Índice temático: Guerra de Sucesión Española

Índice temático: Guerra de Sucesión Española

Índice temático: Guerra de Sucesión Española

Guerras y tratadosBatallasBiografiasArmasConceptos


Guerras y tratados


Batallas

Oudenaarde, batalla de 11 de julio de 1708 (Bélgica)
Ramillies, batalla de, 23 de mayo de 1706
Schellenberg, Batalla del 2 de julio de 1704


Biografias


Armas, ejércitos y unidades


Conceptos



Los tratados de la Guerra de Sucesión española: un diccionario histórico y crítico

De 1702 a 1714, la Guerra de Sucesión española afectó a la mayor parte de Europa y partes importantes del Nuevo Mundo, con batallas que iban desde las llanuras húngaras hasta los puertos de Río de Janeiro. La muerte del último rey Habsburgo de España desató una lucha por su imperio. Este libro incluye entradas que analizan a las personas que determinaron el curso de la guerra, que desempeñaron un papel diplomático, económico o militar, así como entradas que analizan las batallas fundamentales que influyeron en el resultado. Las disposiciones de los tratados finales, conocidos como la Pacificación de Utrecht, se examinan en detalle, al igual que el significado de esas disposiciones. Los diplomáticos de Utrecht siguieron los principios de equilibrio de poder, compensación y legitimidad para moldear la paz. La paz marcó las fronteras de Europa Occidental hasta la convulsión de la Revolución Francesa.

El libro comienza con una introducción que señala la importancia de las disposiciones de los tratados. La disposición alfabética de las entradas, las numerosas referencias cruzadas, las bibliografías al final de las entradas, una tabla genealógica, una cronología y el índice hacen que este trabajo sea fácil de usar.


Libros en Sobre asuntos militares

1-TPS11 SIMULACIONES DE PUNTO DE VUELTA # 11: Blenheim 1704 DC Británicos, holandeses, austriacos, prusianos, daneses y varios aliados alemanes por un lado y franceses, bávaros e irlandeses luchando por Louis por el otro. Cada unidad en el juego representa una brigada con cada punto de fuerza de combate alrededor de 400 hombres o 200 caballos. Un hex en el mapa equivale a 400 metros. Un turno representa alrededor de una hora de acción y el juego puede durar hasta 7 turnos.

La Batalla de Blenheim incluye: Un tablero de mapas montado a todo color de 11x17 pulgadas, 176 contadores grandes troquelados a todo color de 5/8 de pulgada y un libro de reglas de 12 páginas. Nivel de habilidad: medio. 1 vol, 12 pgs 2019 EE. UU., CONTRA LAS PROBABILIDADES
Caja NUEVA, disponible a mediados de octubre de 2019. $ 40.00 con un descuento del 25% rct

1-75130 Boeri, Gianncarlo EJÉRCITOS ESPAÑOLES 1688-1697 El CD contiene texto junto con imágenes en color en blanco y negro. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2001 EE. UU., DAN SCHOOR
NUEVO-CD. $ 30,00

1-75140 Boeri, Gianncarlo EJÉRCITO DEL HOLANDÉS DE SABOYA 1688-1713 Una edición revisada de su trabajo sobre el Ejército de Saboya 1688-1713. El título ha cambiado a "Ejército del Duque de Saboya 1688-1713".

Aunque ha habido cambios menores y adiciones al texto, Boeri ha proporcionado notas al pie de página muy ampliadas, lo que ha resultado en un aumento en el número de páginas de texto de 27 páginas a 51 páginas. El mayor cambio ha sido la incorporación de 20 láminas en color de Robert Hall. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2012 EE. UU., DAN SCHOOR
NUEVO-CD, edición revisada. 20,00 $

1-11421 Churchill, Winston S. MARLBOROUGH: SU VIDA Y TIEMPOS Excelente biografía, cubre las guerras de Sucesión española. Mapas, índice, biblio. 1 vol, 1050 pgs 2002 EE. UU., UNIVERSIDAD DE CHICAGO
NUEVO-pb. $ 30,00

