Primera corte, Magdalene College, Cambridge

Primera corte, Magdalene College, Cambridge


Magdalenelitfest

Un gran agradecimiento a todos los que asistieron a la Conferencia y Exposición Ferrar aquí en Magdalene College, a todos los oradores que generosamente compartieron sus conocimientos e investigaciones sobre la familia Ferrar, Little Gidding y la Compañía de Virginia, y a todo el personal de Magdalene College que nos cuidó.

La profesora Alison Shell (UCL) da una conferencia magistral en la Conferencia Ferrar, presentada por el profesor James Raven (Universidad de Essex y Magdalene College, Cambridge)

La conferencia marcó la culminación del proyecto para consagrar los grabados de Ferrar, y la llegada de nuestros hermosos muebles de roble hechos a medida para albergarlos.

Unidades de roble encargadas para albergar los papeles y grabados de Ferrar, hechos por Ed Garrett-Jones y la generosa donación de Friends of the Pepys Library and Historic Collections, Magdalene College

El legado de esta conferencia de gran éxito estará en parte en el trabajo que inspira y estamos ansiosos por ver cómo la conferencia y el acceso académico mejorado a los Ferrar Papers en la biblioteca antigua logrado por el proyecto de conservación contribuirán a la década del siglo XVII. estudios.

El otro legado será un proyecto bibliográfico, encabezado por el bibliotecario de Pepys, el Dr. MEJ Hughes, para ampliar el acceso a materiales académicos actualizados relacionados con la colección Ferrar en Magdalene, incluso como una base de datos compartida para permitir a los investigadores ver y # 8212 y agregue a & # 8212 lo que sabemos sobre cada uno de los (cerca de 1000) elementos individuales.

Para obtener más información sobre los artículos de Ferrar, póngase en contacto con [email protected]

Un resultado inesperado de la conferencia & # 8212 dos miembros de la extensa y moderna familia Ferrar, Susanna y Richard, se encuentran por primera vez en la Exposición de la Conferencia


Primera corte, Magdalene College, Cambridge - Historia


Indias criollas: preguntas, métodos y direcciones
11 de diciembre de 2020
Esta reunión de planificación en línea fue organizada por Ananya Kabir, Ari Gautier y David Todd con el objetivo de explorar ideas preliminares en torno al concepto de 'Indias criollas', o la aplicación (y desarrollo de) teorías de la criolización para analizar los encuentros culturales generados por el presencia múltiple y superpuesta de diversos intereses comerciales, coloniales e imperiales europeos en la India peninsular. Se basó en la investigación actual de Ananya Kabir y su colaboración relacionada con el autor Ari Gautier en su co-fundado le thinnai kreyol, a plataforma cultural desde mayo de este año. Se unió un pequeño grupo de participantes invitados y se prevé un taller de seguimiento a principios del próximo año.

Asia subterránea: revolucionarios globales y el asalto al imperio - Presentación de libro
29 de octubre de 2020
19:00 GMT (15:00 EDT / 20:00 CET)

Una celebración virtual del libro para Asia subterránea: revolucionarios globales y el asalto al imperio, de Tim Harper.
Más información & raquo

Sesgo de género en la India y en China, Indonesia y Bangladesh
24 y 25 de enero de 2020

Este taller de dos días tuvo lugar en Magdalene College y fue organizado en relación con el proyecto asociado coordinado por Amartya Sen. El objetivo del taller fue reunir a personas con conocimientos expertos en áreas relevantes para el libro que surgió del proyecto.
Participantes y raquo

Cadenas de suministro en la Europa moderna temprana
1 de marzo de 2019
Edificio Cripps, Magdalene College, Cambridge
Programa y raquo

Guerra, ley y crimen. Historias legales de la segunda guerra mundial y sus secuelas
25-26 de mayo de 2018
Este taller de dos días, organizado por Franziska Exeler y Lily Chang (UCL) como parte del programa Mellon sobre Intercambio de ideas económicas, legales y políticas, tuvo lugar en Magdalene College, Cambridge. Reunió a historiadores interesados ​​en nuevos enfoques de las historias legales de la guerra. La atención se centró en la Segunda Guerra Mundial y sus secuelas, examinando la intersección del derecho y la guerra y sus consecuencias de la posguerra.

Humanidades ambientales y cambio climático: comprender a los humanos geológicamente y otras formas de vida éticamente
Libby Robin (Universidad Nacional de Australia)
30 de octubre de 2017
Mike Hulme, profesor de geografía humana, Cambridge, proporcionó comentarios.
Cartel del evento y raquo

Historia urbana: espacio, lugar y conexiones
9-10 de junio de 2017
El taller fue organizado por Franziska Exeler en colaboración con la Universidad Libre de Berlín y reunió a historiadores que buscan nuevas direcciones y preguntas en la historia urbana. & lsquoCity & rsquo se entiende aquí como un lugar donde lo local y lo global convergen. Al ver la ciudad como una lente en una variedad de temas políticos, sociales, económicos y culturales, el taller exploró las rupturas y continuidades entre las ciudades coloniales y poscoloniales, la migración, la memoria y los legados del imperio, y la transferencia de conocimientos y expertos.

La nueva historia económica de la India
11-12 de mayo de 2017
The History Project acogió su quinta conferencia los días 11 y 12 de mayo de 2017 en la Universidad de Cambridge. La conferencia se ocupó de la historia económica de la India, particularmente en relación con los intercambios transfronterizos, la historia del derecho y la historia del pensamiento económico.

Historia global, colaboración digital e historia de la trata
24-25 de febrero de 2017
Este taller se llevó a cabo en Magdalene College y fue el primer evento en un proyecto más grande apoyado por una Beca de Investigación AHRC, el Centro de Historia y Economía y el Programa de Investigación Laureada en Historia Internacional (Sydney). La investigadora principal Julia Laite (Birkbeck) y la co-investigadora Philippa Hetherington (SEESS, UCL) recibieron a un grupo de académicos internacionales que trabajaban en la historia de la trata, el contrabando y la migración ilícita en el período moderno para discutir los desafíos de escribir una historia de la trata y las posibilidades de colaboración digital entre investigadores que trabajan en diferentes períodos de tiempo y geografías.
Programa de taller y raquo
Lista de participantes & raquo

El Imperio francés: comparaciones, intercambios y colaboraciones
27 de junio de 2016
El taller reunió a candidatos de doctorado que trabajaban en Francia y su imperio desde una perspectiva comparativa y conectiva, especialmente con Gran Bretaña y su imperio. Estos incluyeron estudiantes de Francia (Paris 1 Panth & eacuteon-Sorbonne), Gran Bretaña (Cambridge, Oxford, Londres) y los Estados Unidos (Harvard). Un tema importante fue la dinámica de emulación y colaboración entre los imperios francés y británico desde el siglo XVIII, desde el intercambio de ideas hasta la cooperación institucional en forma de condominios a finales del siglo XIX. Otros temas incluyeron la esclavitud en el Imperio francés, los intercambios entre Francia y la India y el derecho colonial francés.
Programa de taller y raquo
Lista de participantes & raquo

Redes en comercio y macroeconomía
13 y 14 de junio de 2016
Este evento de dos días fue organizado en colaboración con Cambridge-INET por Benjamin Golub (Harvard), Matthew L. Elliott (Cambridge / Caltech) y Vasco M. Carvalho (Cambridge / INET). El taller tuvo lugar en Magdalene College, Cambridge y los participantes incluyeron a Alireza Tahbaz-Salehi (Columbia Business School), Thomas Chaney (TSE) y David Rezza Baqaee (Harvard).
Programa de taller y raquo
Participantes y raquo

