Taejo de Goryeo (Wang Geon)

Taejo de Goryeo (Wang Geon)


DELEIGEVEN HISTÓRICO

Wang Geon adalah raja pertama Kerajaan Goryeo yang dia dirikan setelah menaklukkan Silla dan kerajaan-kerajaan lainnya di Semenanjung Korea. Akibat penaklukan-penaklukan itu maka ada banyak potensi pérgolakan dan pemberontakan di berbagai daerah. Oleh karena itu Wang Geon mengambil kebijakan menjalin hubungan kekerabatan dengan para bangsawan dan pemimpin daerah taklukannya. Wang Geon pun mengambil putri-putri bangsawan berpengaruh tersebut sebagai istri-istrinya. Karena wilayah Goryeo yang sangat luas dengan daerah taklukkan yang sangat banyak, maka setelah kebijakan ini diterapkan, Wang Geon pun memiliki istri yang sangat banyak. Raja Wang Geon memiliki 29 istri, namun tidak semuanya memiliki anak. Dari ke-29 istrinya, Wang Geon memperoleh 25 putra dan 7 orang putri. Sejauh ini, walaupun nama putra-putra Wang Geon diketahui dan dicatat dalam sejarah namun sulit sekali menentukan urutan kelahiran semua putra-putranya itu.

Beberapa sejarawan dan pengamat sejarah berusaha menerka-nerka urutan kelahiran putra-putranya dengan mengacu pada pola urutan kelahiran putra-putra sulung setiap istri Wang Geon kemudian melihat kelahiran putra kedua, dan seterusnya. Mengacu pada pola ini ada beberapa petunjuk penting, yaitu:

- Selir Cheongjuwon, dari klan Kim (putri Kim Geung-ryul),

- Ratu Aeiju dari klan Yeon (putri Yeon Ye).

Wang Mu kekurangan dukungan politik karena ibunya berasal dari golongan keluarga yang tidak berpengaruh dan tidak memiliki kekuatan politik apapun. Meskipun demikina, Wang Mu dikenal sebagai seorang panglima perang yang cakap dan berani. Wang Mu juga dianggap sebagai seorang kakak yang baik dan penyayang. Dia tetap berusaha menjadi penengah diantara saudara-saudaranya yang selalu bertengkar karena pengaruh dari mertua sekaligus paman-paman maternal mereka.

Masa pemerintahan Wang Mu memang diwarnai dengan konspirasi dan pertikaian kekuasaan di antara putra-putra Taejo, terutama Pangeran Wang Yo dan Wang So. Menyadari adanya konspirasi yang direncanakan oleh kedua pangeran tersebut, Wang Gyu (ayah mertua Wang Geon dan Wang Mu) memperingatkan Wang Mu akan hal itu, namun ia juga berencana untuk menempatkan cucunya (Pangeran Mahkota Gwirial tangjupon, adikan) . Pemberontakan yang dilancarkan oleh Wang Gyu ini cukup besar. Akibat dari pemberontakan ini, Wang Mu terpaksa mengeksekusi mati adik-tirinya, Pangeran Gwangju. Tindakan ini sangat tidak disukainya karena hubungan Wang Mu dengan adik-adiknya cukup baik.

Kenyataan bahwa dirinya menjadi kakak yang mengeksekusi adiknya sendiri membuat Wang Mu syok dan frustasi, sehingga membuatnya stres berat. Hal ini memperparah kondisi tubuhnya yang memang sering sakit-sakitan karena sebelumnya dia juga terserang wabah penyakit. Kematian Pangeran Gwangju terus membuat Wang Mu stres, dan hanya selang beberapa hari kemudian Wang Mu-pun meninggal.

Wang Mu wafat pada tahun 945 di usia yang baru 33 tahun. Dia hanya memerintah selama 2 tahun. Kematian Wang Mu disebabkan oleh suatu wabah, namun banyak sejarawan yang berpendapat bahwa ia kemungkinan dibunuh oleh saudara tirinya, Wang Yo karena Pangeran Wang Yo naik tahta lewat seleksi resmi istana dan bukan atas wasiat Wang Mu. Tapi semua teori ini masih dipertentangkan karena pada masa-masa sarat konflik itu, Wang Mu dan loyalisnya tidak mungkin melonggarkan penjagaan yang menyangkut keselamatan pribadinya.

Meskipun ada sejarawan berpendapat bahwa Wang Yo-lah yang membunuh kakaknya, Wang Mu, namun rata-rata sejarawan mengakui bahwa Wang Yo bukanlah seorang raja yang tiran. Beliau sangat memperhatikan kehidupan rakyatnya dan berusaha menjadi raja yang cakap dan layak. Wang Yo membagikan 70.000 karung biji-bijian dari gudang kerajaan untuk mendukung Buddhisme.

Salah-satu kebijakan kontroversialnya adalah pembangunan benteng di Pyongyang sebagai Ibukota Negara Barat. Wang Yo memang ingin memindahkan ibukota dari Gaegyeong kesana karena wilayah itu adalah wilayah milik keluarga ibunya. Ini dimaksudkan agar dia dapat mengkonsolidasikan pendukungnya dan menangkal serangan dari kubu oposisi. Ide Wang Yo didukung oleh kubu para pangeran dari Hwanghae, termasuk Pangeran Daejong Wook. Kemungkinan besar, pendukung utamanya adalah para pangeran Pyeongyang yang dimotori oleh Pangeran Wang Won (Pangeran Hyoeun). Tapi, rencana Wang Yo ini mendapat penentangan kuat dari kubu oposannya yang dimotori oleh para loyalis Wang Mu dari wilayah Jeolla dan juga para bangsawan Silla. Adik-adiknya seperti Pangeran Wang Jung dan Pangeran Jeungtong sepertinya bersikap netral akan hal ini, sedangkan adiknya yang lain, Wang So, mungkin lebih pro pada bangsawan Silla (karena dimasa depan Wang So merangkul para bangsawan Silla). Agaknya, sikap Wang So ini terpengaruh oleh kakak perempuannya, Putri Nakrang, yang menikah dengan Kim Bu (mantan Raja Gyeongsun dari Silla), sebab pada masa pemerintahan Wang So, dia menjauhi kubu Pyeongyang dan mengutamakan kubu Silla. Pada akhirnya, rencana Wang Yo memindahkan ibukota ke Pyeongyang gagal. Walaupun awalnya rencana ini bertujuan memperkuat kubu pendukungnya dan menekan para oposisi, tapi rencana ini justru membuat perseteruan antara kubu Pyeongyang dan kubu Silla kian meruncing.

Wang Yo wafat pada tahun 949 diusia muda, 26 tahun dan digantikan oleh saudara kandung-nya, Pangeran Wang So. Para sejarawan sangat meyakini bahwa Wang Yo meninggal karena dibunuh oleh Wang So sebab hubungan mereka sangat tidak akur. Tetapi, pendapat ini masih dipertentangkan, karena pada awal Wang So menjadi raja, Wang So masih belum memiliki pendukung yang kuat dan leal. Dia masih belum didukung oleh para bangsawan Silla, dan juga belum memiliki pendukung kuat diistana. Setelah dia berhasil memperoleh informasi mengenai siapa loyalisnya dan siapa oposannya, barulah Wang So melakukan pembersihan. Dan lagi, masih ada Pangeran Daejong Wook dan Pangeran Hyoeun yang memiliki banyak pendukung. Andaikan Wang So membunuhnya, maka kubu kedua pangeran ini pasti akan bergerak cepat untuk menghabisi kubu Wang So. Oleh karena itu, terlalu riskan bagi Wang So jika saat itu dia membunuh Wang Yo.

Wang So lahir pada tahun 925. Ia adalah putra keempat Raja Taejo dan Permaisuri Sinmyeongsunseong, dan merupakan putra Wang Geon yang paling terkenal. Wang So adalah merupakan saudara kandung dari Wang Yo (Raja Jungjong I). Wang So menikahi saudari tirinya dan mengangkatnya menjadi permaisurinya, yaitu Permaisuri Daemok (putri ayahnya, Raja Taejo dengan Permaisuri Sinjeong, dan adik kandung dari Wang Wook / Daejong Wook). Wang So juga mengambil keponakannya sebagai selir, yaitu Selir Gyeonghwagung (putri dari Wang Mu).

Wang So adalah raja Goryeo yang pálido terkenal selain Raja Gongmin dan Raja Wang Geon.

Wang So diangkat menjadi Raja Goryeo pada bulan Maret 949, diusia 24 tahun. Banyak perubahan terjadi di Goryeo ketika Wang So naik tahta. Awalnya ia bersifat pasif terhadap para bangsawan untuk memastikan yang mana lawan dan mana kawan, kemudian dia menjadi represif dan mengambil kekuasaan penuh dengan mengeksekusi lawan-lawannya walaupun awalnya mereka adalah pendukungnya. Langkah ini diambil Wang So untuk memuluskan rencananya yaitu melakukan reformasi dan restorasi birokrasi dan pemerintahan diseluruh penjuru Goryeo.