1-11422 Churchill, Winston S. MARLBOROUGH: SU VIDA Y TIEMPOS Excelente biografía, cubre las guerras de Sucesión española. Mapas, índice, biblio. 1 vol, 1080 pgs 2002 EE. UU., UNIVERSIDAD DE CHICAGO
NUEVO-pb. $ 30,00

2-198610 Dorrel, Nick LA ÚLTIMA OPORTUNIDAD DE MARLBOROUGH EN ESPAÑA: La Campaña Española de 1710 La Serie de Campañas Militares es un conjunto de libros que examinan más de cerca las campañas en varios conflictos. El objetivo es proporcionar al lector una visión detallada de una parte particular de un conflicto, en lugar de tratar de describir el conflicto completo o simplemente concentrarse en una sola batalla. La serie proporciona información sobre comandantes, ejércitos, batallas de la campaña y OOB. La serie es un buen lugar para comenzar para aquellos interesados ​​en saber más sobre un conflicto en particular, ya sea un aficionado a la historia o un jugador de guerra.

El teatro español fue crucial para el resultado de la Guerra de Sucesión española y, sin embargo, no es muy conocido. Este libro analiza en detalle la vital campaña de 1710 en la Península, incluidas las cinco acciones principales de la campaña. Esta campaña fue la última oportunidad para las fuerzas de Marlborough de tomar una ventaja decisiva en este importante teatro. La campaña fluyó y refluyó antes de la derrota total de las esperanzas de Marlborough y esto resultó ser un evento decisivo en el resultado de la guerra. 1 vol, 132 pgs 2014 EE. UU., SOBRE ASUNTOS MILITARES
Tapa blanda encuadernada con alambre NUEVO. $ 40,00

2-208310 Dorrell, Nick EL OTRO EJÉRCITO DE MARLBOROUGH: El ejército británico y las campañas de la Primera Guerra de la Península, 1702-1712 Un aspecto a menudo descuidado de la guerra de Marlborough es su campaña crucial en España y Portugal, también conocida como la Primera Guerra de la Península de 1702- 1712. Si bien esta campaña fue fundamental para el resultado de la guerra, hay relativamente poca información disponible sobre ella o el ejército que la combatió. Este trabajo no solo proporciona una visión detallada del ejército que luchó en las campañas española y portuguesa de la guerra de Marlborough, sino que también ofrece una visión del curso de la guerra en Iberia. Su objetivo es proporcionar más detalles y comprensión de una parte relativamente poco conocida de una guerra que ayudó a moldear y fortalecer la posición de Gran Bretaña entre los principales actores europeos.

Varios capítulos analizan los contingentes nacionales que componían los ejércitos confederados que luchaban en España y Portugal. El trabajo se concentra no sólo en la contribución británica razonablemente bien conocida, sino también en el papel igualmente importante de los menos conocidos contingentes austriacos, holandeses, palatinos, portugueses y españoles.

Estos capítulos proporcionan información general sobre las unidades involucradas, su organización, tácticas y otros detalles relevantes. En otros capítulos el trabajo se concentra en detalle en la evolución de las campañas española y portuguesa en cada año de la guerra. También proporcionó: detalles de la composición de los ejércitos en cada campaña, sus actividades y batallas, el tamaño de las unidades si se conoce, y más para cada año. Se presta atención no solo al compromiso más famoso de Almanza sino también a las demás batallas y escaramuzas de las campañas ibéricas. 1 vol, 200 pgs 2019 REINO UNIDO, HELION Y EMPRESA
NUEVO-papberback. $ 35.00 con un descuento del 15% rct