Trauma, recuperación e historias difíciles en el sudeste asiático
13 y 14 de junio de 2016
Tim Harper e Iza Hussin organizaron un taller sobre Trauma, recuperación e historias difíciles en el sudeste asiático en relación con el proyecto en La historia transnacional de la salud en el sudeste asiático, 1914-2014. Se centró en las ciudades, la memoria y las historias difíciles en tiempos de crisis, interpretadas de manera amplia: epidemias, conflictos, desastres naturales, etc., y reunió a una red de académicos con diversos intereses y experiencia con miras a la colaboración continua. El taller tuvo lugar en Magdalene College, Cambridge y los participantes incluyeron a Marieke Bloembergen (Leiden), Franziska Exeler (Cambridge / Berlín), Tomas Larsson (Cambridge), Rachel Leow (Cambridge), Sumit Mandal (Malasia), Pietro Masina (Nápoles / Clare). Hall), Paulo Seixas (Lisboa), Silvia Vignato (Milán) y Kirsty Walker (Harvard).
Programa de taller y raquo
Participantes y raquo

El derecho en la historia moderna: exploraciones sociales y políticas
23 de enero de 2016
Este taller de un día, parte del programa Mellon sobre Intercambio de ideas económicas, legales y políticas, fue organizado por Catherine Evans y Franziska Exeler y tuvo lugar en Magdalene College. El taller reunió a historiadores y abogados que están particularmente interesados ​​en las dimensiones sociales y políticas del derecho, incluidas las formas en que los actores internacionales, nacionales y locales recibieron, se apropiaron, usaron o crearon el derecho. Los artículos cubrieron una amplia gama de perspectivas disciplinarias, metodológicas y geográficas. La atención se centró en el período moderno, desde el siglo XVIII hasta la actualidad.
Participantes y raquo
Programa y raquo

El desarrollo económico de la India
26-27 de junio de 2015
Un taller interdisciplinario sobre el desarrollo económico de la India se llevó a cabo en Cambridge del 26 al 27 de junio de 2015. El taller se organizó en colaboración con el Instituto Cambridge-INET y su objetivo era fomentar el debate sobre economía, historia y disciplinas afines. Los oradores incluyeron a Sunil Amrith (Harvard), Abhijit Banerjee (MIT), Joya Chatterji (Cambridge), Rohit De (Yale), Esther Duflo (MIT), Kaivan Munshi (Cambridge), Emma Rothschild (Harvard / Cambridge).
Póster de taller y raquo
Horario y raquo

Francia y su imperio en la economía global, 1815-1939
10 de junio de 2015
Un taller de un día organizado por David Todd, Renaud Morieux, Emma Rothschild y Pierre Singarav & eacutelou tuvo lugar el 10 de junio de 2015 en Trinity Hall, como parte del programa sobre Intercambios cordiales: Gran Bretaña y Francia en el mundo desde 1700. El taller exploró el nueva historia económica global de Francia y su imperio en el siglo XIX y principios del XX, en una perspectiva comparativa y conectiva con la historia económica de Gran Bretaña y su imperio. Los participantes examinaron nuevos enfoques cuantitativos, políticos y culturales del imperio formal de Francia, los aspectos financieros del poder global de Francia y el impacto de la expansión económica global en el estado y la sociedad franceses modernos. Estas perspectivas facilitarán una reevaluación de la dimensión francesa de la globalización del siglo XIX y sacarán a la luz las formas en las que complementó y compitió con la más conocida dimensión británica & ndash o angloamericana & ndash.
Lista de participantes & raquo
Horario y raquo


El imperio y la creación del estatus personal
9 de junio de 2014
Este taller de un día, organizado por Natasha Pairaudeau, se llevó a cabo en Magdalene College como parte del proyecto sobre Sitios de interacción asiática. El taller reunió y comparó perspectivas sobre la configuración y el despliegue del 'estatus personal indígena' dentro de una amplia gama de sistemas legales imperiales. Las prácticas indígenas que gobiernan el matrimonio, la familia y la herencia se mantuvieron en gran medida bajo los imperios europeos, incluso cuando se convirtieron en formas legales para ser reguladas a través de los tribunales coloniales. La reunión exploró las discrepancias y similitudes entre los imperios en cómo se definió y dio forma al 'estatus personal', la justificación imperial para la retención de tal estatus o la imposición de nuevos códigos, y los niveles de agencia indígena para determinar su preservación o cambio. El taller consideró además cómo la migración, la religión y las diferencias étnicas agregaban complejidad a las cuestiones de estatus personal, y cómo los legados legales del imperio están arraigados en el presente.

Peticiones y cultura política en el sur de Asia
4 - 5 de junio de 2014
Se llevó a cabo un taller de dos días en Magdalene College como parte del programa Intercambio de ideas económicas, legales y políticas. Reunió a académicos de diferentes períodos de la historia del sur de Asia (principios de la época moderna, colonial y contemporánea) que a menudo no conversan entre sí. Enfocó la cuestión de cambiar las estructuras estatales y las relaciones con los individuos y las comunidades, además de considerar los desafíos metodológicos y teóricos que plantean las peticiones. Esperábamos que centrarnos en los géneros cambiantes de petición a lo largo del tiempo pudiera iluminar algunos de los temas críticos en la historiografía actual del sur de Asia, incluyendo (pero no limitado a) cuestiones de memoria histórica, la formación de públicos, ideas de derecho y sujeto, y cambios entendimientos del papel del estado.

Los muertos desiguales: catástrofe y reproducción histórica de la desigualdad
7 de marzo de 2014
Este taller de un día, organizado por Patrick Joyce y Pedro Ramos Pinto en relación con la Red de Investigación AHRC sobre Desigualdad, Ciencias Sociales e Historia, se llevó a cabo en Magdalene College. Continuando con el tema de explorar cómo las desigualdades contemporáneas son moldeadas por eventos, experiencias e instituciones del pasado, este taller exploró cómo el deseo y el sufrimiento del pasado están grabados de manera desigual en las sociedades.
Programa y resúmenes

Derecho, ciudadanía y democracia
14 de febrero de 2014
La reunión, organizada por Rohit De en Magdalene College, involucró a académicos que trabajan en el área de derecho, ciudadanía y democracia en India. Los participantes incluyeron a Ornit Shani (Haifa), William Gould (Leeds), Eleanor Newbigin (SOAS), Shabnum Tejani (SOAS), Stephen Legg (Nottingham), Rochana Bajpai (SOAS), Taylor Sherman (LSE).

SEATIDE: Trabajo y movilidad / Ideas y movilidad
5 de octubre de 2013
Este taller informal se organizó en torno a una visita del grupo colaborador de investigadores de Milán y se llevó a cabo en el Centro del Magdalene College. El grupo de la Universidad de Milán-Bicocca, dirigido por la profesora Silvia Vignato, intercambió información con sus colaboradores de Cambridge sobre su investigación y trabajo de campo actuales.
Horario
Participantes

Abogados de derechos civiles en la historiografía jurídica estadounidense
8 de julio de 2013 17.30 h
Antigua habitación combinada, Trinity College
Profesor Kenneth Mack
Lawrence Biele, profesor de derecho en la Facultad de Derecho de Harvard y autor de Representando a la raza: la creación del abogado de derechos civiles (Harvard Univesity Press, 2012). Comentarios de la profesora Catherine Barnard y la profesora Emma Rothschild. Charla organizada conjuntamente por el Centro de Historia y Economía y el Centro de Estudios Jurídicos Europeos.

Intercambios de ideas y prácticas legales: Gran Bretaña, Francia y sus imperios desde 1700
8 de julio de 2013
El taller, organizado por Renaud Morieux, Emma Rothschild, Pierre Singarav lou y David Todd y celebrado en Cambridge, consideró el derecho como un campo de intercambios prácticos e intelectuales a través de las fronteras nacionales.