Kebijakan keras dan totaliter Wang So ini didasari oleh kondisi Goryeo saat itu. Pada tahun-tahun awal Goryeo berdiri, terdapat sindikasi klan-klan yang berkuasa. Tidak mudah untuk menguatkan kekuasaan sehingga Wang So mulai mencari cara untuk meningkatkan kekuasaannya. Bagi Wang So reformasi harus dilakukan demi peningkatan kekuasaan raja. Ia mulai menyisihkan klan-klan yang berkuasa dari istana Goryeo dan menaturalisasi orang-orang dari China ke dalam istananya juga membawa orang-orang Silla yang terkenal cerdas untuk ikut aktif dalam pemerintahannya. Setelah semua sistem itu siap, dia lalu memulai reformasi agresif.

Wang So adalah pemimpin yang unik karena dia sangat menjunjung tinggi keseimbangan. Meskipun dia melakukan banyak pembantaian namun dia tetap menjaga perkembangan agama Buddha yang identik dengan kedamaian sehingga beliau mendapat dukungan publik karena mendukung penuh Buddhisme. Wang So juga selalu berusaha memperkuat otoritas keluarga kerajaan khususnya keturunan langsung Wang Geon, namun dilain pihak dia menerapkan hukum emansipasi budak. Hukum Emansipasi Budak adalah hukum yang memerdekakan para tawanan perang (terutama dari Hu-Baekje sebagai negeri yang kalah perang) yang dijadikan budak. Para budak dari golongan bangsawan lalu diberi hak yang setara dengan bangsawan Goryeo, sedangkan para budak dari kalangan rakyat jelata diberikan hak yang setara dengan rakyat Goryeo. Hak-hak ini meliputi hak dalam pemerintahan dan hak berpartisipasi dalam angkatan perang Goryeo. Para budak dari tawanan perang ini dibeli atau dijadikan budak oleh para bangsawan Goryeo dan jumlahnya sangat banyak. Para budak ini lalu dimerdekakan oleh Wang So, dan bagi para budak yang dulunya adalah bangsawan, mereka diberikan hak yang sama dengan bangsawan-bangsawan Goryeo termasuk hak mengutarakan pendapat. Penerapan hukum ini dimaksudkan Wang So agar kekuasaan para bangsawan, termasuk keluarga raja, yang memiliki terlalu banyak budak dapat dikendalikan. Penerapan hukum emasipasi budak ini sangat beresiko karena para anggota keluarga kerajaan pun menentangnya termasuk istrinya sendiri, namun Wang So tetap teguh pada pendiriannya. Para bangsawan Goryeo, selain loyalis Wang So, menentang kebijakan ini, sebab jika para budak dibebaskan maka jumlah budak para bangsawan akan berkurang drastis, dan para bangsawan akan kekurangan budak yang dapat dijadikan sebagai tentara pribadi. Tiap bangsawan saat itu seakan-akan wajib memiliki tentara pribadi untuk melindungi diri dan kepentingan mereka, termasuk untuk 'menegosiasikan' keinginan mereka pada raja. Pada saat itu kepemilikan tentara memang masih belum dilarang. Inilah yang menyebabkan para bangsawan Hwangbo (yang dipimpin Daejong Wook dan Ratu Daemok) dan bangsawan Seogyeong / Pyeongyang (bangsawan pendukung Ratu Shinmyeong dan pendukung keluarga Wang Yo) menolak kebijakan ini.

Penerapan hukum emansipasi budak ini membuat posisi Wang So semakin berjarak dengan kubu Seogyeong (kubu Pyeongyang) sehingga membuatnya semakin merapat pada kubu Silla. Ini membuat adik-adiknya dari kubu Seogyeong semakin menjauhinya, sebaliknya, adik-adiknya dari kubu Silla menjadi pendukung utamanya. Goryeo saat itu memang sudah sarat dengan politik sindikasi klan-klan bangsawan daerah. Sindikasi klan-klan ini lalu mengerucut menjadi tiga kubu utama, yaitu kubu Seogyeong, kubu Jeolla, dan kubu Silla. Diantara ketiga kubu ini, kubu Jeolla adalah kubu yang paling netral akibat pemberontakan Gwangju yang menewaskan salah-satu pangeran mereka. Sebaliknya, dua kubu lain adalah kubu-kubu yang paling intens berseteru. Kubu Seogyeong adalah turunan dari Kerajaan Goguryeo. Awalnya, kubu ini didukung dan dilindungi oleh Wang Yo (Jeongjong I) tapi setelah Wang Yo meninggal, seharusnya Wang So-lah yang menjadi pelindung mereka karena dia adalah adik kandung Wang Yo, tetapi Wang So malah memberlakukan berbagai kebindikijaung yangu kubu ini beralih secara otomatis pada Wang Won (Pangeran Hyeo-un) yang berasal dari wilayah Pyeongsan (salah satu wilayah dari Provinsi Hwanghae yang dulunya disatukan dengan wilayah Pyeongyang). Keputusan Wang Won ini kelak membawanya pada kematiannya sendiri sebab saat Wang So mengeksekusi kubu Seogyeong karena ingin melakukan kudeta dan mengangkat putra Wang Yo sebagai raja, Wang Won juga ikut dieksekusi. Kubu Silla tentunya terdiri dari para bangsawan Silla. Sejarah masa lalu membuat kubu ini selalu berseteru dengan kubu Seogyeong dan kubu Jeolla. Pangeran pelindung kubu Silla adalah Pangeran Ahnjong Wook (Pangeran Gyeongju, Gyeongju adalah ibukota Silla) dan Pangeran Hyosung. Kubu Silla dikenal sebagai kubu pendukung utama Wang So sebab Wang So menarik banyak sarjana-sarjana Kongfusian dan para ahli pemerintahan dari Silla. Keputusan Wang So ini bukan tanpa alasan, ini adalah keputusan objektif sebab orang-orang Silla memang sangat menguasai ilmu Kongfusian dan sudah berpengalaman dalam menerapkan prinsip-prinsip Kongfusius dalam setiap lini pemerintahan mereka.

Sikap dan tindakan yang sangat objektif adalah salah-satu ciri-khas Wang So. Wang So memang terkenal sebagai raja yang kejam yang mampu membunuh saudaranya (Pangeran Wang Won atau Pangeran Hyoeun) yang dieksekusi karena dianggap berkomplot melawan Wang So. Namun, Wang So membunuh saudaranya dan beberapa keponakannya (Pangeran Heunghwa, putra Wang Mu / Raja Hyejong, dan Pangeran Gyeonchoon, putra Wang Yo / Jeongjong I) tapi dia tetap membiarkan adik-adiknya, seperti Daejong Wook te dan Atapjong Wook. Dia mengeksekusi mati putra kakaknya, Pangeran Gyeongchoon (putra Wang Yo) namun dia justru mempercayakan berbagai tugas negara pada adiknya, Pangeran Hyosung, yang juga merupakan menantu Wang Yo. Walaupun dia mengeksekusi mati Wang Won, tapi Wang So tidak menghukum mati kakak Pangeran Wang Won dan juga putra-putra Pangeran Wang Won. Dia justru membiarkan mereka tetap hidup dengan tenang.

Wang So juga menjalin hubungan yang sangat baik dengan adiknya, Wang Jung, dan menganugerahi Wang Jung dengan gelar Moonwon Jung Daewang (artinya Kaisar Moonwon Jung), sehingga Wang Jung lebih dikenal dengan nama Kaisar Moonwon. Meskipun sangat objektif, tapi Wang So tetap mempercayakan tugas-tugas reprimiendo pada adik-adiknya dengan mengangkat adik bungsunya, Pangeran Jeungtong sebagai salah-satu menteri di kabinetnya. Dia juga menjalin hubungan baik dengan adik-tirinya, Pangeran Won-nyeong dan Pangeran Hyosung, dengan mempercayakan beberapa tugas negara pada adik-adiknya ini termasuk saat Wang So melakukan pembersihan pada kubu oposisi. Sayangnya, kelak Pangeran Won-nyeong dan Pangeran Hyosung justru dieksekusi oleh putra Wang So, Raja Gyeongjong.

Wang So juga dekat dengan Pangeran Ahnjong Wook, karena dia juga memang lebih dekat ke kelompok Silla, kubu dimana Ahnjong Wook berasal. Ini membuatnya menjadi raja Goryeo pertama yang merangkul para bangsawan Silla dan menerapkan sistem Kongfusian di Goryeo. Saat dia menjadi raja, dia memanggil adik-adik tirinya yang merupakan para pangeran keturunan Silla untuk terlibat dalam pemerintahan. Meskipun saat anaknya menjadi raja para pangeran Silla ini dijauhkan dari pemerintahan bahkan ada yang dieksekusi, namun kebijakannya ini dilanjutkan oleh keponakannya, Raja Seongjong (putra Daejong Wook).


