¿Por qué no se utilizó chucrut para combatir el escorbuto?

¿Por qué no se utilizó chucrut para combatir el escorbuto?

Mientras leía sobre la edad de la vela, leí sobre el escorbuto y cómo se 'curaba' con la 'acidez' de los cítricos. Me vino a la mente: ¿por qué no intentaron usar chucrut? Parece que debería ser más familiar para los europeos que alguna fruta exótica y más disponible. Si bien no contiene tanta vitamina C como los limones o las limas, debería ser suficiente para prevenir al menos parte de los problemas. Y fue 'ácido' lo que debería permitir el 18 c. médicos para hacer la conexión. Finalmente fue fácil de transportar y, por diseño, duradero.


El problema fue que durante el siglo XVIII, no sabían que el escorbuto era causado por la falta de vitamina C (principalmente porque no sabían qué eran las vitaminas). Por lo tanto, no buscaron alimentos ricos en vitamina C para curarla. También debe tenerse en cuenta que no existe una relación clara entre la acidez de un alimento y su contenido de vitamina C.

Gran parte del mérito de curar el escorbuto se le da a James Lind, quien publicó "un Tratado sobre el escorbuto" en 1753 (en tres partes). Lind era un médico cuyos experimentos iniciales sobre las causas y curas del scurio se realizaron en 12 hombres del Salisbury. Estos experimentos parecían sugerir que la cura era el uso de frutas y verduras frescas. Más tarde continuó con sus experimentos y publicó ediciones posteriores de su tratado mientras estaba adjunto al hospital Royal Naval en Haslar. La Royal Navy pareció aceptar sus hallazgos solo unos cuarenta años después y finalmente agregó una ración de cítricos a las comidas del barco en 1795.

Sin embargo, no es tan claro. El mérito de vincular las verduras con la curación del escorbuto debería atribuirse a un escritor holandés, Johannes Bachstrom (cuyo trabajo Lind hizo referencia en su Tratado), quien había concluido que el escorbuto "se debe totalmente a una abstinencia total de alimentos vegetales frescos y verduras; que por sí sola es la causa principal de la enfermedad ".

Sin embargo, Lind complicó las cosas más adelante en su tratado aparentemente descartando la conclusión de Bachstrom al afirmar que las personas podrían permanecer libres de scurio mientras comen pocas verduras verdes. Lind también mencionó otras posibles curas en sus escritos, especialmente la idea de que la exposición al aire fresco y seco curaría el escorbuto, lo que significaba que sus conclusiones sobre las causas y curas no estaban claras. Probablemente fue esa falta de una conclusión clara lo que impidió que su trabajo fuera ampliamente aceptado y, en parte, retrasó que la Royal Navy agregara vitamina C (incluso si no se daban cuenta de que eso era lo que estaban haciendo) a las raciones diarias.

Una vez que se aceptó el vínculo entre la salud y una dieta de frutas y verduras, se pidió a los capitanes navales que suministraran estos alimentos a sus hombres. La mezcla real de frutas y hortalizas frescas variaría según el lugar en el que estuviera en servicio ese barco. Los cítricos, principalmente limones y limas, fueron los más comunes, pero esto se complementó con alimentos disponibles localmente, que en ocasiones incluían chucrut. También James Cook había llevado chucrut en sus viajes, incluso antes de que se estableciera la relación entre los alimentos frescos y el escorbuto.

Fuentes: The Health of Seamen, ed. Christopher Lloyd, Naval Records Society vol 107, 1965 James Lind and Scurvy: A revaluation, Michael Bartholomew, Journal of Maritime Research 4: 1, 1-14, 2002 Feeding Nelson's Navy, Janet MacDonald, Chatham, 2014

Una historia de escorbuto

Cuando los europeos comenzaron a navegar en alta mar en viajes prolongados, lo más mortífero que encontraron no fueron las armadas enemigas, el hambre o incluso los naufragios.

Fue una enfermedad dolorosa en la que su cuerpo literalmente comenzaría a desmoronarse y mató a más de 2.000.000 de marineros entre el viaje de Colón y mediados del siglo XIX.

Obtenga más información sobre el escorbuto y cómo finalmente se conquistó en este episodio de Everything Everywhere Daily.

Este episodio está patrocinado por Athletic Brewing Company.

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Los fundadores de Athletic Brewing, Bill y John, son amantes de la cerveza artesanal que querían reducir el consumo de alcohol sin comprometer el sabor, pero los sabores interesantes que amaban en otras cervezas artesanales simplemente no estaban disponibles en la cerveza sin alcohol.

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Cualquier discusión sobre el escorbuto debe comenzar con lo que es la enfermedad.

En su forma más simple, el escorbuto es causado por la falta de vitamina C. La mayoría de las especies de mamíferos pueden producir su propia vitamina C. Sin embargo, los seres humanos son una de las únicas especies que no pueden.

Entonces, esto plantea la pregunta, ¿por qué es tan importante la vitamina C?

Probablemente, la proteína más importante de su cuerpo es el colágeno. Sirve como el componente principal de muchos de los tejidos conectivos de su cuerpo. Se encuentra en los cartílagos, huesos, encías, tendones, ligamentos y piel.

La vitamina C es un componente vital para que su cuerpo produzca colágeno. Sin vitamina C no puede producir colágeno, y si no puede producir colágeno, literalmente no puede construir las cosas que mantienen unido su cuerpo.

Por eso el escorbuto es una enfermedad tan desagradable. Su cuerpo comienza a desmoronarse y puede ser increíblemente doloroso.

Los síntomas del escorbuto pueden comenzar después de solo un mes sin vitamina C. Comienza con una sensación de lentitud. Entonces puede que le salgan hematomas con facilidad. Finalmente, sus encías podrían sangrar, sus dientes podrían caerse y su piel podría comenzar a sangrar abiertamente.

Estos son solo los síntomas externos. Internamente, todos sus tejidos conectivos se están desmoronando y muchos de sus órganos internos también estarían sangrando.

Un cirujano de barcos inglés del siglo XVI no identificado habló sobre su experiencia personal con el escorbuto, escribió: “Me pudrió las encías, lo que dio una sangre negra y pútrida. Mis muslos y la parte inferior de mis piernas estaban negros y gangrenosos, y me vi obligado a usar mi cuchillo todos los días para cortar la carne a fin de liberar esta sangre negra y sucia. También usé mi cuchillo en mis encías, que estaban lívidas y crecían sobre mis dientes. . . . Cuando corté esta carne muerta y causé que fluyera mucha sangre negra, me enjuagué la boca y los dientes con orina, frotándolos muy fuerte. . . . Y lo lamentable fue que no pude comer, deseando más tragar que masticar. . . . Mucha de nuestra gente moría por eso todos los días, y vimos cuerpos arrojados al mar constantemente, tres o cuatro a la vez ”.

La historia de esta enfermedad y cómo finalmente se resolvió es fascinante, lo que implica descubrir y olvidar la cura muchas veces a lo largo de la historia.

El escorbuto era conocido por los antiguos. Hay registros de antiguos egipcios y griegos que sabían sobre el escorbuto.

Un monje chino del siglo V llamado Faxian escribió sobre cómo los marineros chinos sufrían de escorbuto y cómo llevaban jengibre a bordo para ayudar a mantenerlo a raya.

Históricamente, nunca fue una enfermedad común. Aparecía aquí y allá, y normalmente en circunstancias especiales.

Fue con el inicio de la era de la exploración cuando el escorbuto se convirtió en un problema importante.

Cuando los barcos se embarcaban en un viaje largo, llevaban comida que podían conservar en un barco. No tenían refrigeración y realmente no tenían ninguna tecnología de almacenamiento de alimentos más allá del secado y la salazón.