1-209300 Falkner, James MARLBOROUGH'S WAR MACHINE: 1702-1711 Blenheim, Ramilles, Oudenarde, Malplaquet: mucho se ha escrito sobre las brillantes victorias del ejército angloholandés del duque de Marlborough sobre los ejércitos de Luis XIV de Francia durante la Guerra de la sucesión española. También se centra en los hombres y la organización militar que hicieron posibles estos logros: los soldados, los comandantes, la estructura del ejército, la administración, la logística, la ingeniería, las armas y las finanzas. 1 vol, 256 pgs 2015 Reino Unido, PLUMA Y ESPADA
NEW-dj, disponible a mediados de agosto de 2015. $ 50.00 con un descuento del 15%

1-210350 Falkner, James LA GUERRA DE SUCESIÓN ESPAÑOLA 1701-1714 La Guerra de Sucesión Española, librada entre 1701 y 1714 para decidir quién heredaría el trono español, fue un conflicto de una escala sin precedentes, que se extendió por la mayor parte de Europa occidental. la alta mar y las Américas.

En una narrativa clara y perspicaz, describe y analiza las complejas maniobras políticas y una serie de campañas militares que también involucraron la amenaza planteada por los turcos otomanos en el este y Suecia y Rusia en el norte. Los combates tuvieron lugar no solo en Europa, sino también en América y Canadá, y en alta mar. Todas las potencias europeas, grandes y pequeñas, participaron: Francia, España, Gran Bretaña, Holanda, Austria y Portugal fueron los principales actores.

El resultado final de 11 años de guerra total fue un príncipe francés firmemente establecido en el trono de Madrid y una división del antiguo imperio español. Sin embargo, lo más notable es que el poder francés, anteriormente tan dominante, fue frenado durante casi 90 años. 1 vol, 280 pgs 2015 Reino Unido, PLUMA Y ESPADA
NUEVO-dj. $ 50.00 con un descuento del 15%

2-89560 Falkner, James MARLBOROUGH'S WARS EYEWITNESS ACCOUNTS 1702-1713 Se han escrito muchos libros sobre las famosas victorias del primer duque de Marlborough, pero ninguno de los estudios anteriores se ha concentrado realmente en cómo la guerra fue percibida por los hombres y mujeres que participaron. - aquellos que experimentaron la acción de primera mano. James Falkner ha reunido una vívida selección de relatos contemporáneos de todos los aspectos de la guerra para crear una imagen panorámica pero minuciosamente detallada de esos años de agitación.

La historia se cuenta a través de memorias, cartas, documentos oficiales, despachos, informes de prensa y testimonios de testigos presenciales de los lados francés y aliado del conflicto.

Su narrativa de enlace proporciona un análisis penetrante de la estrategia y tácticas de guerra en ese momento. 1 vol, 256 pgs 2020 UK, LIBROS DE PLUMA Y ESPADA
NEW-pb, nueva edición de tapa blanda disponible a fines de mayo de 2020. $ 40.00 con un descuento del 15% rct

1-89620 Falkner, James SITIOS DE MARLBOROUGH Análisis bien detallado de los muchos asedios que llevó a cabo el duque. Bocetos, dibujos y mapas en blanco y negro de los fuertes y las campañas para reducirlos. Notas de capítulo, biblio, índice. 1 vol, 268 pgs 2007 UK, SPELLMOUNT PRESS
NUEVO-dj. 50,00 $

1-34280 Foure, Pierre COLORES DE LA INFANTERÍA FRANCESA BAJO LOUIS XIV-VOL1 Parte de un conjunto de tres que cubren los años 1638 a 1715, muchas páginas en blanco y negro y (4) páginas en color. 1 vol, 32 pgs 1994 ALEXANDRIA, EDIT'S BROKAW
NUEVO-tapa blanda. $ 10,00

1-34282 Foure, Pierre COLORES DE LA INFANTERÍA FRANCESA BAJO LOUIS XIV-VOL2 Parte de un conjunto de tres que cubre los años 1638 a 1715, muchas páginas en blanco y negro y (4) páginas en color. 1 vol, 32 pgs 2000 ALEXANDRIA, EDIT'S BROKAW
NUEVO-tapa blanda. $ 10,00