Programa
Participantes

1848 como punto de inflexión en la historia del pensamiento político
2-3 de julio de 2013
Una conferencia de dos días tuvo lugar en Robinson College como parte del programa sobre La interacción entre ideas políticas, económicas y religiosas 1750-1950. Esta reunión continuó nuestra investigación sobre la importancia de 1848 para las ideas políticas tanto en Europa como en el resto del mundo. El objetivo era desarrollar y discutir los trabajos presentados en el primer taller en abril de 2012 y planificar el volumen futuro.
Programa
Participantes

Historia de los derechos de autor y propiedad intelectual
13: 00-16: 30
Foro de acceso abierto
5 p. M. A 7 p. M.
1 de julio de 2013

El 1 de julio de 2013 tuvo lugar una discusión en The Parlor and Cripps Auditorium, Magdalene College sobre la historia de los derechos de autor y el acceso abierto. Participantes incluidos Peter Baldwin (UCLA), Anne Jarvis (Bibliotecario universitario, Cambridge), Ira Katznelson (Columbia / SSRC), Rachel Leow (Harvard), Peter Phillips (Director Ejecutivo, Cambridge University Press), Emma Rothschild (Harvard / Cambridge) y Fei-Hsien Wang (Magdalene College, Cambridge).
Póster del evento
Programa
Participantes

Historia, consumo y desigualdad
6 de junio de 2013
Este taller de un día fue organizado por el Centro y organizado en colaboración con la Red de Investigación sobre Desigualdad, Ciencias Sociales e Historia de la Universidad de Manchester, financiada por AHRC. El taller tuvo como objetivo explorar la relación entre el consumo como forma de acción humana y la desigualdad como consecuencia de la interacción humana (y un condicionante de tales intercambios). Reunió a historiadores y científicos sociales que desarrollaron nuevas preguntas y enfoques en estos temas.
Programa
Participantes
Informe

Pobreza y clima: una conversación
13 de mayo de 2013
Auditorio Cripps, Cripps Court, Magdalene College

Altavoces:
Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland
Ex Director General de la Organización Mundial de la Salud y ex Primer Ministro de Noruega

Profesor Amartya Sen
Universidad de Harvard y Trinity College, Cambridge

Dr. Rowan Williams
Maestro de Magdalene College, Cambridge

Silla:
Profesora Emma Rothschild
Centro de Historia y Economía, Cambridge

Póster del evento

El uso de fuentes legales en el estudio de las interacciones de Asia
7 de mayo de 2013
El 7 de mayo de 2013 se celebró una reunión informal en el Centro de Magdalene College. El objetivo era compartir ideas sobre la localización y el uso de fuentes legales para construir historias transnacionales. Fue convocado por Natasha Pairaudeau y los participantes incluyeron a Tim Harper, Iza Hussin, Tomas Larsson, Kirsty Walker y Fei-Hsien Wang. En una conversación redonda, los participantes discutieron cómo hacen uso de las fuentes legales en su investigación y de qué manera su trabajo se relaciona con los problemas legales.

Recuperando la ley en Asia
16 de marzo de 2013
Un taller de un día, organizado por Rohit De y Fei-Hsien Wang en relación con el proyecto sobre Intercambio de ideas económicas, legales y políticas, tuvo lugar en Trinity Hall, Cambridge, el 16 de marzo de 2013. El objetivo del taller era explorar los procesos a través de los cuales los sistemas legales aparentemente ajenos fueron adaptados por las sociedades asiáticas, y las nuevas instituciones y prácticas que surgieron como resultado. Al centrarse en una serie de sociedades asiáticas, la reunión esperaba reunir disciplinas e historias que rara vez se conversan entre sí, para identificar fenómenos similares que ocurren en diferentes regiones y también para descubrir conexiones legales entre sociedades asiáticas.

Horario
Participantes

La historia económica de Poverty
29 - 30 de noviembre de 2012
La primera conferencia del Proyecto de Historia, se llevó a cabo en el MIT. La conferencia se centró en la pobreza en perspectiva histórica y examinó la vida económica de los pobres, en diferentes períodos y lugares.

Nuevos enfoques de la historia asiática. Conexiones, desigualdades y transformación
23 de noviembre de 2012
Este taller de un día fue organizado por el Centro y organizado en cooperación con la Red de Investigación sobre Desigualdad, Ciencias Sociales e Historia, financiada por AHRC, en la Universidad de Manchester. Cinco oradores presentaron una variedad de temas y la mesa redonda concluyó con una discusión general. Este fue el segundo evento de la Red de Investigación en una serie de seminarios y talleres que se llevarán a cabo entre 2012 y 2014. La red es una colaboración entre el Centro de Investigación sobre Cambio Sociocultural (CRESC) en Manchester y el Centro de Historia y Economics en Cambridge, y está dirigida por Pedro Ramos Pinto (Manchester), William O'Reilly (Cambridge) y Patrick Joyce (Manchester y EUI).
Agenda
Lista de participantes

El juez Stephen Breyer en conversación
9 de julio y 11 de julio de 2012
Stephen Breyer, juez asociado de la Corte Suprema de Estados Unidos, visitó el Centro en julio. Con motivo de la ocasión se celebraron dos actos, el primero el 9 de julio, con estudiantes de doctorado y doctorado en historia. El segundo evento, coorganizado por el Centro de Estudios Jurídicos Europeos (CELS), tuvo lugar el 11 de julio en Trinity College. En una conversación con Catherine Barnard y Emma Rothschild, el juez Breyer habló sobre la función del derecho comparado, el originalismo en la Corte Suprema y el papel de la opinión pública en la formación de los puntos de vista de los jueces.

La historia transnacional de la salud en el sudeste asiático, 1914-2014
30 de junio - 1 de julio de 2012
Un taller de dos días, organizado en relación con el proyecto del sudeste asiático y organizado por los socios indonesios en Universitas Gadjah Mada, tuvo lugar en Yogyakarta. El encuentro reunió a los autores encargados de contribuir al volumen que saldrá del proyecto. El objetivo principal de la reunión fue discutir los artículos y las características del volumen y planificar la escuela de verano de 2013.
Agenda & raquo
Lista de participantes & raquo

Sudeste de Asia: conexiones con India
8 de junio de 2012
Se llevó a cabo una reunión informal en el Magdalene College, Cambridge, como parte del proyecto sobre los sitios de interacciones asiáticas.. El objetivo de la reunión era discutir los materiales de archivo indios y británicos, incluida la colaboración con los archivos estatales de Bengala Occidental. Entre los participantes se encontraban Tansen Sen y Geoffrey Wade del Centro Nalanda-Sriwijaya del Instituto de Estudios del Sudeste Asiático. En Singapur.
Agenda & raquo
Lista de participantes & raquo

Repensar la desigualdad en perspectiva histórica
23 de mayo de 2012
Este taller de un día tuvo lugar en la Universidad de Manchester y reunió a historiadores, científicos sociales y profesionales interesados ​​en el estudio y la comprensión de la desigualdad ampliamente comprendida. El objetivo fue trazar un conjunto de preguntas que guiarán a los miembros de nuestra Red de Investigación en la investigación de la producción y reproducción de las desigualdades en el tiempo. El taller fue el evento inaugural de la Red de Investigación sobre Desigualdad, Ciencias Sociales e Historia, financiada por la AHRC., que llevará a cabo una serie de seminarios públicos, talleres y una conferencia entre 2012 y 2014. La red es una colaboración entre el Centro de Investigación sobre Cambio Sociocultural (CRESC) de Manchester y el Centro de Historia y Economía de Cambridge. y está dirigida por Pedro Ramos Pinto (Manchester), William O'Reilly (Cambridge) y Patrick Joyce (Manchester y EUI).
Programa & raquo

1848 como punto de inflexión en la historia del pensamiento político
11-12 de abril de 2012
Una conferencia de dos días tuvo lugar en King's College como parte del programa sobre La interacción entre ideas políticas, económicas y religiosas 1750-1950. El objetivo de la reunión era discutir la nueva línea del proyecto que examina 1848 como un punto de inflexión en la historia del pensamiento político. Esta será una investigación importante que reconsiderará la importancia de 1848 tanto en Europa como en el resto del mundo. Los eventos de la Primavera Árabe nos recuerdan cuán inciertos pueden ser los patrones, desarrollos y éxitos de las revoluciones. No solo examinaremos las revoluciones de 1848 en un escenario global, sino que también aplicaremos los nuevos enfoques a la historia del pensamiento político, que se han desarrollado en Cambridge y en otros lugares desde la década de 1970.
Programa & raquo
Lista de participantes & raquo

Oponente de Su Majestad: Subhas Chandra Bose y la lucha de la India contra el Imperio
31 de mayo de 2011
Un panel de discusión del nuevo libro de Sugata Bose sobre Subhas Chandra Bose. Los panelistas incluyeron a Sugata Bose (Harvard), Sunil Amrith (Birkbeck, Londres) y Sumit Mandal ((Humboldt-Universit & aumlt zu Berlin) y la discusión fue presidida por Tim Harper (Magdalene College, Cambridge).