La dieta típica a bordo de un barco en ese momento consistía en unas 3.000 calorías diarias. El marinero promedio obtendría alrededor de una libra de carne de cerdo o ternera salada, una libra de galletas duras, que era una galleta extremadamente densa y dura, y un galón de cerveza. También puede haber algunos frijoles secos o lentejas.

Sin embargo, no había nada fresco en su dieta.

Aunque el escorbuto fue el problema más pronunciado, también se presentaron otras deficiencias de nutrientes. La falta de vitamina B1 provocó el beriberi y la falta de vitamina B2 provoca la pelagra. Estas condiciones a menudo irían de la mano.

Lo extraño del escorbuto es que durante este período, fue un gran problema que afectó a millones de marineros. Sin embargo, no era como si no hubiera mucha opinión sobre cómo tratar el escorbuto, y muchas de las personas que tenían teorías sobre el tratamiento del escorbuto tenían razón.

En ese entonces, nadie tenía idea de que existían cosas llamadas células o bacterias, y mucho menos moléculas como la vitamina C. En ese momento ni siquiera había experimentos controlados, por lo que todo era solo evidencia anecdótica y conjeturas.

La cura para el escorbuto se descubrió repetidamente.

En 1536, el explorador francés Jacques Cartier estaba explorando el río San Lorenzo en Canadá cuando su tripulación sufría de escorbuto. Los nativos de la zona enseñaron a su tripulación a preparar té con agujas de pino ceratin. Esas agujas contenían vitamina C.

Los primeros exploradores portugueses que navegaron por África para llegar a la India plantaron frutas y verduras en las islas de Santa Elena para que los barcos se detengan y obtengan suministros frescos en su viaje.

En 1579, el monje y médico español Agustín Farfán recomienda el consumo de naranjas y limones.

En 1593, el almirante británico Sir Richard Hawkins abogó por consumir jugo de naranja y limón para curar el escorbuto.

Si bien muchas personas tenían razón, también había muchas ideas equivocadas.

Mucha gente pensó que el escorbuto no era una deficiencia en algo, se debía a comer carne de cerdo salada o carne salada en el barco.

Otros tenían la loca idea de que se debía a los marineros que añoraban la Tierra. Pensaron que la cura era traer una caja de tierra del país de origen y cubrir a la persona que sufría de escorbuto en ella y dejarla tomar un baño de tierra.

Una de las primeras personas a las que se puede atribuir el mérito de haber dado un paso importante para resolver el problema del escorbuto en un sentido práctico fue el capitán James Cook. En sus larguísimos viajes por el Pacífico, había reducido considerablemente, pero no eliminado, el escorbuto al exigir a su tripulación que consumiera chucrut todos los días. También insistió en conseguir frutas y verduras frescas en cada parada.

La persona a la que se le atribuye haber resuelto realmente el problema del escorbuto es el doctor escocés James Lind. Él era un médico naval que hizo un ensayo clínico real que demostró que el jugo de lima funcionaba, y funcionó mejor que cualquier otra cosa que trató de curar el escorbuto. A Lind no solo se le atribuye la resolución del problema del escorbuto, sino también la realización del primer ensayo clínico de la historia.

Su consejo fue finalmente adoptado por la Royal Navy, que a fines del siglo XVIII ordenó que se sirviera jugo de limón todos los días a los marineros. En 1794, el HMS Suffolk partió de Inglaterra hacia la India. El Suffolk llegó a la India sin un solo caso de escorbuto, y los informes indicaron que la tripulación llegó más sana que cuando se fueron.

En 1867, se inventó el jugo de lima Rose, que fue el primer concentrado de frutas y permitió la conservación del jugo de lima sin alcohol. Ese mismo año, la Royal Navy ordenó el consumo diario de jugo de limón para todos sus marineros, eliminando así básicamente el escorbuto.

De aquí proviene el término “Limey” como peyorativo para los ingleses.

Debo señalar que los cítricos no fueron la única cura para el escorbuto. En 1801, cuando el ejército de Napoleón fue atrapado en el sitio de Alejandría en Egipto, su médico jefe ordenó el consumo de carne fresca de caballo para prevenir el escorbuto ... y funcionó.

La carne fresca tiene vitamina C, aunque no tanto como los cítricos. Es por eso que los inuit que viven al norte del Círculo Polar Ártico y tribus como los Massai en África que comen casi exclusivamente dietas basadas en animales no contraen escorbuto.

Una razón que se da de por qué Roald Amundsen venció a Robert Scott en el Polo Sur es que Amundsen aprendió de una expedición anterior que al consumir carne fresca de pingüino, él y su tripulación pudieron posponer el escorbuto. El equipo de Scott sufría de escorbuto, que probablemente fue un factor que contribuyó al fracaso de su misión.

La molécula de vitamina C fue descubierta en 1912, aislada en 1928, y en 1933 se convirtió en la primera vitamina producida artificialmente.

En 1937, Albert Szent-Györgyi recibió el Premio Nobel de Medicina y Walter Norman Haworth recibió el Premio Nobel de Química por su trabajo en el descubrimiento de la vitamina C.

Hoy en día, el escorbuto es muy raro. Tan raro, que cuando los médicos lo encuentran, a menudo lo diagnostican mal porque nunca lo ven en los pacientes. Sin embargo, ocurre ocasionalmente.

Uno de esos casos fue el de un adolescente que pasó semanas jugando videojuegos, sin consumir nada más que comida chatarra y Mountain Dew. Otros casos provienen de personas obesas, pero que solo consumen alimentos procesados ​​y no alimentos frescos.

El escorbuto es una condición horrible de sufrir. Afortunadamente, debido a siglos de prueba y error y descubrimientos del siglo XX, casi lo hemos eliminado en el mundo moderno.

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Alcademia

01 de noviembre de 2018

Recientemente (ayer) terminé de leer el libro de 2002 & # 0160Limeys: La conquista del escorbuto de David I Harvie. El libro no trata realmente de la historia global del escorbuto, sino que se centra en un cirujano, el escocés James Lind, quien fue la primera persona que demostró realmente la eficacia del jugo de cítricos como tratamiento en 1747. Sin embargo, sus sugerencias de aprovisionamiento de British Royal La flota de la Armada con jugo no se implementó oficialmente por otros 50 años.

Pero estoy aquí para hablar de limones y limas. ¿Sabes cómo hoy tenemos una definición estándar de la fruta y las diferencias entre ellas, pero esas definiciones han cambiado a lo largo de los años? ¿Cómo usamos las limas persas hoy, pero las limas clave se usaban en cócteles en el pasado, y cómo en algunos libros de cócteles antiguos las diferencias entre limones y limas no siempre son claras? & # 0160

Resulta que no es un problema nuevo. Cuando los cítricos se recomendaban por primera vez como cura (y luego como preventivo) para el escorbuto, los médicos como Lind recomendaban con mayor frecuencia el jugo o las naranjas y los limones. Las naranjas nunca despegaron, y el jugo de los limones a menudo se llamaba jugo de lima. & # 0160

El jugo de lima real de las limas comenzó a convertirse en la opción más popular después de 1800, gracias en parte a la relativa facilidad para obtener limas de las Indias Occidentales. Los marineros británicos fueron referidos primero como & quot; exprimidores de cal & quot & # 0160 y fueron los estadounidenses quienes acortaron la expresión a & quot; limos & quot, según el libro. & # 0160.