1-75150 Goldberg, Claus-Peter & amp Robert Hall EJÉRCITO DEL ELECTORADO PALATINO 1690-1716 El CD contiene texto junto con imágenes en color y b / n. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2001 EE. UU., DAN SCHOOR
NUEVO-CD. $ 25,00

1-74530 Grant, C. S. EJÉRCITOS Y UNIFORMES DE LAS GUERRAS DE MARLBOROUGH, LA Segunda edición combina dos volúmenes publicados anteriormente en uno mientras reordena parte del texto y hace algunos cambios menores en un formato más grande. Cubre ejércitos y batallas del norte de Europa más conocidos en la Guerra de Sucesión Española, y también los ejércitos y acciones importantes en España, Portugal e Italia. Placas de uniforme del fallecido Bob Marrion. 1 vol, 152 pgs 2016 Reino Unido, PARTIZAN PRESS
NUEVO-tapa dura. 52,00 $

1-211980 Hall, Robert UNIFORMES Y BANDERAS CD: Los ejércitos de Hannover, Celle y Brunswick - 1670-1715 El CD contiene información nueva y actualizada.

No de placas de color:
Hannover: 55: incl. 13 caballería, 4 dragones, 19 infantería
Celle 15: incl. 3 caballería, 2 dragones, 8 infantería
Brunswick 27: incl. 5 caballería, 4 dragones, 9 infantería

Con respecto a Hannover, hemos encontrado material extenso, previamente desconocido, tanto sobre banderas como sobre estandartes de 1674-1700, así como información uniforme muy completa, especialmente para el período 1682-1694, mientras que un documento significativo escrito por los coroneles de Celle documentó las diferencias. entre los ejércitos en 1705. 1 vol, 248 pgs 2016 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
NUEVO-CD. 50,00 $

1-219730 Hall, Robert FLAGS & amp UNIFORMES OF THE FRENCH INFANTRY 1688-1714: 2nd Edition (2019) Esta recopilación de la segunda edición es un CD (no un libro).

La primera edición de French Infantry se publicó en 2001. En 2015, se publicó un suplemento con información adicional obtenida de la investigación de archivos. Esta segunda edición contiene tanto investigación como nueva. Este libro es el estudio más completo disponible sobre la infantería francesa.

Varias visitas al Minutier Central des notaires de Paris en los Archives Nationales de París en 2018 generaron el análisis y la documentación de más de 190 contratos notariales de uniformes. Más de 290 regimientos se detallan en 548 páginas, incluidos todos los regimientos irlandeses, con más de 102 de los 290 actualizados con nueva información.

El CD de 2ª edición contiene todo el texto junto con b / ny 296 láminas a color de las cuales 121 son nuevas o han sido actualizadas. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2019 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
NUEVO-CD. $ 65.00 rct

1-220010 Hall, Robert ESTÁNDAR y UNIFORMES DE CABALLERÍA FRANCESA 1688-1714: 2a edición (2019) Esta recopilación de la 2a edición es un CD (no un libro).

Esta segunda edición contiene 258 páginas y 75 láminas a color que detallan más de 133 unidades. Sería difícil encontrar una visión más completa de la caballería francesa en el período 1688-1714. 1 vol, 333 pgs 2019 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
NUEVO-CD. 50,00 $ rct

1-221170 Hall, Robert GUIDONS & amp UNIFORMS OF FRENCH DRAGOONS 1688-1714: 2nd Edition (2019) La primera edición de French Dragoons se publicó en 2001. En 2015, se publicó un suplemento con información adicional obtenida de la investigación de archivos. Esta segunda edición contiene tanto investigación como nueva.