La historia transnacional de la salud en el sudeste y sur de Asia, 1914-2014
14 de mayo de 2011
La reunión de planificación inicial de un nuevo programa en relación con el centenario de la Junta Médica de China tuvo lugar en Magdalene College el sábado 14 de mayo de 2011. El objetivo era identificar las cuestiones intelectuales fundamentales que se abordarían en un eventual programa de aniversario, para garantizar cooperación sustantiva entre los programas de China y Asia Sudoriental / Asia Meridional, para involucrar a participantes de instituciones de la región en el proceso de planificación, y para discutir los documentos que serán comisionados para una primera gran conferencia, que se celebrará en Asia Sudoriental en 2012.
Programa y raquo
Participantes y raquo


Dr. Marco Nievergelt en Magdalene Medievalists

Estamos encantados de anunciar que nuestro ponente para el período de Cuaresma es el Dr. Marco Nievergelt (Instituto de Estudios Avanzados de París), que impartirá un coloquio el martes 23 de febrero, titulado:

& # 8216 The Shadow of Faux Semblant: Ficción, verdad y engaño en la poesía alegórica del siglo XIV (Francia, Inglaterra, Italia) & # 8217

El resumen de la charla es el siguiente:

los Roman de la Rose no solo es uno de los textos literarios más influyentes de la última Edad Media (que sobrevive en más de 300 manuscritos), sino que también es uno de los textos más problemáticos e intelectualmente desafiantes del período. Lejos de ser una obra & # 8216canónica & # 8217 en el sentido ordinario, la Rosa de hecho invita a sus lectores a cuestionar la noción misma de autoría literaria y autoridad discursiva. En lugar de afirmar su propia identidad como autor con confianza en sí mismo, como suponen muchos lectores de este influyente poema, la actitud de Jean de Meun hacia su propio oficio poético es de hecho profundamente ambivalente e irónica. Esto culmina en el centro exacto del poema, con la aparición del personaje de Faux Semblant, la encarnación de la hipocresía y el engaño. Como personificación de la paradoja del mentiroso, Faux Semblant cristaliza así toda una gama de ansiedades sobre el estatus epistemológico de la ficción literaria, y esta preocupación llega a jugar un papel central en la literatura europea posterior influenciada por la Rosa, sobre todo en la obra de figuras como Machaut y Deguileville en Francia, Langland y Chaucer en Inglaterra, o Dante y sus contemporáneos en Italia. En este artículo propongo un esbozo inicial para un estudio más amplio de la historia de la recepción europea de la Rosa, con especial atención a la función ética de la poesía, y su relación problemática e inestable con la verdad y el engaño.

El Dr. Marco Nievergelt es actualmente becario de investigación EURIAS en el Instituto de Estudios Avanzados de París (2015-2016) y está trabajando en un estudio de extensión de libro titulado La alegoría como epistemología: la poesía de la visión de los sueños sobre el lenguaje, la cognición y la experiencia. Sus intereses de investigación incluyen la literatura alegórica, la literatura y la cultura caballeresca, la literatura artúrica, las relaciones culturales anglo-francesas y la historia de la autorrepresentación literaria desde el período medieval hasta el período moderno temprano. Su primer libro se titula Misiones alegóricas de Deguileville a Spenser.

La charla se llevará a cabo a las 6 pm en el Parlor, First Court, Magdalene College.

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Edificios catalogados de grado I en Cambridge

Hay 67 Edificios catalogados de grado I en Cambridge, Inglaterra. En el Reino Unido, un edificio protegido es un edificio o estructura de especial importancia histórica o arquitectónica. Estos edificios están protegidos legalmente contra la demolición, así como contra cualquier extensión o alteración que pudiera afectar negativamente el carácter del edificio o destruir características históricas. Los edificios catalogados en Inglaterra se dividen en tres categorías: los edificios de grado II son edificios de interés especial. Los edificios de grado II * son edificios de grado II de interés particular y los edificios de grado I, que son los de interés "excepcional". Solo alrededor del dos por ciento de los edificios incluidos en la lista reciben el grado I. [1]

Mapee todas las coordenadas usando: OpenStreetMap
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Cambridge es una ciudad universitaria ubicada en East Anglia, Inglaterra. Es el hogar de la Universidad de Cambridge, fundada en 1209, y muchos de los edificios listados son parte de la universidad o de sus colegios constituyentes.

La iglesia de St Bene't es el edificio más antiguo de la ciudad, que data del siglo XI. El edificio secular más antiguo es la Escuela de Pitágoras, construida alrededor de 1200 y ahora forma parte del St John's College. Ambos están en la lista de Grado I.


40 años de Hawk and Owl Trust: desde el borde de la extinción hasta la torre de la Tate Modern

Además, habrá breves charlas ilustradas sobre la educación, investigación y conservación de Hawk and Owl Trust.

Orador invitado: Jefferey Boswall, cineasta de vida silvestre de la Unidad de Historia Natural de la BBC y más tarde de la RSPB.

Cripps Court, Magdalene College, Cambridge.

Domingo 20 de septiembre de 2009, de 12:00 a 14:30


Contenido

George Mallory nació en Mobberley, Cheshire, hijo de Herbert Leigh-Mallory (1856-1943), un clérigo que cambió su apellido de Mallory a Leigh-Mallory en 1914. Su madre era Annie Beridge (1863-1946), la hija de un clérigo en Walton, Derbyshire. George tenía dos hermanas y un hermano menor, Trafford Leigh-Mallory, el comandante de la Royal Air Force de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Se crió en una casa de diez habitaciones en Hobcroft Lane en Mobberley. [2]

En 1896, Mallory asistió a Glengorse, un internado en Eastbourne en la costa sur, después de haber sido transferido de otra escuela preparatoria en West Kirby. A la edad de 13 años, ganó una beca de matemáticas para el Winchester College. En su último año allí, un maestro, R. L. G. Irving, lo introdujo en la escalada en roca y el montañismo, que llevaba a algunas personas a escalar en los Alpes cada año. [3] En octubre de 1905, Mallory ingresó al Magdalene College, Cambridge, para estudiar historia. [4] Allí, se hizo muy amigo de futuros miembros del Grupo Bloomsbury, incluidos Rupert Brooke, John Maynard Keynes, James Strachey, Lytton Strachey y Duncan Grant, quienes tomaron algunos retratos de Mallory. [5] Entre estos amigos, particularmente Lytton Strachey, sus cartas atestiguan una amistad coqueta, homoerótica y "explícitamente gay". [6] Mallory era un remero entusiasta, que remaba para su universidad. [7]

En 1909, Lytton Strachey escribió sobre Mallory:

¡Mon dieu! ¡George Mallory! ... Mide seis pies, tiene el cuerpo de un atleta de Praxiteles, y un rostro, oh increíble, el misterio de Botticelli, el refinamiento y la delicadeza de un grabado chino, la juventud y el picante de un niño inglés inimaginable. [8]

Después de obtener su título, Mallory permaneció en Cambridge durante un año escribiendo un ensayo que publicó como Boswell el biógrafo (1912). Después vivió brevemente en Francia. En 1910, comenzó a enseñar en Charterhouse School, otra de las grandes escuelas públicas de Inglaterra, donde conoció al poeta Robert Graves, entonces alumno. [1]: 195 En su autobiografía, Adios a todo esoGraves recordó a Mallory con cariño, tanto por el estímulo de su interés por la literatura y la poesía como por su instrucción en la escalada. Graves recordó: "Él (Mallory) estaba perdido (como profesor) en Charterhouse. Trató de tratar a su clase de una manera amistosa, lo que los desconcertó y ofendió". [9]

Mientras estaba en Charterhouse, Mallory conoció a su esposa, Ruth Turner (1892-1942), [10] que vivía en Godalming, Surrey, y se casaron en 1914, seis días antes de que Gran Bretaña entrara en la Primera Guerra Mundial. George y Ruth tuvieron dos hijas y un hijo: Frances Clare (1915-2001), Beridge Ruth, conocida como "Berry" (1917-1953) y John (n. 1920).