Los marineros a menudo asocian las curas del escorbuto con la acidez, lo que tiene sentido y no está lejos de la verdad. Otras curas que se llevaban a bordo de los barcos incluían alimentos y bebidas ácidas, como vinagre y chucrut. No fue hasta 1918 que se demostró que el ácido cítrico en sí mismo es inútil contra el escorbuto (y supongo que también el ácido acético del vinagre), y poco después que la vitamina C recientemente identificada era el antiescorúbico necesario.

La naranja tiene más vitamina C que los limones, que tienen aproximadamente un 40% más de vitamina C que las limas. (Aunque la acidez de estos cítricos está en el orden opuesto). Si ese jugo de lima se almacenó en un barril o entró en contacto con el cobre o se cocinó para reducirlo (lo que generalmente era el caso hasta la invención de Rose & # 39s Lime Juice) Cordial), la vitamina C se degradaría aún más, volviéndose casi inútil contra el escorbuto. & # 0160 & # 0160

La confusión inicial sobre la definición de limas y la decisión posterior de cambiar de limones a limas resultó bastante desastrosa para los británicos. Los incidentes de escorbuto en la Marina volvieron a surgir y las nuevas teorías médicas falsas con otras soluciones problemáticas volvieron a estar de moda. & # 0160


Historia del pirata escorbuto

Un tema apropiado para nuestro categoría de blog de barco pirata, Scurvy Pirate History es lo que "escorbuto”En realidad significa. Como muchos términos relacionados con la tradición y la tradición pirata, la palabra escorbuto no se refiere a nada agradable.

El escorbuto es el nombre de una enfermedad que era común entre marineros y piratas durante los siglos XV y XVI, particularmente cuando se tomaban largas distancias transatlánticas. viajes durante la Era de los Descubrimientos. La enfermedad prevalente entre los piratas fue causada por una deficiencia de vitamina C debido a la escasez de frutas en el mar durante largos períodos de tiempo. Según Wikipedia, el nombre escorbuto proviene de la palabra latina scorbutus, que también hace referencia al ácido ascórbico, que es la parte activa de la vitamina C que tiene un efecto positivo en la salud humana.

Los piratas que sufrían de escorbuto se sentían letárgicos y generalmente cansados, seguidos de la aparición de manchas y lesiones en la piel, encías débiles y hemorragias nasales. Los lugares más comunes para que los piratas encuentren manchas de escorbuto serían las piernas y los muslos. Las últimas etapas de la enfermedad vieron a los piratas perder los dientes, sufrir ictericia y heridas abiertas, y finalmente la muerte. ¿Quién querría ser pirata?

La razón por la que el escorbuto era tan común entre los piratas era que pasaban mucho tiempo en el mar, evitando los puertos por temor a ser capturados. Por lo tanto, la oferta de fruta fresca era escasa, ya que la fruta es perecedera y no soportó los largos viajes.. No fue hasta mucho después que se identificó claramente un vínculo directo entre la vitamina C que se encuentra en la fruta y el escorbuto, por lo tanto, para muchos piratas, el escorbuto era como una plaga infligida por el diablo.


Chucrut, una historia asombrosa

La Gran Muralla China se construyó para mantener alejadas a las hordas invasoras de mongoles lideradas por el infame Genghis Khan, todos saben que la muralla no funcionó, pero quién lo hubiera adivinado si no hubiera sido por la gran muralla, el mundo podría no tener chucrut. . ¿Cómo se compara China con lo que el mundo considera un brebaje alemán? En realidad, es bastante simple, los miles de trabajadores en el muro tuvieron que trabajar durante las cuatro estaciones, no tenían el invierno libre, por lo que descubrieron que fermentar el repollo y el vino de arroz en lo que ahora comúnmente llamamos un olla de chucrut era una forma sencilla de preparar alimentos que los ayudó a superar los meses de escasez.

Cuando Genghis Khan tomó la pared, también le gustó esta mezcla fermentada y adoptó la receta para la suya. Fue el hecho de que permaneció comestible durante largos períodos de tiempo lo que hizo que Genghis se adaptara a una "T" mientras deambulaba incesantemente, y finalmente llevó la receta a Europa.

A principios del siglo XVI fueron los alemanes quienes comenzaron a secar el repollo curado con sal que extraía el agua de la verdura. Esto se dejó fermentar, convirtiendo el azúcar en una forma de ácido láctico que a su vez actuó como conservante. Los alemanes nunca fueron conocidos como una nación marinera, pero sus vecinos, los holandeses, ciertamente lo eran y comenzaron a llevarse “repollo amargo” en sus viajes por mar, que literalmente podrían durar años. Se descubrió que el chucrut era un gran alimento para combatir el escorbuto, una enfermedad temida de la época, especialmente para los marineros.

A medida que se siguió explorando el mundo, el chucrut se fue con ellos y, finalmente, el plato terminó en los Estados Unidos. Nadie sabe con certeza quién lo trajo o cuándo se trajo por primera vez a las Américas, pero la palabra aparece en un diccionario de 1776.

El primer chucrut fue traído a América en toneles de madera, pero los colonos no tardaron en desarrollar un olla de chucrut para poder producirlo en lotes más pequeños para su uso y almacenamiento durante los largos y duros inviernos de lo que ahora se conoce como Pensilvania.

Chucrut es simplemente repollo rallado y sal. Hoy, de vuelta en China, de donde vino por primera vez, y en Corea está fuertemente condimentado con especias, las especias agregan sabor pero no tienen ningún efecto en el proceso de curado, pruébelo como una maravillosa adición a cualquier menú, especialmente a las salchichas.


No. 3210: AZOTEA DEL MAR

Hoy, una cura médica, perdida y encontrada. La Universidad de Houston presenta este programa sobre la máquinas que hacen funcionar nuestra civilización, y el gente cuyo ingenio los creó.

En 1535, el navegante francés Jacques Cartier hizo su segundo viaje al Nuevo Mundo, con la misión de explorar el interior de Canadá. Él y su tripulación decidieron pasar el invierno cerca de lo que hoy es la ciudad de Quebec. Esa no parecía una perspectiva tan desalentadora en ese momento. Quebec tiene aproximadamente la misma latitud que París, y Cartier probablemente esperaba un invierno lluvioso y no particularmente frío. Pero, en poco tiempo, el río San Lorenzo quedó completamente congelado. La nieve se amontonaba en montones de nieve. Aunque tenían mucha comida en conserva, la tripulación de Cartier comenzó a sentirse débil, apática y deprimida. Estaban adoloridos por todas partes. Se les estaban cayendo los dientes. Casi todos sus 110 hombres estaban gravemente enfermos y 25 habían muerto. Desesperado por un remedio, buscó a los nativos. Un miembro de la tribu iroquesa sugirió que preparara un té con las agujas y la corteza del cedro blanco o árbol de la vida, un arbusto de hoja perenne común. Tenía un sabor repugnante y muchos de los hombres de Cartier se negaron a beber. Pero los que lo hicieron se curaron milagrosamente de todos sus síntomas. ¿Ha diagnosticado ya su dolencia?