Varias visitas al Minutier Central des Notaires de Paris en los Archives Nationales de París en 2018 generaron el análisis y la documentación de los contratos notariales de uniformes. Hay 134 páginas de texto, que incluyen copias de estos contratos notariales y hay 48 láminas a color, muchas de las cuales ilustran la nueva información obtenida de estos contratos. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2019 EE. UU., DAN SCHOOR
NEW-CD, disponible a finales de agosto de 2019. $ 40.00 rct

1-75160 Hall, Robert EJÉRCITOS DE MECKLENBURGO & amp HOLSTEIN-GOTTORP 1650-1719 El CD contiene texto junto con imágenes en color en b / n y amp. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2001 EE. UU., DAN SCHOOR
NUEVO-CD. $ 25,00

1-80880 Hall, Robert UNIFORMES MILITARES DEL ELECTORADO DE COLONIA CD contiene (14) PLACAS DE COLOR 1 vol, 60 pgs 2005 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
NUEVO-CD. $ 15.00

1-84610 Hall, Robert BANDERAS Y UNIFORMES DEL EJÉRCITO DE HESSE-KASSELL El CD contiene texto junto con 23 páginas a color en b / w y amp. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
NUEVO-CD. $ 25,00

1-85930 Hall, Robert FLAGS & amp UNIFORMS HESSE-DARMSTRADT & amp UPPER RHINE CD contiene texto junto con (9) páginas a color y (71) páginas de texto en Hesse-Darmstradt 1678-1739 (11) páginas a color y (110) páginas de texto que cubre el círculo del Alto Rin 1664-1734. 1 vol, 201 páginas 2007 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
CD nuevo. $ 25,00

2-RHDK01 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 DANÉS: I.R. LIVGARDEN TIL FODS FOOT Placa de color 8.5x11, Colores / Estándares / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EE. UU., DAN SCHOOR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RHDK02 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 DANÉS: I.R. Placa de color PRINCE CARL FOOT 8.5x11, Colores / Estándares / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EE. UU., DAN SCHOOR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RHDK03 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 DANÉS: I.R. Plato PRINCE GEORGE FOOT 8.5x11 colores, Colores / Estándares / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EE. UU., DAN SCHOOR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RHDK04 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 DANÉS: I.R. 1er CABALLO DE JUTLAND placa color 8.5x11, Colores / Estándares / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EE. UU., DAN SCHOOR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RHDK05 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 DANÉS: I.R. 1er CABALLO DE SEELAND Placa de color 8.5x11, Colores / Estándares / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EE. UU., DAN SCHOOR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RHDK06 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 DANÉS: I.R. CUARTO CABALLO DE JUTLAND Placa de color 8.5x11, Colores / Estándares / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EE. UU., DAN SCHOOR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

2-RHGB01 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 BRITISH: ROYAL IRISH FOOT 8.5x11 placa de color, Colores / Estándares / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

2-RHGB02 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 BRITISH: PLANCHA DE COLOR PORTMORE'S FOOT 8.5x11, Colores / Estándares / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

2-RHGB03 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 BRITISH: CHURCHILL'S FOOT (Buffs) Placa de color 8.5x11, Colores / Estándares / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

2-RHGB04 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 BRITISH: ORKNEY'S FOOT (Royal Scots) Placa de color 8.5x11, Colores / Estándares / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

2-RHGB05 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 BRITISH: LUMLEY'S HORSE 8.5x11 color plate, Colors / Standards / Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RHGB06 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 BRITISH: WOOD'S HORSE 8.5x11 color plate, Colors / Standards / Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EE. UU., DAN SCHOOR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