Ascender al poder

La carrera de Taejo comenzó en la turbulenta Más tarde tres reinos período (후삼국 시대 後 三國 時代 Husamguk Sidae). En los últimos años de Silla, muchos líderes locales y bandidos se rebelaron contra el gobierno de la reina Jinsung, que no tenía un liderazgo fuerte ni políticas que mejoraran las condiciones de vida. Entre esos rebeldes, Gungye (궁예 弓 裔 Kungye) de la región noroeste y Gyeon Hwon (견훤 甄 萱 Kyŏn Hwŏn) del suroeste ganó la mayor parte del poder. Mientras sus tropas marchaban contra los oficiales y bandidos locales de Silla, derrotaron y absorbieron a miembros de muchos otros grupos rebeldes. En 895, Gungye llevó sus fuerzas al extremo noroeste de Silla, cerca de Songdo. Wang Yung, junto con muchos otros clanes locales, se rindió rápidamente a Gungye. Taejo siguió a su padre, Wang Yung, al servicio de Gungye, el futuro líder de Taebong, y comenzó su servicio bajo el mando de Gungye.

La habilidad de Taejo como comandante militar pronto fue reconocida por Gungye, quien lo ascendió a general e incluso lo consideró como un hermano. En 900, Taejo dirigió una campaña exitosa contra los clanes locales y el ejército de Later Baekje (Hubaekje) en el área de Chungju, ganando más fama y reconocimiento por parte del rey. En 903, dirigió una famosa campaña naval contra la costa suroeste de Later Baekje, mientras Gyeon Hwon estaba en guerra contra Silla. Mientras continuaba liderando campañas militares, se hizo conocido por su generoso trato a la gente pobre de los territorios de Silla que conquistó. Su liderazgo y generosidad lo hicieron popular entre la gente común.

Gungye se proclamó rey de Más tarde Goguryeo (Hugoguryeo) en 901, cambiando el nombre del estado a Majin y luego Taebong en 911. En su momento más fuerte, Taebong incluía partes del actual Hwanghaebuk y nam-do, Gyeonggi-do, Gangwon-do, Pyongan-namdo y Chungcheongbuk-do. En 913, Taejo fue nombrado Primer Ministro de Taebong.


Inicio> Cultura> Herencia coreana

La estatua del maestro Huirang se encuentra sola en la exposición "Goryeo: La gloria de Corea" en el Museo Nacional de Corea en el centro de Seúl, mientras que la vitrina junto a él, para su discípulo Taejo Wang Geon, el fundador de Goryeo (918- 1392), se deja vacío. Corea del Norte no respondió a una solicitud de que prestara la reliquia para la exhibición. [YONHAP]

Se instalaron dos vitrinas en el Museo Nacional de Corea en el centro de Seúl para la gran exposición "Goryeo: La gloria de Corea" que comenzó el martes. El caso de la derecha muestra una estatua del Maestro Huirang, quien fue el maestro de Taejo Wang Geon, el fundador de Goryeo (918-1392). Pero la vitrina de la izquierda, que dice que muestra la estatua de Wang Geon, está vacía.

No se preocupe, la reliquia no ha sido robada. Más bien, no pudo llegar a Seúl desde Pyongyang, Corea del Norte. La estatua fue excavada en 1992 en Hyeonneung, la tumba de Wang Geon, ubicada en Kaesong, una ciudad norcoreana cercana a la frontera y ahora forma parte de la colección del Museo Central de Historia de Corea del Norte. El Museo Nacional de Corea solicitó a Corea del Norte que prestara la estatua para "esta significativa exposición que analiza los años de gloria de Goryeo", pero no lo logró.

"Las estatuas de los dos hombres, una que simboliza la autoridad del trono, que fue la clave para proteger a la nación, y la otra la base espiritual para administrar la nación, son prácticamente las únicas esculturas de Goryeo de futuros históricos que existen", dijo Chung. Myung-hee, el comisario de la exposición. “Estas imágenes del maestro y el discípulo nunca se han visto juntos desde que se hicieron, por lo que se espera con impaciencia su primer encuentro, en 1.100 años. Continuaremos dejando este caso vacío y esperamos que la estatua llegue algún día durante la exposición ".

La estatua del maestro Huirang es el tesoro número 999 de Corea y pertenece al templo Haein en Hapcheon, Gyeongsang del Sur.

Una pintura rara de Amitabha del Museo Delle Civilta en Italia.

Aunque la estatua de Wang Geon no pudo llegar a la inauguración de la exposición, se exhiben otros valiosos tesoros que representan a la dinastía Goryeo, a pesar de las preocupaciones sobre la falta de cooperación de los templos y otros países para permitir que su tesoro viaje.

“Fue un proceso largo y difícil”, dijo Bae Ki-dong, director general del museo. "Pero nuestro personal trabajó muy duro y logró traer unos 450 artefactos de 56 organizaciones e instituciones diferentes de Corea y del extranjero, incluidos los Estados Unidos, Inglaterra, Italia y Japón".

Para conmemorar el 1100 aniversario de la fundación de la dinastía Goryeo, los museos nacionales de todo el país han realizado exposiciones especiales sobre la dinastía Goryeo y, según Bae, esta exposición en el Museo Nacional de Corea “será el final de la celebración de todo el año ".

"No pudimos conmemorar el año 1000 desde el establecimiento de Goryeo en 1918 cuando Corea estaba bajo ocupación japonesa", dijo. "Es por eso que el museo ha invertido una cantidad incomparable de esfuerzo y presupuesto en esta exposición, que es la primera exposición completa a gran escala de arte de Goryeo".

Goryeo fue establecido por el rey Taejo, o Wang Geon en 918, en un momento de división y desintegración de naciones. La dinastía perseveró durante unos 500 años y durante el tiempo tuvo intercambios activos con los países vecinos y desarrolló una cultura única y cosmopolita, e incluso se dio a conocer al mundo, dando a Corea su nombre actual. En comparación con otras dinastías como Goguryeo, Baekje, Silla y Joseon, el arte de Goryeo ha sido algo descuidado, ya que son relativamente "menos llamativos" o "sofisticados", según Chung, "pero no menos importantes para ser descuidados u olvidados". . "

Para permitir a los visitantes entender fácilmente a Goryeo, Chung decidió organizar la exhibición bajo cuatro temas basados ​​en el concepto "la historia de Goryeo".

"Básicamente, esta historia sobre Goryeo está en cuatro capítulos", dijo, "y el primer capítulo comienza con la historia sobre Gaegyeong, la ciudad capital de Goryeo ubicada en el centro de la península de Corea".

En la dinastía Goryeo, Gyegyeong, que ahora se encuentra cerca de la parte noroeste de Gyeonggi, cerca del monte Songak, era una ciudad internacional frecuentada por muchos extranjeros.

Después de haber establecido relaciones diplomáticas con la dinastía Song, los Khitans y la dinastía Jin, Goryeo comerciaba con una amplia variedad de bienes. A unos 12 kilómetros (7,45 millas) de Gaegyeong se encontraba el puerto de Byeongnando, que también vio ir y venir muchos barcos de carga y barcos mercantes extranjeros. Estos barcos, según Chung, sirvieron como un canal para la introducción de diversos artículos de lujo para el hogar y artesanías, así como nuevos conocimientos y cultura.

Arriba: Cinco estatuas de Buda: desde la izquierda, Bhaishajyaguru del templo Janggok Vairocana Avalokiteshvara Amitabha y otro Amitabha del templo Daeseung. Arriba: una jarra y un lavabo de plata dorada forman parte de la colección del Museo de Bellas Artes de Boston. Estas son algunas de las obras de arte reales de la dinastía Goryeo. [MUSEO NACIONAL DE COREA, YIM SEUNG-HYE]

“Es aquí donde vinieron tantos extranjeros, que el nombre 'Corea' de 'Goryeo' se hizo conocido en todo el mundo”, explicó Chung.

El segundo capítulo comienza con la historia de los bloques de madera coreanos Tripitaka que se crearon durante esta dinastía.

La verdadera Tripitaka Koreana, la colección completa de escrituras budistas curvadas en más de 80.000 bloques de madera, no estaba autorizada a abandonar el Templo Haein, pero la exposición muestra la historia de cómo se crearon y muestra otros bloques de madera de Goryeo, como el Avatamsaka. Sutra tallado en 1098.

Las siguientes secciones permiten a los visitantes presenciar cómo la gente de Goryeo disfrutaba del té y su brillantez en la artesanía también se puede disfrutar en la sección final.

“Dado que Goryeo fue la dinastía que realmente puso a Corea en el mapa mundial, espero que no solo los coreanos, sino también los visitantes de otras partes del mundo puedan venir a la exposición y aprender sobre las raíces de la cultura coreana”, dijo Bae.