Sello de Jacques Cartier - Edición de 1934 Crédito de la foto: Wikipedia

Ahora sabemos que las agujas de hoja perenne son tizas llenas de ácido ascórbico o vitamina C. Los iroqueses y Cartier habían encontrado la cura para el escorbuto. Hace 500 años. Y no eran los únicos: los barcos de navegación marítima que llevaban limones a bordo tampoco parecían sufrirlo nunca. Habíamos resuelto un antiguo misterio médico. Bueno, no tan rápido. Los médicos de la época se burlaron de esta extraña correlación. ¿Cómo podrían las simples agujas de cedro o los limones curar una enfermedad tan debilitante? Estos informes deben ser meramente anecdóticos o remedios caseros, dijeron. Además, se propusieron otros candidatos para combatir el escorbuto: vinagre, malta de elaboración de cerveza, chucrut, varias tinturas de hierbas, todas diseñadas para asentar el estómago, donde se pensaba que se originaban la mayoría de las enfermedades. Ahora sabemos que ninguno de estos brebajes contiene vitamina C y, por lo tanto, no valen nada, pero estamos analizando el problema a través de lentes del siglo XXI. En aquel entonces, todavía se decía que las enfermedades eran causadas por un desequilibrio de los cuatro humores, una idea tan antigua como Hipócrates. Decir que alguien murió porque carecía de un ingrediente misterioso que se encuentra en los limones habría sonado tan ridículo para nuestros antepasados ​​como nos suenan ahora sus teorías de la medicina. Y así el escorbuto siguió plagando la Era de la Vela. Se estima que murieron más de dos millones de marineros.

Sin embargo, esta historia tiene un final feliz. En 1748, un médico respetado, James Lind, realizó una especie de ensayo clínico que demostraba que los limones y las naranjas, y no los demás, eran la cura para el escorbuto. Y la Royal Navy emitió jugo de limón como medida preventiva, un paso ilustrado en ese momento, dado que todavía no teníamos idea exactamente qué causó la enfermedad. La vitamina C se identificó finalmente en 1912 y se sintetizó unas décadas más tarde. A veces, el camino desde el descubrimiento hasta el conocimiento científico aceptado es tan largo y tortuoso como la ruta que intentaron Cartier y sus seguidores en la vasta naturaleza canadiense.

Thuja occidentalis Crédito de la foto: Wikipedia

Soy Roger Kaza, de la Universidad de Houston, donde nos interesa la forma en que funcionan las mentes creativas.

Un excelente artículo sobre la historia del escorbuto: haga clic aquí.

Un episodio anterior de Engines sobre el escorbuto: haga clic aquí.

Lind se mostró algo ambiguo acerca de su descubrimiento y todavía creía que los problemas estomacales eran el meollo del problema. Su tratado sobre el escorbuto: Haga clic aquí.

Estudio del "Árbol de la vida" de Cartier. Haga clic aquí.

Considerando que las tribus nativas de habla iroquesa le salvaron la vida, Cartier no estaba precisamente agradecido. Secuestró a su jefe Donnacona y a varios otros indios y los llevó a Francia. Ninguno regresó jamás. Para obtener más información, consulte: W. J. Eccles, La frontera canadiense, 1534-1760 (Historias de la frontera americana)

Entre los muchos callejones sin salida en la investigación del escorbuto se encontraba el intento de extraer una especie de extracto concentrado portátil, "robo de limón", hirviéndolo. Esto parecía lógico en ese momento, pero desafortunadamente el calor destruye la vitamina C. Es posible que el "té" de cedro de Cartier fuera en realidad frío o elaborado a baja temperatura. Ver cerveza de abeto - Haga clic aquí.

La mayoría de los animales pueden producir su propia vitamina C, y es un misterio por qué los humanos y algunos otros animales no pueden hacerlo. Una teoría postula que nuestros antepasados ​​lejanos ingirieron constantemente tanta vitamina en los alimentos que el cuerpo finalmente evolucionó lejos de la necesidad de producirla.


¿Cómo deberíamos lidiar con las respuestas leyendo la pregunta de manera un poco diferente de lo que pretendía OP (desafío de cuadro)?

A veces recibimos preguntas que "no son lo suficientemente buenas", como cualquier persona podría pensar y las opiniones difieren: en bastantes preguntas. Tanto es así que no llegamos a un consenso sobre la "maldad".

A veces, una frase ambigua o una diferencia de fondo entre el autor de la pregunta y el que responde invita a que se hagan visibles diferentes lecturas de 'cuál es realmente la pregunta' o 'cómo debería responderse'.

Idealmente, si una pregunta es problemática, debería editarse. Pero esto no siempre sucede y es aún menos probable si ya atrajo respuestas.

Lea la pregunta con atención. Específicamente, ¿qué pide la pregunta? Asegúrese de que su respuesta proporcione eso, o una alternativa viable. La respuesta puede ser "no hagas eso", pero también debe incluir "prueba esto en su lugar". Cualquier respuesta que haga que el autor de la pregunta vaya en la dirección correcta es útil, pero intente mencionar las limitaciones, suposiciones o simplificaciones en su respuesta. La brevedad es aceptable, pero las explicaciones más completas son mejores.

En nuestro caso, este "no hagas eso" podría interpretarse como "si entiendes que la pregunta significa ...". Ese es un ejemplo de pensar fuera de la caja o dejar el marco de referencia.

Las preguntas deben estar enmarcadas por el póster original, y les exigimos que lo hagan de la manera más restringida posible para que podamos publicar respuestas específicas. A veces, esto es demasiado estrecho, a veces las preguntas contienen material que otros encuentran poco referenciado o incluso un poco agresivo, no del todo correcto o ligeramente objetable.

Enmarcar en este contexto significa limitar cómo las personas ven un tema desafiando el marco significa romper esos límites para mirar el problema desde una perspectiva diferente. Desafiar el marco suele ser apropiado cuando el autor de la pregunta tiene el problema XY (cuando tienes el problema X, identifica la solución potencial Y y pide ayuda para implementar Y en lugar de simplemente pedir ayuda con X).
Sabio ajeno en un comentario

Esto se ha acuñado históricamente como un "desafío de marco" en StackExchange. A lo que podríamos encontrar la siguiente explicación:

Un desafío de marco es cuando un autor responde una pregunta de una manera completamente diferente que el consultante nunca pidió, o potencialmente prohibió expresamente, pero de una manera que, según el respondedor, realmente resolverá su problema (o en general mejorará su calidad de vida o evitará ellos de cometer un terrible error).

El "marco" que se cuestiona aquí es específicamente la forma en que se enmarcó la pregunta: la forma en que la plantearon, los parámetros que ofrecieron, el tipo de respuestas que buscan.

Los desafíos de fotogramas son riesgosos, a veces son una buena idea y, a veces, simplemente recibes muchos votos negativos. Le recomendamos que también responda la pregunta al pie de la letra, aunque es posible que prefiera no hacerlo (y, a veces, es una muy buena idea no hacerlo).
Doppelgreener en rpg: SE

Este tipo de respuestas se pueden encontrar con frecuencia en History: SE, pero no lo hemos discutido antes. A veces se les ha desafiado porque "esto no responde a la pregunta", a veces simplemente vuelan.

Desde hace poco, muchas personas se enojaron bastante si encontraban un desafío de marco de este tipo, es posible que tengamos que discutir esto un poco mejor.

¿Cuál es nuestra postura general al respecto?
¿Cuáles son las trampas?
¿Cómo podemos orientarnos sobre cómo evitar las trampas?


Paracetamol

Ya sea que lo llame acetaminofén (en los Estados Unidos y Japón) o paracetamol (en Europa y la mayor parte del resto del mundo), es uno de los analgésicos más utilizados. Fue preparado por primera vez por H. N. Morse en 1878. Aunque se realizaron muchos estudios sobre su uso como analgésico, no fue hasta 1950 que se comercializó con el nombre de Triagesic. Hoy en día, sus nombres comerciales más comunes son Tylenol y Panadol, pero un gran porcentaje de sus ventas son como medicamento genérico.

Aunque cada año se consumen muchos miles de millones de dosis de acetaminofén / paracetamol, los científicos aún tienen que descubrir su modo de acción. Se creía que su mecanismo se había establecido en la década de 1970 y nuevamente en la de 2000, pero ninguna de estas teorías sobrevivió al escrutinio. Es especialmente importante comprender cómo funciona el acetaminofén debido a su conocida toxicidad para el hígado.