2-RHGB06 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 BRITISH: WOOD'S HORSE 8.5x11 color plate, Colors / Standards / Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RHPR01 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSIA: DR LEIBREGIMENTO DE CABALLO 8.5x11 placa de color, Colores / Estándares / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EE. UU., DAN SCHOOR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RHPR02 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSIA: Plancha de color KR MARKGRAF PHILLIP WILHELM 8.5x11, Colores / Estándares / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EE. UU., DAN SCHOOR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RHPR03 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSIA: DR VON SONDFELD HORSE 8.5x11 placa de color, colores / estándares / uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EE. UU., DAN SCHOOR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RHPR04 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSIA: Plancha de color IR ANHALT-DESSAU FOOT 8.5x11, Colores / Estándares / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EE. UU., DAN SCHOOR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RHPR05 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSIA: Placa de color IR VARENNES FOOT 8.5x11, Colores / Estándares / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EE. UU., DAN SCHOOR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RHPR06 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSIA: Plancha de color IR CANITZ FOOT 8.5x11, Colores / Estándares / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EE. UU., DAN SCHOOR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RHPR07 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSIA: IR MARKGRAF PHILLIP WILHELM 8.5x11 placa de color, colores / estándares / uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EE. UU., DAN SCHOOR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RHPR08 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSIA: Placa de color IR KRONPRINZ FOOT 8.5x11, Colores / Estándares / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EE. UU., DAN SCHOOR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RHPR09 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSIA: Placa de color KR L'OSTANGE HORSE 8.5x11, Colores / Estándares / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EE. UU., DAN SCHOOR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RHPR10 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSIA: Plancha de color IR WULFFEN FOOT 8.5x11, Colores / Estándares / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EE. UU., DAN SCHOOR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RHPR11 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSIA: Plancha de color IR HOLSTEIN-BECK FOOT 8.5x11, Colores / Estándares / Uniformes. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EE. UU., DAN SCHOOR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RHPR12 Hall, Robert BLENHEIM 1704 PRUSIA: IR LOTTUM, KR BRANDENBURG 8.5x11 color plate, Colors / Standards / Uniforms. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2004 EE. UU., DAN SCHOOR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RMAN01 Hall, Robert DR Schmettau placa de color 8.5x11 con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RMFC01 Hall, Robert CR Tremouille & amp CR Courcillon placa de color 8.5x11 con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RMFC02 Hall, Robert CR Toulouse & amp CR Royal E placa de color 8.5x11 con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RMFC03 Hall, Robert CR Royal Cravattes & amp CR Rosen 8.5x11 placa de color con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RMFC04 Hall, Robert CR Ligondez & amp CR Harcourt placa de color 8.5x11 con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RMFD01 Hall, Robert DR Le Roi & amp DR Bretagne 8.5x11 placa de color con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RMFG01 Hall, Robert Gendarmes de la Garde Cheveaulegers de la Garde 8.5x11 placa de color con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RMFG02 Hall, Robert 1. Company des Mousquetaires 2. Company des Mou 8.5x11 placa de color con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RMFI01 Hall, Robert IR Picardie & amp IR Clare 8.5x11 placa de color con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RMFI02 Hall, Robert IR Gondrin & amp IR Royal Italien placa de color 8.5x11 con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RMFI03 Hall, Robert IR Alsace & amp IR Sparre placa de color 8.5x11 con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RMFI04 Hall, Robert IR Gardes Francaises IR Gardes Sui 8.5x11 placa de color con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RMFI05 Hall, Robert IR La Marck & amp IR Montroux 8.5x11 placa de color con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RMFI06 Hall, Robert IR St. Sulpice & amp IR Isenghien 8.5x11 placa de color con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RMHG01 Hall, Robert DR Dernath & amp DR Baudissin placa de color 8.5x11 con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RMHG02 Hall, Robert IR Barner & amp IR Aderkas placa de color 8.5x11 con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RMHK01 Hall, Robert IR Pr Wilhelm & amp IR Pr Ludwig 8.5x11 placa de color con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RMHN01 Hall, Robert IR Bernstorff 1B & amp IR Ranzow 5B 8.5x11 placa de color con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RMNL01 Hall, Robert IR Pallandt placa de color 8.5x11 con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RMNL02 Hall, Robert IR Dutch Guards e IR Nassau 8.5x11 placa de color con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RMNL03 Hall, Robert IR Slangenburg & amp IR Salisch 8.5x11 placa de color con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
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2-RMNL04 Hall, Robert IR Albemarle 8.5x11 placa de color con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
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2-RMNL05 Hall, Robert IR Hirzel & amp IR Sturler placa de color 8.5x11 con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
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1-RMNL06 Hall, Robert IR Borthwick 8.5x11 placa de color con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