El Taejo sube a la cima y forma la dinastía Goryeo

A medida que pasaban los años, Gung Ye se volvió cada vez más tiránico y sus súbditos sufrieron severamente bajo su gobierno despótico. En consecuencia, cuatro de los principales generales del rey conspiraron para derrocar a Gung Ye y reemplazarlo por Wang Geon. Se dice que el primer ministro inicialmente se opuso a la conspiración, aunque pronto cambió de opinión y apoyó a los generales.

En el 918 d.C., los cuatro generales derrocaron a Gung Ye y lo mataron cerca de la capital, Cheorwon. Posteriormente, Wang Yung fue colocado en el trono por los conspiradores. El reino, que en ese momento se llamaba Taebong, pasó a llamarse Goryeo, marcando así el comienzo de la dinastía Goryeo.

Como gobernante de Goryeo, Wang Geon se hizo conocido como Taejo. En el momento en que Taejo se convirtió en rey, la península de Corea todavía estaba dividida entre los tres reinos. Además de Goryeo, los otros dos reinos fueron los reinos Posterior Silla y Posterior Baekje. El primero ocupó la parte sureste de la península, mientras que el segundo ocupó la parte suroeste de la península y fue fundado por otro líder rebelde, Gyeon Hwon. Así, en los años siguientes, Taejo se esforzó por unir a toda la península de Corea bajo su mandato.

En el 927 d.C., la capital de Silla Posterior, Gyeongju, fue atacada y capturada por Gyeon Hwon. El rey de Silla Posterior, Gyeongjae, fue capturado y ejecutado. Una marioneta, Gyeongsun, fue dejada por Gyeon Hwon en el trono.

Taejo vio esto como una oportunidad para apoderarse de ambos reinos rivales y atacó a las fuerzas de Posterior Baekje mientras marchaban a casa. Taejo, sin embargo, perdió la batalla, pero logró recuperarse rápidamente y, por lo tanto, pudo defender su reino cuando Gyeon Hwon lanzó un ataque de represalia. Aunque Taejo no tuvo éxito esta vez, no fue derrotado del todo y esperó pacientemente a que se presentara otra oportunidad.

En el 935 d.C., Gyeongsun, el títere colocado por Gyeon Hwon en el trono de Silla Posterior, decidió entregar su reino a Taejo, ya que se dio cuenta de que le era imposible revivir la suerte de Silla Posterior.

Naturalmente, Taejo estaba feliz de aceptar la rendición de Gyeongsun. Recompensó al antiguo rey otorgándole el título de príncipe. Además, se casó con una de las hijas de Gyeongsun, para cimentar sus relaciones, así como para asegurar el apoyo y la lealtad de Geongsun. Este matrimonio también ayudó a Taejo a obtener el apoyo de los nobles posteriores de Silla.

Los territorios de los Tres Reinos posteriores y China al norte. (KJS615 / CC BY-SA 3.0 )


Taejo de Goryeo (Wang Geon) - Historia

Goryeo Hanedanı, (Korece: 고려 Çince: 高丽) Kral Taejo tarafından 918 yılında kurulan bir Kore hanedanlığıdır. Günümüzdeki Kore, adını '' Koryo '' olarakta bilinen bu devletten alır. 936 yılında Üç Krallığın birleşmesinden, 1392 yılında Joseon hanedanlığının kurulmasına değin Kore yarımadasına hükmetmiştir.

Seladon çömlekleri ve Haeinsa Tapınağında bulunan, kabaca 80.000 ahşap bloğa oyulmuş Triptakalar, bu dönemden günümüze kalan en önemli iki üründür. Ayrıca bu dönemde dünyanın en eski metal baskılı kitabı olan Jikji yazılmıştır. (1377).

668 yılında Silla-Tang İttifakı ile Baekje ve Goguryeo fethedildi ancak 9. yüzyıl da güçlü ve zeki devlet adamlarının olmamasından dolayı Silla Krallığı çökme durumuna kadar geldi. 900 yılında Hubaekje 'den Gyeon Hwon, Silla kontrolündeki Jeolla bölgesinde, bir sonraki yıl Hugoguryeo' dan Gung Ye, kuzey bölgelerde isyan çıkarttı. Bölgesel bir Lord'un oğlu olan Wang Geon (Taejo-Goryeo Devletinin kurucusu) general olarak Hugoguryeo 'ya katıldı, daha sonra ayaklanarak Gung Ye'yi öldürdü, ardından Hubaekje veirdi Goryeo, Silla Krallisığıyele olınınıo . 936 yılında ardından Hubaekje'yi de fetheden Goryeo, tam 474 yıl Kore'yi yönetecek olan bir Hanedan olmuş oldu.

14. yüzyıla gelindiğinde Goryeo, Yuan Hanedanı'nın etkisi altında gücünün çoğunu kaybetmişti. Kral Gongmin'in Krallığını Moğol etkisinden (Yuan) kurtarmak için çalışmasına rağmen, Goryeo generali Yi Seonggye ayaklandı 1392 yılında Kral Gongyang'ı devirdi, 1394 yılında son Kang'o'nongldi.

Goryeo, Kore'nin eski Üç Krallığından biri olan Goguryeo, adından türetilmiştir. Günümzde ki Kore’de adını Goryeo'dan (Koryo) almaktadır.

Goryeo, también conocido como Koryŏ (Hangul: 고려 hanja: 高麗 pronunciación coreana: [koɾyo] 918-1392), fue una dinastía coreana establecida en 918 por el rey Taejo. Este reino más tarde dio nombre al estado moderno de Corea. Unió los últimos tres reinos en 936 y gobernó la mayor parte de la península de Corea hasta que fue destituida por el líder de la dinastía Joseon en 1392. La dinastía Goryeo expandió sus fronteras hasta la actual Wonsan en el noreste (936-943). y el río Amnok (993) y finalmente casi toda la península de Corea.

Dos de los productos más notables de este período son la cerámica de celadón de Goryeo y el Triptaka, las escrituras budistas talladas en aproximadamente 80.000 bloques de madera y almacenados, y aún en, Haeinsa. Los sujetos y funcionarios de la dinastía Goryeo también crearon el primer tipo móvil basado en metal del mundo en 1234.El libro de tipos móviles de metal más antiguo que se conserva, el Jikji, se hizo en 1377.

En 668, Silla conquistó Baekje y Goguryeo con la alianza de la dinastía Tang, pero a finales del siglo IX se tambaleaba, sus monarcas carecían de imaginación y estaban presionados por el poder de poderosos estadistas. Muchos ladrones y forajidos se agitaron y en 900 Gyeon Hwon se rebeló contra el control de Silla en la región de Jeolla como yılında Hubaekje y el año siguiente Gung Ye se rebeló en las regiones del norte como Hugoguryeo (Taebong). Hijo de un señor regional, Wang Geon entró en Hugoguryeo como general.

En el siglo XIV, Goryeo había perdido gran parte de su poder bajo las influencias de la dinastía Yuan. Aunque el rey Gongmin logró liberar su reino de la influencia mongol, el general de Goryeo, Yi Seonggye, se rebeló y derrocó al último rey de Goryeo, el rey Gongyang en 1392. Gongyang fue asesinado en 1394.

El nombre "Goryeo" se deriva de "Goguryeo", uno de los antiguos Tres Reinos de Corea, que cambió su nombre a "Goryeo" durante el reinado del rey Jangsu de Goguryeo (en el siglo V). El nombre inglés "Corea" deriva de "Goryeo".

sukjong
Historia de Asia Oriental

668 yılında Kore'nin Üç Krallığı'ndan biri olan Silla, Üç Krallığı birleştirmeyi başardı, ancak 9. yüzyılın sonlarında yerel lordların üzerindeki kontrolünü kaybetti. Ülke Gung Ye (Hugoguryeo), Gi Hwon, Yang Gil ve Gyeon Hwon (Hubaekje) önderliğinde ki ayaklanmalarla, iç savaş ve isyanlarla geçen bir döneme girdi.

Wang Geon (Taejo), Songdo'da (bugünkü Kaesong) bir tüccar ailesinin soyundan gelemekteydi, Taebong (Hugoguryeo) devletine katıldı. 918 yılında Gung Ye'yi devirerek Goryeo Krallığını kurdu.

927 yılında Goryeo bugünkü Daegu bölgesinde Hubaekje 'ye yenildi. Wang Geon savaşta en iyi destekçilerini kaybetmiş ancak savaştan 3 yıl sonra Hubaekje'nin, Andong bölgesindeki bir yenilgisi sonucu Wang Geon, Hubaekje den intikamını almıştı.

Goryeo, 935 yılındaSilla 'yı, 936 yılında Hubaekje'yi mağlup ederek Sonraki Üç Krallık dönemine son verdi. Wang Geon memleketi olan Kaesong'a başkenti taşıdı ve Goryeo'nun ilk kralı olarak Kore yarımadasına hükmetti. Wang Geon Silla kraliyet ailesinden bir kız ile evlendi ve Silla asillerinin Goryeo topraklarında kalmasına izin verdi. Wang Geon'un 943'de ki ölümünden sonra oğlu Hyejong tahta geçti.