Obtenga más información sobre esta molécula de CAS, la fuente más autorizada y completa de información química.


Al capitán Cook se le atribuye haber resuelto el problema del escorbuto en sus barcos mediante la emisión de vitamina C en forma de jugo de limón y frutas y verduras frescas. Pero lo disputas, ¿no?

Cook es considerado el héroe que conquista el escorbuto. Pero eso no es estrictamente cierto. Maneja el escorbuto lo mejor posible en sus circunnavegaciones, es decir, se detendrá siempre que pueda para conseguir verduras frescas de la orilla o comprar carne y pescado frescos de los nativos. También mantiene un barco muy limpio, seco y, en la medida de lo posible, cálido. Lo que se llamó las causas que contribuyen al escorbuto, la miseria física, Cook se redujo al mínimo.

Pero hay era escorbuto en todos sus viajes, especialmente en el segundo. Cook tampoco ayudó mucho a la causa porque, cuando llegó a casa, dijo que la moda actual del mosto de malta (malta concentrada) era un gran preventivo del escorbuto. Dudaba que pudiera curarlo, así que fue honesto hasta ese punto. Pero estaba siguiendo la línea de David McBride, el médico que dijo que no son los cítricos los que previenen o curan el escorbuto, sino la malta concentrada. Entonces, lo que hizo Cook fue recomendar algo que no tenía ningún valor antiescorbútico.

Los grandes historiadores de la medicina en el mar, Jack Coulter y Christopher Lloyd, dicen que el logro de Cook no fue un logro en absoluto. No fue hasta que Sir Gilbert Blane organizó la distribución de cítricos a los marineros, en 1795, mientras Gran Bretaña luchaba en las Guerras Napoleónicas, que se consiguió un régimen que mantuvo a raya el escorbuto. Cook fue admirable en muchos sentidos. Pero en el tema del escorbuto era, se podría decir, en realidad un impedimento.

Neurociencia está revelando nuevos conocimientos sobre los efectos de vitamina C deficiencia. ¿Qué nos está diciendo?

It’s saying that certain mental states and mental conditions, like being subject to seizures, are cured by vitamin C. Perhaps the most dramatic example is a paper just published, which says people with septicemia (blood poisoning), if fed intravenously with vitamin C, will reduce their chances of dying by 75 percent.

Vitamin C may also help with one of the side effects of diabetes, osmotic diuresis, which is the leakage of urine into the bodily system. This produces severe oxidative stress and people with that condition could benefit enormously from extra doses of vitamin C. Scurvy itself is still a health problem in the United States and elsewhere.


Scurvy

Scurvy is a deficiency in vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, and its story goes way back in history – all the way to our evolutionary ancestors living more than 60 million years ago.
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It's been a year. Sí. Hooray. Also, I've just I've had minimal contact with anybody besides my spouse that almost nine months. And for some reason, my brain keeps being like scurvy.

And that connection doesn't make sense, really, because if I were to get a vitamin deficiency because of the pandemic, it would probably be about vitamin D from the not going out into the sun. Is that what you're saying? Is that your brain is making a weird jump of concern, a vitamin deficiency, maybe not a concern, but maybe more like at least they don't have scurvy like ha but brain that doesn't make any sense anyway. That's how we're going to talk about today is scurvy, because just for some weird reason, my brain keeps coming back around to it in these times of winter and pandemic.

So scurvy, in case you don't know and you probably do, is a deficiency in vitamin C or a sawbuck acid and it story goes way, way back in history, all the way to our evolutionary ancestors living more than 60 million years ago and with a few exceptions, including guinea pigs and bats, most mammals can generate their own sawbuck acid and that included those primate ancestors. But somewhere along the way, a random genetic mutation broke the ability to produce an enzyme known as El Galloon, Blacktown oxidase or Gullo, which is a necessary part of making a sawbuck acid sawbuck acid.

The results are necessary. The body uses it to synthesize the protein. Collagen and collagen is a crucially important part of our connective tissue. We need it to do really important things like hold our skin and blood vessels together. So if the body cannot replace worn out collagen, it causes serious problems.

The first symptoms of scurvy involve fatigue, lethargy and aching joints. People start to bruise easily, wounds won't heal and old wounds reopen. The gums start to bleed and the teeth start to loosen and can in fact come out entirely. This is also accompanied by foul odors, including very bad breath. Without treatment with vitamin C, scurvy is eventually fatal, often because of acute internal bleeding around the brain or heart.

But when our ancestors stopped being able to produce Gullo, this really did not matter. They were living in tropical areas and their diets included lots of fresh fruits and vegetables. So they were getting plenty of vitamin C through their food. If this had not been through this genetic mutation that shut off the ability to synthesize, Gullo would have wiped them out. But since their diets were rich with vitamin C, they continued to thrive. As people started living farther from tropical areas, they started eating more foods that did not necessarily contain as much vitamin C, but most of the time this was still not a big problem.

Most dietary recommendations call for significantly more vitamin C, but it doesn't actually take that much just to prevent scurvy. Only about 10 milligrams a day are all you need. And although vitamin C is mostly associated with fruits and vegetables, it is found in other foods as well. Most meat contains a little if it hasn't been cooked too long, and liver and kidney meat in particular contain quite a bit of it. So as one example, the practice of eating raw organ meat in far northern indigenous communities provides protection from scurvy even when plant based foods are unavailable or out of season.

So as communities established themselves around the world, people had to have some kind of vitamin C in their diets. Otherwise that community just could not survive. But any time that access to food was cut off in some way, say, because of a war or a famine, people could start to develop scurvy. And this was also true for people with diseases and conditions that kept them from eating or kept them from absorbing the nutrients and their food.

And the word scurvy comes from older terms that mean lazy scabbed or scurvy, which used to be used to describe dandruff. People started using it to describe this disease in about the 16th century, but written descriptions of scurvy that predate that word are much older. The earliest likely description of scurvy is found in the Egyptian document known as the Ebers Papyrus, which dates back to about 1800 BCE past podcast subject. Schreuder described a condition involving bleeding gums and loosening teeth around 800 BCE.

Roughly 400 years later, Greek physician hypocrisies described what was probably scurvy. And while he did not go into detail about the cure, he knew for it. He did note that it wasn't effective and that patients usually died. Traditional Chinese medicine texts describe collections of symptoms that very much resemble scurvy as well.

So today scurvy is associated with long sea voyages, and his humanity took to the sea. People worked out some ways to prevent it, although really without necessarily knowing that that was what they were doing. Many of the earliest seafarers stuck close to the coasts or they island hopped, and that gave them plenty of opportunities to stock up on fresh food. But as voyages got longer, many also had food on board that were rich in vitamin C. It's possible that Polynesian way finders introduced sweet potatoes to Central and South America.

They would have brought them with them over thousands of miles of ocean and sweet potatoes contained vitamin C. Scandinavians stocked their ships with cloudberries, which have about four times as much vitamin C as oranges do unpause. Pasteurized milk also contains vitamin C, so Seafarer's, who had dairy animals on board, could get it that way while scurvy was common enough to be documented in ancient medical literature.

One of the first specifically documented outbreaks happened in the 13th century during the eigth crusade, King Louis the ninth lay siege to Tunis. Although there were plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables available in the area, the king and his fighting force were mostly eating fish, and many were also undertaking religious fasts. The King and about a sixth of his men died of disease during the siege for a long time. Their deaths were attributed to plague. But more recent research has found evidence of scurvy in the king's jawbone.