En diciembre de 1915, Mallory fue comisionado en la Artillería de la Guarnición Real como segundo teniente [11] y fue ascendido a teniente el 1 de julio de 1917. [12] Sirvió en Francia y luchó en la Batalla del Somme. [13] [14] Mallory renunció a su cargo el 21 de febrero de 1920, conservando el rango de teniente. [15]

Después de la guerra, Mallory regresó a Charterhouse, pero renunció en 1921 para unirse a la primera expedición británica al Monte Everest. Entre expediciones, intentó ganarse la vida escribiendo y dando conferencias, con solo un éxito parcial. En 1923, tomó un trabajo como profesor en el Departamento de Estudios Extramuros de la Universidad de Cambridge. [1] : 467 He was given temporary leave so that he could join the 1924 Everest attempt.

In Europe Edit

In 1910, in a party led by Irving, Mallory and a friend attempted to climb Mont Vélan in the Alps, but turned back shortly before the summit due to Mallory's altitude sickness. [16] In 1911, Mallory climbed Mont Blanc, and made the third ascent of the Frontier ridge of Mont Maudit in a party again led by Irving. According to Helmut Dumler, Mallory was "apparently prompted by a friend on the Western Front in 1916 [to write] a highly emotional article of his ascent of this great climb" [17] this article was published as "Mont Blanc from the Col du Géant by the Eastern Buttress of Mont Maudit" in the Diario alpino [18] and contained his question, "Have we vanquished an enemy?" [i.e., the mountain] to which he responded, "None but ourselves."

By 1913, Mallory had ascended Pillar Rock in the English Lake District, with no assistance, by what is now known as "Mallory's Route"—currently graded Hard Very Severe 5a (Yosemite Decimal Rating 5.9). It is likely to have been the hardest route in Britain for many years.

One of Mallory's closest friends and climbing companions was a young woman named Cottie Sanders, who became a novelist with the pseudonym of Ann Bridge. The nature of their relationship is elusive Sanders was either a "climbing friend" or a "casual sweetheart". After Mallory died, Cottie wrote a memoir of him, which was never published, but provided much of the material used by later biographers such as David Pye and David Robertson and the novel Everest Dream. [19]

In Asia Edit

Mallory participated in the initial 1921 Mount Everest expedition, [20] organised and financed by the Mount Everest Committee, that explored routes up to Everest's North Col. The expedition produced the first accurate maps of the region around the mountain, as Mallory, his climbing partner Guy Bullock, and E. O. Wheeler of the Survey of India explored in depth several approaches to its peak. [21] Under Mallory's leadership, and with the assistance of around a dozen Sherpas, the group climbed several lower peaks near Everest. His party were almost certainly the first Westerners to view the Western Cwm at the foot of the Lhotse face, [22] as well as charting the course of the Rongbuk Glacier up to the base of the North Face. After circling the mountain from the south side, his party finally discovered the East Rongbuk Glacier—the highway to the summit now used by nearly all climbers on the Tibetan side of the mountain. By climbing up to the saddle of the North Ridge (the 23,030 ft (7,020 m) North Col), they spied a route to the summit via the North-East Ridge over the obstacle of the Second Step.

In 1922, Mallory returned to the Himalayas as part of the party led by Brigadier General Charles Bruce and climbing leader Edward Strutt, with a view to making a serious attempt on the summit. Eschewing their bottled oxygen, which was at the time seen as going against the spirit of mountaineering, Mallory, along with Howard Somervell and Edward Norton, almost reached the crest of the North-East Ridge. Despite being hampered and slowed by the thin air, they achieved a record altitude of 26,980 ft (8,225 m) before weather conditions and the late hour forced them to retreat. [1] : 427–428 A second party led by George Finch reached an elevation around 27,300 ft (8,321 m) using bottled oxygen both for climbing and—a first—for sleeping. [1] : 431–34 The party climbed at record speeds, a fact that Mallory seized upon during the next expedition.

Mallory organised a third unsuccessful attempt on the summit, departing as the monsoon season arrived. While he was leading a group of porters down the lower slopes of the North Col of Everest in fresh, waist-deep snow, an avalanche swept over the group, killing seven Sherpas. [23] The attempt was immediately abandoned, and Mallory was subsequently accused of poor judgement, including by expedition participants such as Dr. Longstaff. [1] : 452

Mallory is famously quoted as having replied to the question, "Why did you want to climb Mount Everest?" with the retort, "Because it's there", which has been called "the most famous three words in mountaineering". [24] [25] Questions have arisen over the authenticity of the quote, and whether Mallory actually said it. Some have suggested that it was a paraphrase by a newspaper reporter, but scrutiny of the original Veces report leaves this unresolved. The phrase was certainly consistent with the direct quotes cited in the report, so it appears not to misrepresent Mallory's attitude. [26] [27]

June 1924 expedition to Everest Edit

Mallory joined the 1924 Everest expedition, led, as in 1922, by Gen. Charles Bruce. Mallory, who was 37 at the time of the expedition, believed his age would make this his last opportunity to climb the mountain, and when touring the US proclaimed that the expedition would successfully reach the summit. [ cita necesaria ]

Mallory and Bruce had made the first attempt, which was inexplicably aborted by Mallory at Camp 5. Norton and Somervell then set off from Camp 6, and in perfect weather, Norton managed, without oxygen, to reach 28,120 ft (8,570 m), a new record height.

On 4 June 1924, Mallory and Andrew Irvine set off from Advanced Base Camp (ABC) at 21,330 ft (6,500 m) and had already begun using oxygen from the base of the North Col, which they climbed in 2 + 1 ⁄ 2 hours. Mallory had been converted from his original scepticism about oxygen usage by his failure on his initial assault and recalling the very rapid ascent of Finch in 1922.

On 8 June, expedition member Noel Odell was moving up behind the pair in a "support role". Around 26,000 ft (7,925 m), he spotted the two climbing a prominent rock step, either the First or Second Step, about 13:00, although Odell might, conceivably, have been viewing the higher, then-unknown, "Third Step". [28] Odell later reported:

At 12.50, just after I had emerged from a state of jubilation at finding the first definite fossils on Everest, there was a sudden clearing of the atmosphere, and the entire summit ridge and final peak of Everest were unveiled. My eyes became fixed on one tiny black spot silhouetted on a small snow crest beneath a rock step in the ridge the black spot moved. Another black spot became apparent and moved up the snow to join the other on the crest. The first then approached the great rock step and shortly emerged at the top the second did likewise. Then the whole fascinating vision vanished, enveloped in cloud once more. [29]

At the time, Odell observed that one of the men surmounted the Second Step of the northeast ridge. Apart from his testimony, though, no evidence has been found that Mallory and Irvine climbed higher than the First Step one of their spent oxygen cylinders was found shortly below the First Step, and Irvine's ice axe was found nearby in 1933. They never returned to their camp.

Presumably, Mallory and Irvine died either late the same evening or on 9 June. The news of Mallory and Irvine's disappearance was widely mourned in Britain and the two were hailed as national heroes. A memorial service was held in London at St Paul's Cathedral on 17 October and was attended by a great assembly of family, friends, and dignitaries including King George V and members of the royal family, Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald, and his entire Cabinet.