Goryeo mahkemelerinde kullanılan terimlere göre Goryeo, bir krallık değil, bir imparatorluktur. Başkenti Kaesong'a '' İmparatorluk Başkenti '' (Korece: 황도, Hanja: 皇 都), sarayınada '' İmparatorluk Sarayı '' (Korece: 황성, Hanja: 皇城) denirdi. Ulus, aynı zamanda çoklu başkent sistemini kullanmaktaydı. Gaegyeong (Kaesong) ve Seogyeong (günümüzdeki Pyongyang) iki ana başkentiydi. Bunun dışında Namgyeong (Korece: 남경, Hanja: 南京) (günümüzdeki Seúl), ve Donggyeong (Korece: 동경, Hanja: 东京) (günümüzdeki Gyeongju) ikincil başkent olarak kullanılırdı. Bu sistem ve isimlendirmeler Goryeo'nun bir imparatorluk olduğunu göstermektedir. Ayrıca İmparatoriçe (Korece: 황후, Hanja: 皇后) İmparatorluk Velihat Prensi (Korece: 태자, Hanja: 太子) ve İmparatorluk Yönetmeliği gibi kullanılan terimlerde Goryeo'nun bir İmparatorluk olduğunku kan. Ancak Goryeo hükümdarları '' İmparator '' (Korece: 황제, Hanja: 皇帝). unvanını kullanmıyordu. Bunun yerine Goryeo’lular hükümdarlarının ölümünden sonra '' Büyük Kral '' unvanıyla hitap etmekte ve hükümdarların anısını yaşatmaktaydılar.

Moğol istilasından sonra, tüm bu terimlerin kullanımı Moğol hükümdarları tarafından yasaklandı ve Goryeo hükümdarları ölümlerinden sonra sadık anlamına gelen "忠" (Korece: 충, zlarung ") Kral Wonjong dan Gongmin 'e kadar olan hükümdarların öldükten sonraki adlarında bu karakterin "忠" olmasının nedeni de budur.

Dördüncü Kral Gwangjong, merkezi yönetimi güçlendirmek için 958 yılında köle azatları da dahil olmak üzere bir dizi kanun hazırlamış ve sivillerin istihdamı için sınavlar yapırlm. Gwangjong aynı zamanda Uluslararası bir güç olmak için başka bir ülkeye bağımlı olmadıklarını ve Goryeo'nun bir imparatorluk olduğunu ilan etti.

Onbirinci Kral olan Munjong döneminde, Goryeo merkezi yönetimde tam yetkili oldu ve yerel beyler üzerindeki gücünü arttırdı. Munjong ve daha sonraki krallar ordu üzerindeki sivil liderliğinin önemini vurguladı.

Kitan istilalaları ve Jurchen seferi

993 yılında, Khitanların Liao Hanedanı tahminen 60.000 asker ile Goryeo'nun kuzeybatı sınırını işgal etti. Daha sonra Goryeo, Çin'in Song Hanedanı ile ittifakı kabul etti, bununla birlikte, Khitan ile Seo Hui'nin müzakeresi sonucu Liao askerleri geri çekildi ve Amnok Nehri'nin (ayrıca Yalu Nehri olarak da bilinir) doğusundaki toprakları devrettiler. Ancak, Goryeo yeni kazanmış olduğu kuzey topraklarında bir kale inşa ederek konumunu sağlamlaştırmış olan Song Hanedanı ile etkileşimde bulunmaya devam etti.

Bu arada, 1009 yılında, Goryeo Generali Gang Jo, Kral Mokjong'a karşı bir darbe yaptı. hükümdarı öldürerek askeri üstünlüğünü sağladı. 1010 yılında, Kitan, Goryeo'nun iktidar mücadelesi sırasında 400.000 asker ile tekrar saldırdı. Gang Jo kendi ölümüne kadar Liao işgallerini engellendi. Goryeo Kralı Hyeonjong geçici olarak bir diğer başkent Naju’ya kaçmak zorunda kaldı. Sağlam bir yer kuramayan ve bir karşı saldırıdan korkan Kitan kuvvetleri geri çekildi.

1018 yılında, Khitan ordusu 100.000 asker ile üçüncü kez Goryeo’yu işgal etti. General Gang Gam-chan Kitanlar Heunghaejin nehrini geçmeye çalışırken, geçişlerini engellemek amacıyla nehir üzerindeki barajın imha edilmesini emretti ve Kitanları boğarak yok etmeyi amaçladı. General Gang Kitan ordusunun büyük bir kısmını imha etti.

Bu arada Jurjeonlar (Jin Hanedanı) Goryeo’nun kuzeyinde yaşadı. Jurjehenler daima Goryeo hükümdarlarına haraç verdiler, ancak Jurjeon kabileleri güçlenince Wanyan (Kore'nin kuzeyinde kurulmuş bir kabile birliğidir) altında birleştiler. Jurchenler sınırları ihlal etmeye başlayınca 1087 yılında Goryeo, Jurjhenleri işgal etti.

1107 yılında, General Yun gwan yeni kurulmuş olan ve Byeolmuban olarak adlandırılan Goryeo ordusuyla yaklaşık 17.000 kişilik bir kuvvet oluşturdu ve Jurchenlere tekrar saldırdı. Savaş birkaç yıl sürdü, savaşın sonucunda Jurchenler mağlup olarak Yun Gwan'a teslim oldular. Zaferin bir işareti olması için General Yun Goryeo-Jurchen sınırının kuzey doğusuna dokuz kale inşa ettirdi (Korece: 동북 9 성, Hanja: 东北 九城). 1108 yılında ise Goryeo'nun yeni hükümdarı Kral Yejong, General Yun'a askerlerini geri çekmesi için emir verdi. Yapılan entrikalardan dolayı general görevinden alındı. Bunun yanı sıra dokuz kale Jurhenlere verildi, kalıcı kılmak içinde savaş yapıldı.

17. Kral Injong, Yi ailesinden (Korece: 인주 이씨, Hanja: 仁 州 李氏) Munjong il evlendi. Daha sonra Yi ailesi bir hükümdar kadar güç kazandı. Bu 1126 yılında Yi Ja-gyeom darbesine neden oldu darbenin başarısız olmasına rağmen hükümdarın gücü zayıfladı. Böylece Goryeo soyluları arasında bir iç savaş başladı.

1135 yılında, Myo Cheong (Budist rahip ve Goryeo’nun önemli isimlerinden biri) Seogyeong’ın (bugünkü Pyongyang) başkent olması gerektiğini savundu. Bu öneriyle Goryeo'nun soyluları ikiye bölünmüş. Myo Cheong liderliğindeki bir grup başkenti Pyongyang'a taşıyarak Mançurya'ya doğru genişlemeyi savunuyorlardı. Kim Bu-sik (Samguk sagi'nin yazarı) liderliğindeki diğer bir grup ise, var olan düzeni korumak istedi. Myo Cheong Kralı ikna edemedi ve merkezi hükümete karşı bir isyan başlattı ancak başarısız oldu ve öldürüldü.

1170 yılında, Jeong Jung-bu, Yi Ui-bang ve Yi Go liderliğindeki bir grup subay darbe girişiminde bulundu ve başarıya ulaştı. Kral UiJong sürgüne gönderildi ve Kral Myeongjong tahta geçti. Böylece askeri saltanat başlamış oldu tahtı denetlemek amacıyla Tobang adıyla bilinen elit bir muhafız birimi kuruldu. 1179 yılında, genç bir general olan Gyeong Dae-seung iktidara ve hükümdara gücünü tekrar kazandırmak ve devletin yolsuzluklarını temizlemek amacıyla bir girişim başlattı. Ancak başarısız olarak Yi Ui-min tarafından 1183 yılında öldürüldü. Yi Ui-min’in yolsuzluk ve zulümle geçen dönemi Choe Chungheon’nun yapmış olduğu devrimle 1197’de sona erdi ve Choe Chungheon iktidarı ele geçirdi. Sonraki 61 yıl boyunca, Choe ailesi hükümdarları kukla gibi kullandılar koruma bahanesiyle askeri diktatörler gibi yönettiler Choe Chungheon'nun oğlu Choe U, torunu Choe Hang ve onun torunu Choe Ui sırayla ülkenin asıl yöneticileri oldular.

1219 yılında Goryeolular ve Moğollar güçlerini Kitanlar'a karşı ortak kullandılar. Daha sonra, 1231 yılında Ögeday Han'ın altındaki Moğollar Goryeo'yu işgal ettiler. 1232 yılında Kraliyet, Ganghwa Adası'na geri çekilmek zorunda kaldı. Bir nevi o dönemin askeri hükümdarı Choe U (최우) Moğollarla mücadele konusunda ısrar etti. Goryeo yaklaşık 30 yıl direndi ancak 1259 yılında barış girişiminde bulunmak zorunda kaldı.