Not long after this, scurvy started to become a serious problem on European ships during long Scevola ages. And most of the literature that's related to scurvy in history today is focused primarily on Europe and its colonies, mostly during the age of exploration, which was from about the 15th through the 17th centuries. But of course, Europeans were not the only people taking to the sea. At this point. It's possible that other nations aren't as represented in English language literature because of language barriers or prejudice.

But it's also possible that scurvy was just not as much of a problem outside of European fleets. Most of the time, it takes between two months and 12 weeks without vitamin C for a person to develop scurvy. And while sailors from parts of Africa and Asia were taking voyages that lasted much longer than that overall, often they were not going that long between stops to resupply. It also seems like they may have been doing a better job at providing their crews with foods rich in vitamin C past podcast subject Ibn Battuta, who was from what's now Morocco and traveled extensively during the 14th century, described green vegetables and ginger being grown in tanks on Chinese vessels.

He also wrote about salted ginger, pepper, lemons and mangoes being loaded onto ships in preparation for long voyages.

Another previous podcast subject is Zhang Herr, who led fleets of treasure ships from China all the way to Africa in the 15th century. And we don't have lists of exactly what provisions he took. But we do know that his fleets included huge supply vessels whose whole purpose was sustaining the voyage itself and that the ships had kitchens that prepared meals for crews and passengers. There are also multiple references to T in relation to his voyages, and he does contain some vitamin C for the most part.

Written records of scurvy on Chinese vessels don't really start until the 19th century when people left China bound for California during the gold rush. But European ships were another story, especially as European ships crossed whole oceans. People's diets were often restricted to salted meat and hardtack and not much else. Typically, any vegetables grown on board were only for the officers.

Consequently, it's estimated that scurvy killed two million Europeans sailors between the 15th century and the 19th century, which is when navies started to more consistently connect scurvy prevention to things like citrus juice. During these centuries, scurvy was the leading cause of death among sailors at sea. It was also a major cause of death among enslaved Africans during the transatlantic slave trade, although the details of that aspect have not been nearly as specifically documented as with ships crews. And we're going to talk about some more specific scurvy information after we first pause for a little sponsor break.

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Today, scurvy is treated almost like a punch line in pirate jokes, but it was an enormous problem.

For hundreds of years, scurvy killed 100 of the original 170 crew during Vasco Dagmar's voyage to the Indian subcontinent that started in 1897. Ferdinand Magellan left Spain with a fleet of five ships and 15 19, searching for a way to reach Asia from Europe by traveling west by sea. Only 18 of his original crew of 270 made it back to Spain and fifteen twenty two with scurvy being a major cause of death.

Here is how one of Magellan's crew described conditions in his journal. Quote, We ate only old biscuit reduced to powder and full of grubs and stinking from the dirt which the rats had made on it when eating the good biscuit. And we drank water that was yellow and stinking. The men were so hungry that if any of them caught a rat, he could sell it for a high price to someone who would eat it.

In fifteen thirty five, French explorer Jacques Cartier established a fort across the St.. Charles River from the Iroquois and village of Stata Kona that's near what's now Quebec City. That winter was extremely harsh. Katia's ships became ice bound. They were not able to return to France as planned. And when they heard of an illness that was spreading through the indigenous population, they tried to cut off contact with them. But then that same illness started to spread through Katia's own men.

In an account translated by Richard Shacklett, it's described as this quote, Some did lose their strength and could not stand on their feet. Then did their legs swell, their sinews shrink as black as any coal. Others also had all their skin spotted with spots of blood of a purple color, then did a send up to their ankles, knees, thighs, shoulders, arms and neck. Their mouth became stinking, their gums so rotten that all the flesh did fall off, even to the roots of the teeth, which also all fall out about the middle of February of one hundred and ten persons that we were.

There were not ten hole. There were already eight dead and more than fifty sick.

And as we saw it passed all hope of recovery. So at some point Katia went for a walk and encountered Dolma Gaya, who was the son of Konkona, who was the chief of staff. Ticona delegates hold Khadir about a treatment for this disease, which was to prepare a tea from the leaves of a local tree. This tree is not conclusively identified today, but the most likely candidate is the eastern white cedar, whose leaves always contain some vitamin C but have a whole lot more of it in the new growth that comes out in the early spring.

Although at least twenty five men in the fort died of scurvy, this cure was effective for the ones who survived.

There is, of course, a whole lot more to this story outside the part about scurvy, Curdy had actually abducted Domagoj and his brother on his earlier voyage and forced them to accompany him back to France, bringing them back to North America with him in fifteen thirty five. And at the end of his second voyage, Katia abducted them for a second time, along with their father and seven other indigenous people. All but one of them died before Katia returned to North America for his third voyage in fifteen forty one.

Probably the most dramatic and notorious outbreak of scurvy at sea was during George Anderson's four year voyage around the world, which started in 1740. Britain was at war with Spain, and because of the war, Ansen had a serious labour shortage. Even press gangs who were abducting men off the street to force them to serve in the Royal Navy could not provide him with enough men for his fleet. Eventually, this gap was filled with men from Chelsea Hospital, most of whom were sick, injured or elderly, to the point that they weren't able to just leave on their own when they got released from the hospital.

The people who did have the capacity to just walk away did that. So he was left with like the oldest, sickest men from the hospital. And then there were delays in outfitting the ships and the crews ate nothing but ship's rations for months as they waited. And while there were treatments for scurvy on board, none of them contained much, if any, vitamin C, so they did not actually work for the most part. They were also really unpleasant, like drinking a bunch of straight vinegar.

I like vinegar and vinegar, three things, but the idea of just gulping down a whole bunch of it does not sound great to me.

Hard pass. Once they finally got underway, they sailed through terrible storms and were blown off course. By April of 1741, most of the men who had survived those treacherous seas had then developed scurvy by June. They were down from six ships to only three, with only three hundred thirty five survivors out of about thirteen hundred original crew. Finally, they reached the one Fernandez Islands off the coast of Chile. These were home to plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables.

And as the ships took on fresh provisions and the men at these foods, they gradually began to recover. But because their conditions were so dire when they started getting more vitamin C into their bodies, it actually took more than a month before men stopped dying of scurvy. Anson's dwindling fleet was struck by scurvy again in the Pacific Ocean in the summer of 1742, obviously after they had run out of the fresh provisions that they brought on board.

When his two remaining ships finally got to China, there were only two hundred and twenty seven of the original crew still living. In spite of that, they managed to capture a Spanish galleon that was bound for Manila on June 20th of seventeen forty three. And then with only one hundred and forty five of the original men, they made it back to Britain because they had captured the Spanish galleon.

They were treated as heroes with treasures from the galleon paraded through the streets of London and Ansen named First Lord of the Admiralty in 1750 one.

At this point, I mean, it might seem a little weird for the person who was in charge when all of these people died to then become the first lord of the Admiralty. But at this point, European naval officials had long seen scurvy as an almost inevitable side effect of sending men out to sea for long periods. And they really did not know what was going on with this disease. They did not know about vitamin C or about vitamins at all.

It would be more than one hundred and fifty more years before Kazmir Funk would coined the word vitamin to describe specific chemical substances that the body needed to survive. They did not know about collagen either. The molecular structure of collagen was not discovered until the 1930s. Complicating all of this, diets that lacked vitamin C often lacked other essential nutrients as well. And outbreaks of scurvy frequently happened alongside outbreaks of contagious diseases. So it wasn't always clear exactly what disease was at work, and often multiple conditions were getting lumped together and described as scurvy.

So over the centuries, various people noticed that an assortment of foods seemed to cure scurvy. Sometimes they did put that discovery in writing, but it took a really long time before Navys started consistently keeping effective treatments for it on ships. This was not just a matter of people forgetting that citrus fruit cured scurvy, though it is definitely described that way. Sometimes, like people kind of frame it as people in the past were great big dummies who just kept forgetting that all they needed was oranges.