Mallory's will was proven in London on 17 December he bequeathed his estate of £1706 17s. 6d. (roughly equivalent to £98,018 in 2019 [30] ) to his wife. [31]

Lost on Everest for 75 years Edit

After their disappearance, several expeditions tried to find their remains, and perhaps, determine if they had reached the summit. Frank Smythe, when on the 1936 expedition, believed he spotted a body below the place where Irvine's ice axe was found three years earlier, "I was scanning the face from base camp through a high-powered telescope. when I saw something queer in a gully below the scree shelf. Of course, it was a long way away and very small, but I've a six/six eyesight and do not believe it was a rock. This object was at precisely the point where Mallory and Irvine would have fallen had they rolled on over the scree slopes," Smythe wrote in a letter to Edward Felix Norton. He kept the discovery quiet as he feared press sensationalism, and it was not revealed until 2013, after the letter was found by his son when preparing his biography. [32]

In late 1986, Tom Holzel launched a search expedition based on reports from Chinese climber Zhang Junyan that his tent-mate, Wang Hungbao, had stumbled across "an English dead" at 26,570 ft (8,100 m) in 1975. On the last day of the expedition, Holzel met with Zhang Junyan, who reiterated that, despite official denials from the Chinese Mountaineering Association, Wang had come back from a short excursion and described finding "a foreign mountaineer" at "8,100 m." [33] Wang was killed in an avalanche the day after delivering his verbal report, so the location was never more precisely fixed.

In 1999, the Mallory and Irvine Research Expedition, sponsored in part by the TV show Nova and the BBC, and organised and led by Eric Simonson, arrived at Everest to search for the lost pair. Guided by the research of Jochen Hemmleb, within hours of beginning the search on 1 May, Conrad Anker found a frozen body at 26,760 ft (8,157 m) on the north face of the mountain. As the body was found below where Irvine's axe had been found in 1933 at 27,760 ft (8,461.25 m), the team expected it to be Irvine's, and were hoping to recover the camera that he had reportedly carried with him. [34] They were surprised to find that name tags on the body's clothing bore the name of "G. Leigh Mallory." The body was well preserved, due to the freezing conditions. A brass altimeter, a stag-handled lambsfoot pocket knife with leather slip-case, and an unbroken pair of snow-goggles were recovered from the pockets of the clothing. Personal effects, including a letter and a bill from a London supplier of climbing equipment, confirmed the identity of the body. The team could not, however, locate the camera that the two climbers took to document their final summit attempt. [34] Experts from Kodak have said that if a camera is ever found, some chance exists that its film could be developed to produce printable images, if extraordinary measures are taken, and have provided guidance as to handling of such a camera and the film inside, in the event that such were found in the investigation. [35] Before leaving the site of Mallory's death, the expedition conducted an Anglican service for the climber and covered his remains with a cairn on the mountain.

Sir Edmund Hillary, who with Tenzing Norgay is credited with reaching the Everest summit first, welcomed news of the discovery of Mallory's body and described as "very appropriate" the possibility that Mallory might turn out to have summited decades earlier. "He was really the initial pioneer of the whole idea of climbing Mount Everest," Hillary said. [36]

The 1999 research team returned to the mountain in 2001 to conduct further research. [37] They discovered Mallory and Irvine's last camp, but failed to find either Irvine or a camera. [38] Another initiative in 2004 also proved fruitless. [39]

In 2007, the Altitude Everest Expedition, led by Conrad Anker, who had found Mallory's body, tried to retrace Mallory's last steps.

Whether Mallory and Irvine reached Everest's summit is unknown. The question remains open to speculation and is the topic of much debate and research.

Mallory's body Edit

Judging by a serious rope-jerk injury around Mallory's waist, which was encircled by the remnants of a climbing rope, he and Irvine were apparently roped together when one of them slipped. Mallory's body lay 300 meters below and about 100 meters horizontal to the location of an ice axe found in 1933, which is generally accepted from three characteristic marks on the shaft as belonging to Irvine. That the body was relatively unbroken, apart from fractures to the right leg (the tibia and fibula were broken just above the boot), as compared to other bodies in the same location that were known to have fallen from the North-East Ridge, strongly suggests that Mallory could not have fallen from the ice axe site, but must have fallen from much lower down. When found, his body was sun-bleached, frozen, and mummified. [40]

The other significant find on Mallory's body was a severe, golf ball-sized puncture wound in his forehead, the likely cause of his death. The unusual puncture wound is consistent with one inflicted by an ice axe, leading some to conclude that, while Mallory was descending in a self-arrest "glissade", sliding down a slope while dragging his ice axe in the snow to control the speed of his descent, his ice axe may have struck a rock and bounced off, striking him fatally.

Two items of circumstantial evidence from the body suggest that he attempted, or reached, the summit:

  • Mallory's daughter said he carried a photograph of his wife on his person with the intention of leaving it on the summit. The photograph was not found on Mallory's body. Given the excellent preservation of the body, its garments, and other items including documents in his wallet, this points to the possibility that he reached the summit and left the photo there. On the other hand, Wang (who is known to have taken Mallory's ice axe) might also have taken the photograph for identification purposes, and no one who has subsequently reached the summit has reported seeing any evidence of the photograph or any other trace of their presence there. [41]
  • Mallory's unbroken snow goggles were found in his pocket, suggesting that Irvine and he had made a push for the summit and were descending after sunset. On his attempt a few days earlier, Norton had suffered serious snow blindness because he did not wear his goggles, so Mallory would be unlikely to have dispensed with them in daylight, and given their known departure time and movements, it is unlikely that they would have still been out by nightfall had they not attempted the summit pyramid. An alternative scenario is that Mallory carried an extra pair and the pair he was wearing was torn off in his fall.

The difficult "Second Step" Edit

Experienced modern climbers have mixed views on whether Mallory was capable of climbing the Second Step on the North Ridge, now surmounted by a 15 ft (4.6 m) aluminium ladder first permanently fixed in place by Chinese climbers in 1975 to bridge this very difficult pitch. Austrian Theo Fritsche repeated the free climb solo in 2001 under conditions that resembled those encountered during the 1924 Everest expedition, and assessed the climb as having a grade of 5.6–5.7. [42] Fritsche completed the climb without supplementary oxygen and believes that Mallory could, weather permitting, have reached the summit.

In June 2007, as part of the 2007 Altitude Everest expedition, Conrad Anker and Leo Houlding free-climbed the Second Step, having first removed the Chinese ladder (which was later replaced). [43] Houlding rated the climb at 5.9, just within Mallory's estimated capabilities. The climb was part of an expedition which tried to recreate the 1924 climb. Eight years earlier, Anker had climbed the Second Step as part of the Mallory and Irvine Research Expedition, but had used one point of aid by stepping on a rung of the ladder, which blocked the only available foothold. At that time, he had rated the climb at 5.10, which he considered to be beyond Mallory's capabilities, but after the June 2007 climb, he changed his view and said that he "could have climbed it". [44]

Noel Odell believed that he had seen Mallory and Irvine ascend the Second Step, but eventually changed his story to say it was the First Step. Towards the end of his life, however, he reaffirmed his original view. [45] Recent observations taken from Odell's vantage point by other climbers suggest that Odell would have probably seen the men at the Second Step as he had initially reported. [46]

Possible sightings of Irvine Edit

In 1979, a Chinese climber named Wang Hungbao reported to a Japanese expedition leader that, in 1975, he had discovered the body of an "English dead" at 8,100 metres (26,600 ft). Wang was killed in an avalanche the day after this verbal report, so the location was never more precisely fixed. The Chinese Mountaineering Association officially denied the sighting claim. In 1986, Chinese climber Zhang Junyan—who had been sharing the tent with Wang in 1975—confirmed, to Tom Holzel, Wang's report of finding a foreign climber's body. Zhang stated that Wang had been out for only 20 minutes. If this report was accurate, at that altitude and date, the body must have been that of Irvine. [ cita necesaria ]

Wang's sighting was the key to the discovery of Mallory's body 24 years later in the same general area, though Wang's reported description of the body he found, face up, with a "hole in cheek", is not consistent with the condition and posture of Mallory's body, which was face down, its head almost completely buried in scree, and with a golf ball-sized puncture wound on his forehead. The 2001 research expedition discovered Wang's campsite location and made an extensive search of its surroundings. Mallory's remained the only ancient body in the vicinity.