Bu arada, Moğollar 1231-1259 yılları arasında bir savaş başlatarak Gyeongsang ve Jeolla illerini harap ettiler. Altı büyük yıkım yapıldı: 1231, 1232, 1235, 1238, 1247, 1253 yıkımları 1253 ve 1258 yılları arasında, Mongke Han'ın, Generali Jalairtai Qorchi altında ki Moğolların Kore yarımadasının genelinde sivil hayatlarında açmış olduğu muazzam yıkım Kore toplumunu derinden etkiledi.

Sivil direniş güçlüydü ve Ganghwa Adasındaki İmparatorluk güçleri kalelerini güçlendirmek için çalıştılar ve birçok zafer kazandılar ancak Kore askeri istila dalgalarına dayanamadı. Tekrarlanan Moğol istilaları Kore’de tahribata, insan hayatının kaybına ve kıtlığa neden oldu. 1232 işgali sırasında tahrip edilen Triptakalar ‘ın, 1236 yılında, Kral Gojong yeniden oluşturulmasını emretti. Budizm'in bu kutsal koleksiyonunun 81.000 ahşap bloğun üzerine yazılması 15 yıl sürdü ve bugüne kadar kendini korudu. 1258 yılının Mart ayında diktatör Choe Ui, Kim Jun tarafından öldürüldü. Böylece onun askeri diktatörlük dönemi sona erdi. Daha sonraki dönemde alimler güç kazandı. Alimler, Moğollar'a bir elçi gönderdi ve bir barış antlaşması imzalandı.

Antlaşmayla Moğollar egemen güç oldular, Goryeolulara geleneksel kültürlerini yaşam iznini verdiler. Moğolların istilasından sonra Kore yarımadasının kuzey bölgeleri işgal edilerek imparatorluğun içine dahil edildi. Goryeo ile barış anlaşmasının ardından, Moğollar, Goryeo birlikleri ile ittifak kurarak Japonya'yı fethetmek için 1274 ve 1281 yılında Japonya'yaya iki saldırı gerçekleştirdi Ancak Kuvvetli askeri direniş ve ağır fırtınalardan (Kamikaze denir) dolayı saldırılar başarısız oldu.

Goryeo Kralları Moğol (Yuan) kadınlarıyla evlendirildi ve evlilik yoluyla iki ülke arasındaki sözde ittafak güçlendirildi.
Kral Gongmin 1350 yılında tekrar Yuan’e saldırmaya başlayana kadar Goryeo Hanedanı, Yuan Hanedanı’nın etkisi altında yaşadı. 1350 yılında Goryeo kaybettiği kuzey topraklarını tekrar ele geçirdi.

Avrasya'nın Moğol egemenliğinin altında olmasının en yararlı yönleri, kültürel etkileşim ile doğu ve batı arasında gelişen, uluslararası ticaret oldu. Moğollar Kore'yi teknolojik bakımdan etkiledi, çömlek, haritacılık ve üretim gibi alanlarda gelişme sağlandı.

Kral Gongmin (1351-1374) tahta çıktığında Goryeo Moğol (Yuan Hanedanı) etkisi altında idi. Gongmin Kral olmadan önce 1341 yılında Yuan'e gönderildi ve bir süre orada yaşadı. O Moğol prensesi Kraliçe Noguk ile evlendi. Daha sonra 14. yüzyılda Yuan, Ming hanedanı tarafından ele geçirilmeye başlandı (1368), Kral Gongmin Goryeo devletinde reformla ve Moğol etkileri kaldırmak için çalışmalarına başladı.

İlk reformu Moğol yanlısı tüm aristokrat ve subayları görevinden almak oldu. Moğol istilasından sonra Goryeo'nun kuzey illeri işgal edilmişti daha sonra tekrar ele geçirilerek Ssangseong (쌍성 총 관부, 双城 摠 管 府) ve Dongnyeong Valilikleri (동녕부, 东 宁府) olarak imparatorluğun içine dahil edildi.

Gongmin’in eşi Kraliçe Kraliçe Noguk’un 1365 yılındaki ölümünden sonra, o depresyona girdi. Bundan dolayı siyasete karşı kayıtsız kaldı ve Budist keşiş Shin Don (신돈, 辛旽) yönetimde güç sahibi oldu ancak altı yıl sonra Shin Don pozisyonunu kaybetti. 1374 yılında Kral Gongmin Choe Man-saeng (최만생) ve diğerleri tarafından öldürüldü.

1388 yılında Kral U (Kral Gongmin oğlu) ve General Choe Yeong Çin’in bugünkü Liaoning bölgesini istila etmek için bir saldırı planladı. Kral U, sorumlu olarak General Yi Seong-Gye (Joseon Devleti’nin kurucusu-Taejo) yerine bıraktı, ancak bu sırada General Yi Seong-Gye isyan etti. 1392 yılında Goryeo Hanedanlığı çöktü ve Yi Seong-Gye (Taejo) tarafından Joseon Devleti kuruldu.

Silla, which had accomplished an incomplete unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea in 668, weakened and lost control over local lords during the end of the 9th century. El país entró en un período de guerra civil y rebelión, liderado por Gung Ye, Gi Hwon, Yang Gil y Gyeon Hwon. Gung Ye established Hugoguryeo (meaning "Later Goguryeo", renamed Taebong and Majin). Gyeon Hwon estableció Hubaekje (que significa "Baekje posterior"). Together with the declining Silla, they are known as the Later Three Kingdoms.

Wang Geon , a descendant of a merchant family of Songdo (present-day Kaesŏng), joined Taebong but overthrew Gung Ye and established the Goryeo Kingdom and Dynasty in 918.

Goryeo adopted a Silla-friendly Hubaekje-hostile stage in the later Three Kingdoms, but in 927, Goryeo was defeated by Hubaekje in present-day Daegu. Wang Geon lost his best supporters in the battle. For 3 years after the battle, Hubaekje dominated the Later Three Kingdoms but after a defeat at the Andong in 930, Hubaekje lost his power.

The The Latter Theree Kingdoms era ended as Goryeo annexed Silla in 935 and defeated Hubaekje in 936. Wang Geon moved the capital to his hometown Kaesǒng, and ruled the Korean peninsula as the first King of Goryeo. Wang Geon married a daughter of the Silla royal family and let most nobles keep their lands. Even though Wang Geon ruled the united nation for only 7 years before his son took the reign after his death, the succession was not challenged.

The terminology used in the court of Goryeo was that of an empire, not of a kingdom. The capital, Gaegyeong (Korean: 개경,Hanja: 開京,) was called "Imperial Capital" (Korean: 황도, Hanja: 皇都) and the palace was referred to as "Imperial Palace" (Korean: 황성, Hanja: 皇城). The nation also utilized a system of multiple capitals: Gaegyeong (modern-day Gaeseong), being the main capital, and Seogyeong (Korean: 서경, Hanja: 西京) (modern-day Pyongyang), Namgyeong (Korean: 남경, Hanja: 南京) (modern-day Seoul), and Donggyeong (Korean: 동경, Hanja: 東京) (modern-day Gyeongju) as secondary capitals. The mere use of this system and the nomenclature or use of the character "京“ implied that Goryeo functioned internally as an empire.

Other terms, such as "Your Imperial Majesty" (Korean: 성상, Hanja: 聖上), "Empress" (Korean: 황후, Hanja: 皇后) "Imperial Crown Prince" (Korean: 태자, Hanja: 太子), "Empress Dowager" (Korean: 태후, Hanja: 太后), and "Imperial Ordinance" (詔 or 勅) also suggest that Goryeo adopted the title system of an empire. However, Goryeo, when enshrining its rulers, did not use the title of "Emperor" (Korean: 황제, Hanja: 皇帝). Instead, the title of "Great King" (Korean: 대왕, Hanja: 大王) was used to posthumously enshrine Goryeo monarchs. When enshrining its rulers, however, it did use "temple names" such as Taejo (Korean: 태조, Hanja: 太祖) this is a practice mere kingdoms did not take part in. Imperial titles, like Emperor or "Haedong Emperor" (Korean: 해동천자, Hanja: 海東天子, lit. the Son of Heaven Ruling the Land East of the Sea)" were also used.

After the Mongol invasions, all of these terms were prohibited by Mongol rulers, and Goryeo monarchs were forced to insert the character “忠” (Korean: 충, romanization: "chung"), meaning loyal, into their posthumous enshrinement names. This is why the monarchs after Wonjong had this character "忠” in their posthumous names, up until Gongmin. As Mongol power diminished, rulers no longer used "忠,” but still were unable to restore the use of the temple name.

In order to strengthen the power of the central government, Gwangjong, the fourth emperor, made a series of laws including that of freeing slaves in 958, and one creating the exam for hiring civil officials. To assert power internationally, Gwangjong also proclaimed Goryeo an empire, independent from any other country of its day.