In hindsight, it is really easy to see that the things that treated scurvy effectively all have vitamin C in them. But at the time, not only did people not know why any of those things actually worked, but their explanations for why they worked were totally off base. So as people tried to come up with cures that were easier to keep fresh on ships than fruits and vegetables, ah, it just kept going down the completely wrong track.

Often James Lind is the one who gets credit for solving the scurvy problem. But it's of course, history. So that means it's way more complicated than that. And we're going to get into all of that after we pause for a sponsor break.

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Find none of them kids on the iPod radio app, Apple podcast, or wherever you get your podcasts. For hundreds of years, medicine in Europe rested on the idea of humans, and this drew from Greek physicians and philosophers like Gailen and Epocrates.

It also appears in the work of Persian polymath Ibn Sina. Similar concepts are part of traditional Chinese medicine and ihr Vayda as well. And in terms of the understanding of scurvy and much of Europe, for hundreds of years, it was believed to be due to putrefaction of the humour's. And then that putrefaction was made worse by bad food, bad air, bad hygiene or sometimes just laziness.

And there were a lot of people who figured out something that worked to treat this. In 1074, Baldwin as raunchiest, wrote about orange juice curing scurvy in Dutch sailors in the late 16th century. Enric OIR wrote about cloudberries treating scurvy in Norse sailors and 16 17.

John Woodall published a reference book called The Surgeon's Mate or Military and Domestic Surgery, discovering faithfully and plainly you method and order of yeast surgeons, chest uses of the instruments, the virtues and operations of medicines with the exact cures of wounds made by gunshot and otherwise as namely wounds, appose fumes, ulcers, fistulas, fractures, dislocations with the most easy and safest ways of amputation, or dismembering the cures of the scurvy of fluxes of you. Belly, a bucolic and Iliakis Passo of Rted Assamese and Equitas Anei end of the calendar year with a treatise of Cure of Plague published for the service of his Master and of the Commonwealth by John Woodhall.

Mr in Surgery. As that very long title mentioned, it had an entire section on scurvy and its treatment.

I think we should bring back the days where we basically include the index in the title.

Yeah, well, I looked at the table of contents for it, and at one point I had the table of contents for what? The section of on scurvy included in here. But it was really just like scurvy, its description, its treatment. Sí.

Woodall's descriptions of scurvy are similar to what we talked about earlier in the show. And as for its cure, he wrote that quote, As a famous writer named Yohannes, actress in a treatise, discourse affirmance consisted chiefly in four things, namely in opening obstructions, evacuating the offending humour's, in altering the property of them, and in comforting and corroborating the parts lape disease. Woodall's stresses the need to keep the crew's quarters clean and sweet with as much high quality, comfortable food as possible.

But if someone does get scurvy, they should be bled and given some, quote, pills of Euphorbia or otherwise fibular Ruffy or Cambodia. And then after that, some spoon meat or some oatmeal or egg yolk or a broth of currents and other fruit or some sugar or spices or some barley water or some oil of vitriol, which is sulfuric acid, or putting some dried wormwood in the patient's drink and then, quote, further, the surgeon or his mate must not fail to persuade the governor or person and all places where they touched in the NIMBYs and may have it to provide themselves of juice of oranges, limes or lemons, and it banned them of tamarins in the surgeon's mate.

What all makes lots of references to citrus fruit. But he's really focused on when crews are in places where those fruits grow because, quote, the sea surgeon shall do little good at sea with them. Neither will they endure. Yeah, he had stuff about citrus fruit in here, but it was really about when they were on land. And he also included so many other things that would not have been affected at all.

Oil of vitriol was a very common scurvy treatment. It was literally sulfuric acid. That was that was not helpful. In sixteen twenty two, Sir Richard Hawkins, who called scurvy, quote, the plague of the sea and the spoil of mariners, wrote that sour lemons and oranges could treat it in sixteen thirty five. And Brosius Rowdiest defended and published the first Scandinavian doctoral thesis and it was on scurvy. It describes treating scurvy with scurvy grass, common chickweed, watercress, mustard plants and the cloudberries that we mentioned earlier on in the show.

And Brosius Rowdiest did seem to understand that scurvy was connected to nutrition, but his ideas on how that worked were a little bit fuzzy. It was connected to the idea of canceling out opposites. Shizuo By the late 60s, hundreds people were using the word anti score butyric to describe things they believed to be useful against scurvy. Dutch physician Johannes Backstrom used the term to describe fresh fruits and vegetables in 1734. Also in the 18th century, Baron Gethard von Sweeden talked about scarcity of grains and vegetables as contributing to scurvy.

But he also attributed it to, quote, noisome vapors arising from marshy ground and stagnating waters in action, drinking of corrupted and stagnating waters, the use of salted and smoked flesh and fish, damp and low lodgings, as well as sorrow, nostalgia and homesickness. According to Van Sweetin, treatment for scurvy involved, quote, correcting the impure waters and also purging. He also made dietary recommendations, quote, The food should be broth with shergill sorrel spinach, lettuce on the Sukkari, cabbage, especially red cabbage, young nettle buds and tops or any other sort of tender herbage boiled in it.

The preference to be given to those easiest to come at fruit, quite ripe, used moderately, always produces a good effect. But if neither fruit nor greens can be procured, the patient must have his broth with barley, oats or rice. He may eat likewise a little veal or fowl, but it must be moderately so.

A lot of people had noted fresh fruits and vegetables, including citrus fruits, as a treatment for scurvy. By the time James Lind had entered the British Royal Navy as a surgeon's mate in 1739, he became a full surgeon in 1746, and he was aboard the HMS Salisbury in 1747 when there was an outbreak of scurvy. Lente did an experiment which is sometimes described as the world's first controlled. Clinical trial, he selected 12 sailors, all of whom had scurvy that he described as being at a similar point of progression, and he paired them up and he gave each pair a different treatment over the course of two weeks.

These were treatments that already existed for scurvy. Except for seawater, which was apparently more of a placebo. Don't drink seawater, it's not a good plan. But these these pairs were each given a quart of cider per day. Twenty five drops of elixir of vitriol, three times a day, half a pint of seawater a day, a nutmeg sized paste of garlic, mustard seed, horseradish, balsam of Peru and gum murder three times a day. Two spoonfuls of vinegar three times a day or two oranges and one lemon each day.

I mean, I might opt for the nutmeg size paste of garlic, but that's just me.

I mean, I kind of do that anyway.

The men who were given cider improved somewhat because of the way cider was made at the time. It probably did have some vitamin C in it, but the two men who got oranges and lemons improved so dramatically that they were determined to be well after six days. And from that point, they actually helped take care of the others while he was writing about this land referenced by Dennis Ross, who is writing about oranges carrying Dutch sailors from like 200 years before.

And he said, quote, Here indeed is the remarkable and authentic proof of the great efficacy of juice of lemons against this disease. But these fruits have this particular advantage above any theory that can be prepared for trial that they're experienced. Virtues have stood the test of near 200 years. Linda left the Navy in seventeen forty eight in 1753. He wrote a treatise of the scurvy containing an inquiry into the nature causes and cure of that disease, together with a critical and chronological view of what has been published on the subject.

And while this did include the sentence, quote, Oranges and lemons were the most effectual remedies for this distemper at sea, that was only one tiny part of a 400 page work that talked about a lot of other stuff related to scurvy.