In 2001, another Chinese climber, Xu Jing, claimed to have seen the body of Andrew Irvine in 1960—reported in Hemmleb and Simonson's Detectives on Everest—although testimony is uncertain with regard to the location of his find. On two occasions, Xu placed it between Camps VI and VII (the Yellow Band, around 8,300 metres (27,200 ft)), though later changed it to the NE Ridge between the First and Second Steps (near 8,550 metres (28,050 ft) and directly on the NE Ridge. In spite of several such rumoured and reported sightings, subsequent searches of these locations on the North Face have failed to find any trace of Irvine. [ cita necesaria ]

American researcher Tom Holzel reported that Xu had spotted the body as he descended "by a more direct route" due to exhaustion, while his teammates had continued their ascent. [47] The body was lying on its back in a narrow slot, its feet pointing towards the summit, and its face blackened from frostbite. Holzel [47] has claimed that a location in the Yellow Band, matching this description exactly, has been identified at 27,641 feet (8,425 m) by his analysis of high-resolution aerial photography.

In July 2005, the Alpine Club of St. Petersburg, Russia, published an article to commemorate the 45th anniversary of the North Face climb by the Chinese expedition in 1960. The article referred to the presentation by Wang Fuzhou—a member of the group which reached the summit of Everest on 25 May 1960—given by him in Leningrad before the USSR Geographical Society in 1965. It claims that Xu Jing had seen the body of a European climber at an altitude of some 8,600 metres (28,200 ft), just below the notorious Second Step. [48]

Theories Edit

A range of different outcomes has been proposed, and new theories continue to be put forward. Most views have the two carrying two cylinders of oxygen each, reaching and climbing either the First or Second Step, where they are seen by Odell. At this point, two main alternatives remain: either Mallory takes Irvine's oxygen and goes on alone (and may or may not reach the summit) or both go on together until they turn back (having used up their oxygen, or realising that they will do so before the summit). In either case, Mallory slips and falls to his death while descending, perhaps caught in the fierce snow squall that sent Odell to take shelter in their tent. Irvine either falls with him, or in the first scenario, dies alone of exhaustion and hypothermia high up on the ridge. The hypothesis advanced by Tom Holzel in February 2008 [49] is that Odell sighted Mallory and Irvine climbing the First Step for a final look around while they were descending from a failed summit bid.

Ang Tsering's assessment Edit

Ang Tsering, a Sherpa member of the 1924 British Everest Expedition, was interviewed in 2000 by Jonathan Neale, who recounted:

Ang Tsering says that what he liked about George Mallory was that he was so friendly. [50]

Climbing partners Edit

Harry Tyndale, one of Mallory's climbing partners, said of Mallory:

In watching George at work, one was conscious not so much of physical strength as of suppleness and balance so rhythmical and harmonious was his progress in any steep place… that his movements appeared almost serpentine in their smoothness. [51]

Geoffrey Winthrop Young, an accomplished mountain climber, held Mallory's ability in awe:

His movement in climbing was entirely his own. It contradicted all theory. He would set his foot high against any angle of smooth surface, fold his shoulder to his knee, and flow upward and upright again on an impetuous curve. Whatever may have happened unseen the while between him and the cliff… the look, and indeed the result, were always the same—a continuous undulating movement so rapid and so powerful that one felt the rock must yield, or disintegrate. [52]

First "real" ascent, or just to the summit? Editar

If evidence were found that showed that Mallory or Irvine had reached the summit of Everest in 1924, advocates of Hillary and Norgay's first ascent maintain that the historical record should not be changed to state that Mallory and Irvine made the first ascent. 1965 Mount Everest summiteer H. P. S. Ahluwalia claims that without photographic proof, no evidence shows that Mallory reached the summit and "it would be unfair to say that the first man to scale Mount Everest was George Mallory". [53] Mallory's son John Mallory, who was three years old when his father died, said, "To me, the only way you achieve a summit is to come back alive. The job is only half done if you don't get down again". [54] [55] Hillary's daughter, Sarah, when asked about her father's take on the debate, said, "His view was that he had got 50 good years out of being conqueror of Everest, and, whatever happened, he wasn't particularly worried. That's my feeling as well." [56]

Edmund Hillary's assessment Edit

Edmund Hillary echoed John Mallory's opinion, asking:

If you climb a mountain for the first time and die on the descent, is it really a complete first ascent of the mountain? I am rather inclined to think personally that maybe it is quite important, the getting down, and the complete climb of a mountain is reaching the summit and getting safely to the bottom again. [57]

Chris Bonington's assessment Edit

Chris Bonington, the British mountaineer, argued:

If we accept the fact that they were above the Second Step, they would have seemed to be incredibly close to the summit of Everest and I think at that stage something takes hold of most climbers… And I think therefore taking all those circumstances in view… I think it is quite conceivable that they did go for the summit… I certainly would love to think that they actually reached the summit of Everest. I think it is a lovely thought and I think it is something, you know, gut emotion, yes I would love them to have got there. Whether they did or not, I think that is something one just cannot know. [58]

Conrad Anker's assessment Edit

Conrad Anker, who found Mallory's body in 1999, free climbed the Second Step in 2007 and has worn replica 1924 climbing gear on Everest, said he believes it is "possible, but highly improbable, that they made it to the top", citing the difficulty of the Second Step and the position of Mallory's body. He said that, in his opinion:

I don't believe they made it… the climbing up there is so difficult and I think that Mallory was a very good climber and part of being a good climber is knowing when you're at too much of a risk and it's time to turn back. I think he saw that and he turned back and it was either he or Irvine as they were descending the Yellow Band slipped and pulled the other one off, the rope snapped and he came to his rest. [59]

Robert Graves' tale of Mallory's Pipe Edit

Robert Graves, who climbed with Mallory, in his autobiography recounts this story, at the time famous in climbing circles, about an ascent that Mallory made as a young man in 1908:

My friend George Mallory… once did an inexplicable climb on Snowdon. He had left his pipe on a ledge, half-way down one of the Liwedd precipices, and scrambled back by a short cut to retrieve it, then up again by the same route. No one saw what route he took, but when they came to examine it the next day for official record, they found an overhang nearly all the way. By a rule of the Climbers' Club, climbs are never named in honour of their inventors, but only describe natural features. An exception was made here. The climb was recorded as follows: 'Mallory's Pipe, a variation on route 2 see adjoining map. This climb is totally impossible. It has been performed once, in failing light, by Mr G. H. L. Mallory.'. [60]

The route is now called "Mallory's Slab", a hard V Diff on Y Lliwedd. [61]

Mallory was honoured by having a court named after him at his alma mater, Magdalene College, Cambridge, with an inscribed stone commemorating his death set above the doorway to one of the buildings. The Friends of Magdalene Boat Club was renamed the Mallory Club in recognition of his achievements in exploration and rowing at the college. Two high peaks in California's Sierra Nevada, Mount Mallory [62] and Mount Irvine, located a few miles southeast of Mount Whitney, were named after them.

Los tiempos obituary of George Finch called Mallory and Finch the "two best alpinists of [their] time". [63]

Mallory was captured on film by expedition cameraman John Noel, who released his film of the 1924 expedition, The Epic of Everest. [64] Some of his footage was also used in George Lowe's 1953 documentary The Conquest of Everest. A documentary on the 2001 Mallory and Irvine Research Expedition, Found on Everest, was produced by Riley Morton. [65] Mallory was played by Brian Blessed in the 1991 re-creation of his last climb, Galahad of Everest. In Anthony Geffen's 2010 documentary film about Mallory's life and final expedition, The Wildest Dream, Conrad Anker and Leo Houlding attempted to reconstruct the climb, dressed and equipped like Mallory and Irvine.