The fifth king, Gyeongjong, launched land-ownership reformation called Jeonsigwa (Korean: 전시과, Hanja: 田柴科) and the 6th king, Seongjong of Goryeo appointed officials to local areas, which were previously succeeded by the lords. Entre 993 y 1019, las guerras Goryeo-Khitan devastaron la frontera norte.

By the time of eleventh king, Munjong of Goryeo, the central government of Goryeo gained complete authority and power over local lords. Munjong and later kings emphasized the importance of civilian leadership over the military.

Khitan invasions and Jurchen Expedition

In 993, the Khitan Liao Dynasty invaded Goryeo's northwest border with an estimated 60,000 troops. However, after Seo Hui's negotiation with Khitan, they withdrew and ceded territory to the east of the Amrok River (also called Yalu River) when Goryeo agreed to end its alliance with Song Dynasty China. However, Goryeo continued to communicate with the Song, having strengthened its position by building a fortress in the newly gained northern territories.

Meanwhile, In 1009, General Gang Jo of Goryeo led a coup against King Mokjong, killing the monarch and establishing military rule. In 1010, The Khitan attacked again with 400,000 troops during an internal Goryeo power struggle. Gang Jo bloqueó las invasiones de Liao hasta su propia muerte. The Goryeo King Hyeonjong was forced to flee the capital to Naju temporarily. Unable to establish a foothold and fearing a counterattack, the Khitan forces withdrew.

In 1018, the Khitan army invaded for the third time with 100,000 troops. In Heunghaejin stream, General Gang Gam-chan ordered the stream to be blocked until the Khitans began to cross it, and when the Khitans were mid-way across, he ordered that the dam be destroyed so that the water would drown much of the Khitan army. The damage was great, and General Gang led a massive attack that annihilated many of the Khitan army. Barely a few thousand of the Liao troops survived after the bitter defeat at Kwiju one year later.

Meanwhile, the Jurchen tribes lived to the north of Goryeo. The Jurchens always rendered tribute to the Goryeo monarchs, but the Jurchen tribes grew strong, and were soon united under Wanyan. They began to violate the Goryeo-Jurchen borders, and eventually invaded Goryeo. In 1087, the first version of the Tripitaka Koreana was completed, after many years of labor.

In 1107, General Yun Gwan led the newly formed Goryeo army, a force of approximately 17,000 men called Byeolmuban, and attacked the Jurchens. Though the war lasted for several years, the Jurchen were ultimately defeated, and surrendered to Yun Gwan. To mark the victory, General Yun built nine fortresses to the northeast of the Goryeo-Jurchen borders (Korean:동북 9성, Hanja:東北九城). In 1108, however, General Yun was given orders to withdraw his troops by Goryeo's new ruler, King Yejong. Due to manipulation and court-intrigue from opposing factions, he was discharged from his post. Along with this, the opposing factions fought to make sure that the new nine fortresses were returned to the Jurchens.

The House Yi of Inju (Korean: 인주 이씨, Hanja: 仁州李氏) married the Kings from Munjong to the 17th King, Injong. Eventually the Yis gained more power than the monarch himself. This led to the coup of Yi Ja-gyeom in 1126. The coup failed but the power of the monarch was weakened Goryeo underwent a civil war among the nobility.

In 1135, Myo Cheong argued in favor of moving the capital to Seogyeong (present day P'yŏngyang). This proposal divided the nobles of Goryeo in half. One faction, led by Myo Cheong, believed in moving the capital to Pyongyang and expanding into Manchuria. The other one, led by Kim Bu-sik (author of theSamguk sagi ), wanted to keep the status quo. Myo Cheong failed to persuade the King and rebelled against the central government and made a country named Daebang, but failed and was killed.

In 1170, a group of army officers led by Jeong Jung-bu, Yi Ui-bang and Yi Go launched a coup d'état and succeeded. King UiJong went into exile and King Myeongjong was placed on the throne. Effective power, however, lay with a succession of generals who used an elite guard unit known as the Tobang to control the throne: military rule of Goryeo had begun. In 1179, the young general Gyeong Dae-seung rose to power and began an attempt to restore the full power of the monarch and purge the corruption of the state.

However, he died in 1183 and was succeeded by Yi Ui-min, who came from a nobi (slave) background.[5] His unrestrained corruption and cruelty[5] led to a coup by general Choe Chungheon, who assassinated Yi Ui-min and took supreme power in 1197. For the next 61 years, the Choe house ruled as military dictators, maintaining the Kings as puppet monarchs Choe Chungheon was succeeded in turn by his son Choe U, his grandson Choe Hang and his great-grandson Choe Ui. On taking power, Choe Chungheon forced Myeongjong off the throne and replaced him with King Sinjong, but after Sinjong died he forced two further monarchs off the throne until he found the pliable King Gojong.

In 1231, Mongols under Ögedei Khan invaded Goryeo, following the aftermath of joint Goryeo-Mongol forces against the Khitans in 1219.[6] The royal court moved toGanghwa Island in the Bay of Gyeonggi, in 1232. The military ruler of the time, Choe U (최우), insisted on fighting back. Goryeo resistió durante unos 30 años, pero finalmente pidió la paz en 1259.

Meanwhile, the Mongols began a campaign from 1231 to 1259 that ravaged parts of Gyeongsang and Jeolla provinces. There were six major campaigns: 1231, 1232, 1235, 1238, 1247, 1253 between 1253 and 1258, the Mongols under Möngke Khan's general Jalairtai Qorchi launched four devastating invasions in the final successful campaign against Korea, at tremendous cost to civilian lives throughout the Korean peninsula.

Civilian resistance was strong, and the Imperial Court at Ganghwa attempted to strengthen its fortress. Korea won several victories but the Korean military could not withstand the waves of invasions. The repeated Mongol invasions caused havoc, loss of human lives and famine in Korea. In 1236, Gojong ordered the re-creation of the Triptaka Koreana, destroyed during the 1232 invasion. This collection of Buddhist scriptures took 15 years to carve on some 81,000 wooden blocks, and is preserved to this day. In March 1258, the dictator Choe Ui was assassinated by Kim Jun. Thus, dictatorship by his military group was ended, and the scholars who had insisted on peace with Mongolia gained power. Eventually, the scholars sent an envoy to the Mongols, and a peace treaty was contracted between the Mongol Empire and Goryeo. Some military officials who refused to surrender formed the Sambyeolcho Rebellion and resisted in the islands off the southern shore of the Korean peninsula.

The treaty permitted the sovereign power and traditional cultures of Goryeo, and implied that the Mongols had no plans of controlling Goryeo. The Mongols annexed the northern areas of Korean peninsula after the invasions and incorporated them into their empire. After the peace treaty with Goryeo, the Mongols planned to conquer Japan by allying with Goryeo troops again in 1274 and 1281 two campaigns to Japan took place however, it failed due to a heavy storm (called the Kamikaze) and strong military resistance.

The Goryeo became "quda" (marriage alliance) state of the Yuan dynasty and monarchs of Goryeo were mainly imperial sons in-law (khuregen). The Kings of Goryeo held an important status like other important families of Mardin, Uighurs and Mongols (Oirat, Hongirat, and Ikeres). It is claimed that one of Goryeo monarchs was the most beloved grandson of Kublai Khan.

The Goryeo Dynasty survived under Yuan influences until King Gongmin began to push Yuan garrisons back around 1350. By the 1350s Goryeo regained its lost northern territories.

Most beneficial aspects of the Mongol domination of Eurasia was cultural exchange and flourishing international trade between east and west. The Mongols certainly learned Korean ideas and technology and those benefits of the growing world empire also influenced the knowledge of cartography and production of pottery in Goryeo. Due to high military preparedness of the Goryeo and Mongol allies in Korea, particularly during the Sambyolch'o rebellion in Cheju and southernmost Korea and Mongol invasions of Japan, and the awareness of Kamakura in Japan led to the decline in Wako (Japanese pirates) raids into Korean peninsula. No more raids of Japanese again heard until 1350 when the Mongols were suffering from massive rebellions in China.

When King Gongmin ascended to the throne Goryeo was under the influence of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty. He was forced to spend many years in the Yuan court, being sent there in 1341 as a virtual prisoner before becoming king. He married the Mongol princess Queen Noguk. But in the mid-14th century Yuan was beginning to crumble, soon to be replaced by the Ming dynasty in 1368. King Gongmin began efforts to reform the Goryeo government and remove Mongolian influences.

His first act was to remove all pro-Mongol aristocrats and military officers from their positions. Mongols had annexed the northern provinces of Goryeo after the invasions and incorporated them into their empire as the Ssangseong (쌍성총관부, 雙城摠管府) and Dongnyeong Prefectures (동녕부, 東寧府). The Goryeo army retook these provinces partly thanks to defection from Yi Ja-chun, a minor Korean official in service of Mongols in Ssangseong, and his son Yi Seonggye. In addition, Generals Yi Seonggye and Ji Yongsu led a campaign into Liaoyang.