For example, he did not think there was a direct cause and effect relationship between the fruit and the scurvy. He actually thought scurvy was a digestive disease that was caused by blocked sweat glands and that the fruit and to a lesser extent the Seiter were all clearing those blockages. And he also thought that other blockage clearing substances could potentially have the same effect. Lind also recognised that you cannot really just keep citrus fruits fresh on a ship for a lengthy sea voyage.

So he recommended concentrating the juice into a rob. But because of the way that Rob was concentrated, the end result would not have actually contained much vitamin C at all.

I'm I'm thinking of people who drink orange flavored drink and make jokes about not getting scurvy.

And I'm like, there's not really much orange over the next decades. Other people writing about citrus fruits and scurvy attributed their effectiveness to their being a stimulant or because they were full of a vital air that was leaching out of Saylor's bodies at sea. Irish Dr David McBryde tested Multisport, which he believed provided fixed air as a scurvy treatment, although his results were clouded by the fact that he also gave some of his patients citrus fruit. Another person who claimed to conquer scurvy was Captain James Cook, and although there were some scurvy outbreaks on his voyages, there weren't any deaths because of it.

His preferred scurvy preventives were portable soup, which was basically Bolian powder, which I am calling portable soup from now on, as well as malt and sauerkraut. And of those three things, only the sauerkraut would have contained much vitamin C as long as they were eating it raw. He also insisted on bringing fresh provisions onto the ship at every possible stop, which would have kept them supplied more with fresh fruits and vegetables.

And he also insisted on keeping the ship really clean, which would have helped slow the spread of communicable diseases. Finally, after hundreds of years of various people suggesting that Citris might play some part in curing scurvy in 1795, Gilbert Blaen got the British Royal Navy to issue lemon juice to every sailor. This worked to Britain's advantage during the Napoleonic wars and during the 19th century. More and more European explorers and naval officials started stressing the need for lemon or lime juice or for some kind of fresh vegetables on board.

In 1821, William Perry's expedition to the Arctic took, quote, a shallow tray filled with mold on which to grow mustard and cress and their party's only death from scurvy was an officer who refused to eat them. Sir John Franklin's expedition in 1845 kept scurvy at bay for 27 months with lemon juice with scurvy outbreaks, beginning only after that supply of lemon juice ran out. For the most part, the British Navy have started out using lemon juice made from lemons from the Mediterranean to prevent scurvy and the mid 19th century.

They instead started using limes from the Caribbean islands of Monsarrat and Bermuda. Part of the rationale here was the idea that lime juice was more acidic and would thus be more effective at clearing out purported blockages results. Because Britain had claimed those islands territories. So there was they could get things from them that was a free asset to them.

And their minds for sure to them is the very, very important part of that phrasing. But scurvy outbreaks kept happening in other places. Besides European navies, scurvy was a problem during the great famine that started in Ireland in 1845, which would later lead people to incorrectly conclude that it was connected to potassium deficiency. When pasteurization was introduced in the late 19th century, there was an outbreak of scurvy in babies whose families were wealthy enough to be feeding them pasteurized milk in the early 20th century.

Researchers at the Lyster Institute in London realised that guinea pigs could develop a condition that seemed identical to scurvy. As we mentioned up at the top of the show, guinea pigs also cannot synthesise their own vitamin C. Axelle Hulst and Theodore Frohlich discovered that if the guinea pigs were fed only grains, they became ill. But then if they were given cabbage or lemon juice, they got better. They published their work on this in 1987. And then five years later in 1912 was when Kazmir Funk coined the term Vitamin E, which later morphed into vitamin.

At this point, the Lyster Institute was doing a lot of research into nutritional deficiencies, with many of the researchers being women at the Institute, Harriet Chick and Margaret Hume started identifying more and more foods that had a. beauty properties, including cabbage, onions, carrots, fruit juices and potatoes. Alice Henderson Smith also researched exactly which fruits had historically been used in British navy treatments and their efficacy. By the 1920s, it was clear that scurvy was a deficiency in a specific nutrient, but nobody had been able to isolate the nutrient itself.

Then, in 1928, Albert Zent Yorgi isolated a compound in paprika that he named Hecks tyrannic acid. But it was later renamed Aslambek Acid because of its whole anti's score effect. In 1937, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of Femara acid. Today it is, of course, common knowledge that vitamin C prevents scurvy, but it can still develop any time.

People cannot get enough vitamin C.

Yeah, it's. I read lots of articles about various outbreaks in various places for everything from like refugee camps, where there just are not adequate provisions to like fad diets, where people have tried to cut all fruit out of their diet just all over the place. And, you know, as we said at the top of the show, people who have a whether it's a physiological condition or a psychological condition, who either aren't able to eat or aren't able to absorb nutrients from their food, lots of cases still happen today.

Do you also have a little bit of listener mail that may or may not contain vitamin C?

I do have some listener mail. The first one is actually super, super quick. A listener tweet in the episode on Vivien Thomas. I had said I was not sure why he was given an honorary doctorate of laws instead of an honorary medical doctorate. And we got a tweet from Randi who said, The M.D. degree is never given an honorary status as it confers the ability to apply for a medical license. Doctor of laws, of doctor of humane letters may be given in its place depending on the institution.

That is the thing that had occurred to me is the possible reason when I was researching. But then I saw that there were people who had gotten honorary M.D.. And it occurred to me only after reading Randi's tweet that those people were probably already doctors because it has been a very long year.

I also got an email from Dustin who wrote in after our episodes on Jim Thorpe to talk about the the amateur athlete requirements in the Olympics. And so Dustin wrote, Holly and Tracy, I want to start by saying that although I have not been listening to your podcast for long, I absolutely love it. Cover a wide variety of interesting people from so many different fields of interest. And you always have interesting commentary as he narrate us through these lives. I appreciate your research and the details you bring in from different biographies or other sources while listening to your first, though perhaps not last three parter on Jim Thorpe.

That really had me riveted the whole way through. I was wondering about when the Olympics changed as it clearly now allows professional athletes to compete. Furthermore, after some of your other listener mail, I decided to poke around myself and share what I found with you. So it was not until 1971 that the IOC removed the rule requiring amateurism. What's most interesting was that it was not a result of the Delezio rising of amateur sports and the blurring line between the amateur and pro level, which you spoke about in the podcast.

According to what I read, it had largely to do with Eastern Bloc nations such as the USSR sponsoring their best pros and listing them as soldiers to skirt the rules. Essentially, the Soviets cheated and broke the rules in the process. The next step was the adoption into law of the Amateur Sports Act of 1978, also known as the Ted Stevens Act, named for the U.S. senator who introduced it. This established the US Olympic Committee and allowed them to create additional national governing bodies for each sport, such as U.S. figure skating and the United States Fencing Association.

These bodies are basically used to select Olympic team members and govern the amateur competitions of the sports fan. Side note, the act requires these MGB committees to be at least 20 percent voting representation to include active athletes completed within the last ten years, ensuring the athletes have some say in the way their sports are formed. I'm skipping ahead a tiny bit. So this wasn't necessarily a response to the factors of increased rigor at the amateur level, but spurred on by the same issues of Soviet state sponsored athletes having an upper hand, as well as the issues with the IAU, as we all discussed in the podcast, that you had made some questionable decisions regarding the rules they had in place and the ways in which these rules were interpreted and enforced.

So there is some more detail in the email from there. I had not looked more deeply into how the amateur definitions and requirements had had developed following Jim Thorpe's time in the Olympics. I know there are still so many other social and and representative issues going on in the world of sports.

And it is fascinating to me that how how much of that was related to not exactly international politics, but having grown up in the tail end of the Cold War, I was like, oh yeah, that makes a lot of sense.

So anyway, thank you so much, Dustin, for poking into all that and sending us what you found.

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