Everest, a proposed Hollywood version of the 1924 attempt, adapted from Jeffrey Archer's 2009 novel Senderos de gloria, to be directed by Doug Liman, had first Tom Hardy and then Benedict Cumberbatch slated to play Mallory, [66] but a June 2014 interview with Liman implied that the film was no longer in production. [67] In April 2015, it was announced that Michael Sheen would play Mallory in a biopic titled In High Places, to be written and directed by James McEachen, [68] but as of 2020, McEachen's website stated that it had not been funded. [69]

Tragedy in the mountains has proved a recurring theme in the Mallory line. Mallory's younger brother, Air Chief Marshal Sir Trafford Leigh-Mallory, met his death on a mountain range when the Avro York carrying him to his new appointment as Air Commander-in-Chief of South East Asia Command crashed in the French Alps in 1944, killing all on board. [70] A memorial window to George Mallory along with a memorial plaque to Trafford can be found at St Wilfrid's Church, Mobberley, where their father, Herbert, grandfather, also called George, and other family members had served as rector. Mallory's daughter, Frances Clare, married physiologist Glenn Allan Millikan, who was killed in a climbing accident in Fall Creek Falls State Park, Tennessee. [71] [72]

Frances Mallory's son, Richard Millikan, became a respected climber during the 1960s and '70s. Mallory's grandson, also named George Mallory, reached the summit of Everest in 1995 via the North Ridge with six other climbers as part of the American Everest Expedition of 1995. He left a picture of his grandparents at the summit, citing "unfinished business". [72] [73]

Belgian rock band Girls in Hawaii's song "Mallory's Height" on their 2013 album Everest is a homage to Mallory. Extracts of the Nova / BBC broadcast can be heard (around 3:35).


Benson was born on 24 April 1862 at Wellington College, Berkshire. He was one of six children of Edward White Benson (1829-1896 Archbishop of Canterbury 1882–96 the first headmaster of the college) and his wife Mary Sidgwick Benson, sister of the philosopher Henry Sidgwick.

Benson was born into a literary family his brothers included Edward Frederic Benson, best remembered for his Mapp and Lucia novels, and Robert Hugh Benson, a priest of the Church of England before converting to Roman Catholicism, who wrote many popular novels. Their sister, Margaret Benson, was an artist, author, and amateur Egyptologist.

The Benson family was exceptionally accomplished, but their history was somewhat tragic: a son and daughter died young and another daughter, as well as Arthur himself, suffered from a mental condition that was possibly bipolar disorder [2] or manic-depressive psychosis, which they had inherited from their father. None of the children married. [3] Despite his illness, Arthur was a distinguished academic and a prolific author.

From the ages of 10 to 21, he lived in cathedral closes, first at Lincoln where his father was Chancellor of Lincoln Cathedral, and then at Truro, where his father was the first Bishop of Truro. He retained a love of church music and ceremony.

In 1874 he won a scholarship to Eton from Temple Grove School, a preparatory school in East Sheen. In 1881 he went up to King's College, Cambridge, where he was a scholar (King's College had closed scholarships for which only Etonians were eligible) and achieved first class honours in the Classical tripos in 1884. [4]

From 1885 to 1903 he taught at Eton, but returned to Cambridge in 1904 as a Fellow of Magdalene College to lecture in English Literature. He became president of the college (the Master's deputy) in 1912, and he was Master of Magdalene (head of the college) from December 1915 until his death in 1925. From 1906, he was a governor of Gresham's School. [5]

Modern development of Magdalene was shaped by Benson, [4] as a generous benefactor with a marked impact on the appearance of the college grounds at least 20 inscriptions round the college refer to him. [6] In 1930, Benson Court was constructed and named after him. [7]

Benson collaborated with Lord Esher in editing the correspondence of Queen Victoria, which appeared in 1907. [8] His poems and volumes of essays, such as From a College Window y The Upton Letters (essays in the form of letters) were famous in his time and he left one of the longest diaries ever written: some four million words. Extracts from the diaries are printed in Edwardian Excursions. From the Diaries of A. C. Benson, 1898–1904, ed. David Newsome, London: John Murray, 1981. His literary criticisms of Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Edward FitzGerald, Walter Pater and John Ruskin rank among his best work.

Benson wrote the lyrics of the Coronation Ode, set to music by Edward Elgar for the 1902 coronation of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra, It has as its finale one of Britain's best-known patriotic songs, "Land of Hope and Glory".

Like his brothers Edward Frederic and Robert Hugh, A. C. Benson was noted as an author of ghost stories. The bulk of his published ghost stories in the two volumes The Hill of Trouble and Other Stories (1903) y The Isles of Sunset (1904) were written for his pupils as moral allegories. After Arthur's death, Fred Benson found a collection of unpublished ghost stories. He included two of them in a book, Basil Netherby (1927) the title story was renamed "House at Treheale" and the volume was completed by the long piece "The Uttermost Farthing" [9] the fate of the rest of the stories is unknown. Paul the Minstrel and Other Stories (1911, reprinted 1977) collects the contents of The Hill of Trouble and Other Stories y The Isles of Sunset. [10] Nine of Arthur's ghost stories are included in David Stuart Davies (ed), The Temple of Death: The Ghost Stories of A. C. & R. H. Benson (Wordsworth, 2007), together with seven by his brother R. H. Benson, while nine of Arthur's and ten of Robert's are included in Ghosts in the House (Ash-Tree, 1996) the contents of the joint collections are similar but not identical.

En The Schoolmaster, Benson summarised his views on education based on 18 years' experience at Eton. He criticised a tendency, which he found prevalent in English public schools, to "make the boys good and to make them healthy" to the detriment of their intellectual development. [11]

A Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature, he founded the Benson Medal in 1916 "in respect of meritorious works in poetry, fiction, history and belles lettres". [12]


Visit The Old Library at Magdalene College

Thu 3 October 2019 - Thu 5 December 2019

The Old Library, First Court, Magdalene College

Distinct from the Samuel Pepys Library, which is also at Magdalene, the Old Library has housed the historic books of the College in First Court since the fifteenth century, in what was the medieval Prior's residence.

As well as enjoying the historic, book-lined rooms, Visitors will see displays of items from the College's special collectons and archives, which are not normally seen in public.

The Autumn programme of special one-day exhibitions is as follows:

3rd October 2019: TRACES OF ITALY through maps, travel writing and early printed books. This display will reveal some of the plans, accounts and products of Renaissance Italy, from the work of the English cartographer John Speed to volumes on architectural, horticultural and urban design.

7th November 2019: EATING AND DRINKING together as a community has played an important role in the life of Magdalene College through the centuries. This display of archival material and artefacts will examine the history of food and drink in the College.

5th December 2019: INCUNABULA. An exploration of the Old Library’s collection of Incunabula (books printed before 1501) from England and continental Europe, including an early edition of Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales.


We are delighted to announce that our speaker for Easter Term 2017 will be Professor David d’Avray (University College London), who will be addressing us on Tuesday the 25th of April on the topic:

‘Genres as Social Systems in the Middle Ages’

The abstract for the talk is as follows:

In Britain, empirical scholars and theory aficionados sometimes seem to belong to different camps, but their relationship ought to be symbiotic (as it often is in Germany). The loose everyday senses of ‘genre’ are too muddled to be serviceable in the framing of intelligent questions for empirical research, and for more carefully thought out concepts the empirical scholar can learn from literary and social theorists. The paper will introduce some of the ideas about genre of H. R. Jauss, and of N. Luhmann about social systems, and then show the affinities between them. The resulting ‘mise’ of concepts will be used to analyse two medieval genres, the Romance and Canon Law.

David d’Avray is a medievalist who has worked on medieval marriage, on preaching, on attitudes to kingship and death, and on rationalities. He is currently working on royal annulments and papal dispensations, instrumental ethics in the Middle Ages, and ‘longue durée’ structures of papal history, from the 4th century decretal legislation Congregatio Concilii after Trent. His new books Dissolving Royal Marriages: A Documentary History, 860-1600 y Papacy, Monarchy and Marriage, 860-1600 have just been published.

The talk will be held at 6pm in the Parlour, First Court, Magdalene College.


Ver el vídeo: Magdalene College New Library