdinand E Marcos . Perhaps, there is a good reason to believe now for people who defended and stay on hold to the programs of the former “strong man” that his wealth is “Not Ill-Gotten”.
In 1974, Fr, Jose Antonio Diaz, alias Severino Sta. Romana died and all that 30% commission in gold become the legendary “MARCOS GOLD”. In power, after providing for his family in Marcos “Letter of Instruction”, the whole wealth derived from this was supposed to be given to the FILIPINO PEOPLE. However, the “MARCOS GOLD or MARCOS WEALTH” was labeled as “Ill-Gotten” as some of Philippine Politicians and Churchmen kept on saying. There was nothing secret about the said.. “Marcos Secret Account”. History of and by the said “Letter of Instructions”, will show that the money was not stashed away and inaccessible but available to truly deserving Filipinos. Filipinos should know this. The grand scheme of these with these International banking cartels with the backdrop control of Superpower Nations with so much interest no less than by greed so that this country and its people will remain a slave and shackled to these foreign powers. They don’t want our country to be made a “ First World Country”. The phony scheme of the CIA backed EDSA “PEOPLE POWER REVOLUTION” exhibition in 1986 continually blinded FILIPINOS up to now and keep repeating that MARCOS was a thief so that those hundreds of billions of “ MARCOS WEALTH” will remain froze and not given to the Filipino people.
WHO SHOULD OWN THE GOLD TREASURES IN THE PHILIPPINES?
Apparently, after 1986 under the International Court of Justice, the gold treasure buried in the Philippines or in other nations will be owned by the possessor of it. ¿Quienes son? For Filipinos, It’s us Filipinos who have the control of private or government land allegedly to contain of these buried gold loots. However, in reality, we have to accept the fact that it was not ours since time in memorial this gold was owned by varied international country claimants. But who to prove it that it’s theirs? Even the International Court of Justice up to now denied its existence for reason how will they prove it? To “someone” who had accumulated the German and Japanese plundered gold gathered in by General Chichibu and General Yamashita obviously preferred not to come forward with their claims because such claims would possibly reveal the source of such wealth. To take note the Japan’s ravage of the war in Burma and Asian neighbors where their historical and ancient gold was looted , was cut , stripped, melted and formed into another gold bars. The war was over and it would be difficult to identify the actual ownership of these gold if found. However, gold hallmarks can do so, and the hallmarks still carry international warrants for claims. The come and go to the Philippines of mandates and representatives by the international gold bullion buyers from Europe, China, America etc. are taking advantage of huge buying % discounts from who would be finders and holders/sellers of the gold loots. To note, before transporting these items , a must buying policy that these hallmarks of gold identity would be first erased or removed and re-melted again into new dory or plain bars form before shipment and payments. Other buying schemes would have it shipped out after making any financial payment guarantees to the sellers and after re-smelting and refining, payments can be done off-shore. Thus, legalizing and documenting said gold treasures would be easy for them.

So much fraud and the same story that only the rich will benefit from this haul.


Ver el vídeo: God of War 4 - El gran tesoro oculto de Brok y Sindri escondido en la edición coleccionista