But after the death of Gongmin's wife Queen Noguk in 1365, he fell into depression. In the end, he became indifferent to politics and entrusted that great task to the buddhist monk Shin Don (신돈, 辛旽). But after six years, Shin Don lost his position. In 1374, Gonmin was killed by Choe Man-saeng (최만생) and others.

In 1388, King U (son of King Gongmin and a concubine) and general Choe Yeong planned a campaign to invade present-day Liaoning of China. King U put the general Yi Seong-Gye (later Taejo) in charge, but he stopped at the border and rebelled. Goryeo fell to General Yi Seong-gye, a son of a Yi Ja-chun, who put to death the last three Goryeo Kings, usurped the throne and established in 1392 the Joseon Dynasty.


Scarlet Heart Ryeo – History Facts (Spoilers?)

I hope you all doing well If you don’t like spoilers, go and read another blog below mine

This is kinda messed up, but i hope you’ll understand (it’s not easy to write in not your mother tongue about history )

So yesterday i watched ep 6 & 7 of SH and there was a part, when Hae Soo had this flashback in the water and than keep thinking who of the princes will kill all his brothers… This bothers me very much.

Did the real next king really have so many brothers and did he kill them all?

I start to research a bit and i want to share what i found out with those who are interested.

Wives: 6

Kids with his wives: 19

Concubine: 23

Kids with them: 16

That’s why some of the prince are just half-brothers.

If you are curios about who has which mother, klick HERE for more Details. Under Family you will find all names.

/>If you didn’t know it yet, Goryeo was a korean dynasty (year 918 – year 1392), which was followed by the Joseon dynasty (year 1392 – year 1897). />

The founder of Goryeo was Taejo of Goryeo, also known as Taejo Wang Geon.

He was followed by his son Hyejong (Wang Mu – The Crown Prince), who govern the country 2 years. (943 – 945)

Because of his death, his brother Jeongjong (Wang Yo – 3. Prince) ascend the throne for 4 years (945 – 949).

After Wang Yo now came the person Hae Soo keeps thinking of. Gwangjong of Goryeo. And guess who he is… Wang So!

Finally he makes it on the throne. He govern Korea 26 years in total (949 – 975).

Next was his son Gyeongjong. But here i will stop. For more klick HERE.

To answer my question in the beginning: Nobody killed his brothers in the history.

My friend and me were really curios who Wang So end up with.

Here his real family register:

Consorts (Wife and second Wife):

Queen Daemok, his half-sister

Lady Gyeonghwagung, his niece, daughter of King Hyejong (Crown Prince)

Children: 2 sons and 3 daughters with Daemok

I’m a bit sad that there is nothing about someone called Hae Soo. But maybe she never really exist. So the story is half-true and half-fictional. May they change the story and the end is different from the history ^^

Gracias por leer A nice weekend for you all.

Update: Thanks for this great feedback! If you have any more questions, just comment below! Maybe i can answer them Like how the Crown Prince die or something alse! Even if you know something which i didn’t know and you think it’s missing here. Go ahead and tell me!

#ScarletHeartRyeo #Moonlovers #History

Rights go to wikipedia

I put so much effort in this! Thank you all

Views on Taejo Yi Seong-gye [ edit | editar fuente]

Despite the fact that he overthrew the kingdom of Goryeo, and purged officials who remained loyal to the old regime, many regard him as a revolutionary and a decisive ruler who disposed the inept, obsolete and crippled governing system to save the nation from many foreign forces and conflicts. & # 91 cita necesaria ]

Safeguarding domestic security led the Koreans to rebuild and further discover their culture. In the midst of the rival Yuan and Ming Dynasties, the Joseon Dynasty encouraged the development of national identity which once was threatened by the Mongols. However, some scholars view him as a mere traitor to the old regime, paralleling him to a bourgeois apostate, and General Choe Yeong as a military elite, who conservatively served the old regime of Goryeo to death. & # 91 cita necesaria ]

His diplomatic policy successes in securing Korea in the early modern period is notable. & # 911 & # 93


Naju: hometown of historic figures

A model of a Goguryeo palace can be found at the Naju Image Theme Park.

Naju is home to a village that is surrounded by Goguryeo palaces and fortresses. This is the Naju Image Theme Park, where the soap operas “Jumong” and “Kingdom of the Winds” were filmed. Located in the southwestern parts of the country, the city of Naju was occupied by the Baekje Kingdom during Korea’s Three Kingdoms Period (57 B.C.-A.D. 668). First-time visitors to the theme park can reflect on the nation’s history and may have questions about the Goguryeo-style architecture.

Naju itself doesn’t have much to do with actual Goguryeo history. Following both Korea’s Three Kingdoms Period and the Unified Silla Period (668-935), Naju was a stronghold for the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392). It was in Naju that Sambong Jeong Do-jeon, who played a critical role in founding Joseon (1392-1910), conceived of the idea to build a new capital.

Two statues along the Wansacheon Stream in Naju tell the love story of King Taejo Wang Geon (877-943), founder of Goryeo, and Empress Janghwa of the Oh clan. The story goes that she set afloat a willow leaf in a water bottle that Taejo, then a general, was drinking from so that he could slow down during the war.

Based in Naju, the Oh clan played a key role in the foundation of Goryeo during Korea’s Later Three Kingdoms Period (892-936). The clan’s descendents were responsible for the management of the Yeongsangang River, a major transportation and shipping channel. The family got its daughter married to Taejo and supported the foundation of the new Goryeo kingdom. She gave birth to the future King Hyejong, the second monarch of the dynasty, and was conferred with the title of “empress.”

A thatched roofed house is discovered in Sojae-dong in Naju. It was built in honor of Sambong Jeong Do-jeon who was exiled to Naju for three years. He established the political ideas and philosophies used to run the new Joseon nation.

In late Goryeo times while exiled in Naju, Sambong was firmly convinced that he needed to give up on Goryeo and found a new kingdom. He supported Yi Seong-gye, who became King Taejo, the first Joseon monarch, and succeeded in founding the Joseon kingdom.

Over the past 1,000 years, Naju has had a lot to do with many important occasions throughout Korean history. There are a number of historical sites and relics representing Naju’s historical relevancy. Among them is the ginkgo tree grown on the grounds of the Naju hyanggyo, a Confucian academy. It’s said to have been planted by King Taejo himself. There is a thatched roofed house in Sojae-dong, too, where Sambong was said to have been exiled.

The myth says that Arangsa and Abisa fell in love with each other in the vicinity of the Yeongsangang River during Korea’s Three Kingdoms Period (57 B.C.-A.D. 668). In jealousy, young villagers threw Abisa into the river, but she was brought to life in the form of a giant snake. Alas, then both of them fell into the river near the Angam Rock (pictured). This area is known for its rapid currents which have overturned numerous riverboats.

A group of herons flies low over the Yeongsangang River.

There are a variety of things to see and do in Naju, more than just the written record of history. Surrounding the Angam Rock, where a love story is said to have taken place, a group of herons can be seen from time to time. There are also fishermen and fishing boats floating along the Yeongsangang River, still an important thoroughfare for many local people.

The Dorae Hanok Village is one of the most popular tourist attractions. Still lived in by locals, the solar power panel creates a sharp contrast between the past and modernity.

Located in Dado-myeon in Naju, the Dorae Hanok Village gives visitors a chance to learn about the wisdom of the past and modern civilization that changes the landscape quite a bit. Near the village is the Jeonnam Forest Resource Research Institute, popular among visitors who wish to fully enjoy nature. Metasequoia Lane at the institute, in particular, is one of the most beloved places for picnics. Under the green canopy, adults want to run around the beautiful park like a child.

By Jeon Han, Lee Seung-ah
Photos: Jeon Han, Naju City
Korea.net Staff Writers
[email protected]

Kids smile as they race up and down Metasequoia Lane.

The Naju Image Theme Park is one of the most sought-after locations to film historic soap operas, especially those set in Goguryeo (37 B.C.-A.D. 668) and Baekje (18 B.C.-A.D. 660) times. The park is surrounded by some 95 buildings.


Wang Geon

WanJeonHan taekwondo is variation of traditional taekwondo that also incorporates Judo throws, weapons training, self-defense, and joint locks. The sponsoring organization for WanJeonHan-style taekwondo is the National Taekwondo Association (NTA, not to be confused with the National Taekwon-do Association or the United States National Taekwondo Association). Like the American Taekwondo Association (ATA), the NTA is a franchise organization, though with far fewer franchises.

This form is a WanJeonHan form. Like the ATA, WanJeonHan forms are copyrighted and so rarely appear outside the National Taekwondo Association website. From the NTA website:

The unpopular Gung Ye was deposed by Wang Geon (877–943) in 918 C.E. Wang Geon was popular with his people, and he decided to unite the entire peninsula under one government. He also conquered the Silla in 935.


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