2-RMNL07 Hall, Robert IR Murray & amp IR Colyear placa de color 8.5x11 con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2014 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RMNL08 Hall, Robert CR Oranje-Friesland & amp CR Driesbergen placa de color 8.5x11 con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RMNL09 Hall, Robert DR Dopff & amp CR Wurttemburg 8.5x11 placa de color con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
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1-RMPR01 Hall, Robert KR von der Heyden placa de color 8.5x11 con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
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1-RMSP02 Hall, Robert IR Zuniga placa de color 8.5x11 con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RMSP03 Hall, Robert IR Girmaldi & amp IR Lede 8.5x11 placa de color con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

1-RMSP04 Hall, Robert DR Toulongeon placa de color 8.5x11 con colores / estándares / uniformes 1 vol, 1 pgs 2006 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
Placa NUEVA. $ 8,00

2-75120 Hall, Robert y Yves Roumegoux MILICIA FRANCESA, ARTILLERÍA Y BOMBARDEROS La artillería y bombarderos franceses bajo Luis XIV - Organización, banderas y uniformes. 1 vol, 80 páginas 2019 EE. UU., DAN SCHOOR
NEW-CD, nueva edición con cambios menores, disponible a finales de agosto de 2019. $ 30.00 rct

1-74820 Hall, Robert y Boeri, Giancarlo UNIFORMES Y BANDERAS DEL EJÉRCITO IMPERIAL AUSTRIANO 1683-1720 CD con más de 260 páginas y (56) láminas a color. Esta es una revisión y actualización completamente nueva del Kuhnbooklet con todas las placas "nuevas". 1 vol, 1 pgs 2009 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
NUEVO-CD. 45,00 $

1-201440 Hall, Robert y Stanford, Ian y Roumegoux, Yves UNIFORMES Y BANDERAS DEL EJÉRCITO HOLANDÉS Y EL EJÉRCITO DE LIEGE 1685-1715 Nueva edición revisada con más de 450 páginas de texto y 70 láminas a color. 1 vol, 520 páginas 2013 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
NUEVO-CD. $ 60.00

1-215330 Hattendorf, John MARLBOROUGH: soldado y diplomático John Churchill, el primer duque de Marlborough, ha sido considerado durante mucho tiempo como uno de los generales más grandes de Gran Bretaña, así como una figura política inglesa clave en la primera década del siglo XVIII. Ilustraciones a todo color en todas partes.

Marlborough, tema de numerosos libros en inglés, se ha visto típicamente solo en términos de la historia política y militar británica. En este libro, 12 destacados especialistas del período amplían la perspectiva al evaluar a Marlborough en los contextos más amplios y diversos de la situación europea, el soldado raso en el ejército británico, las actividades complementarias de las armadas, las diferentes perspectivas de los austriacos, holandeses , Franceses y alemanes, así como en el contexto de la prensa popular británica y las artes visuales. 1 vol, 408 pgs 2012 PAÍSES BAJOS, KARWANSARAY
NEW-dj, disponible a finales de octubre de 2017. $ 85.00 con un descuento del 15%

1-65280 Hoglund, Lars-Eric y Sallnas, Ake GRAN GUERRA DEL NORTE 1700-21: Colores y uniformes Volumen 1 8x11.5 pulgadas. Incluye 30 láminas a color que representan cientos de banderas, estandartes y uniformes, además de detalles completos de las unidades de infantería y caballería suecas, finlandesas, noruegas, danesas y alemanas. 1 vol, 158 pgs 2000 SUECIA, ACEDIA PRESS
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1-78440 Hussey, John MARLBOROUGH: El héroe de Blenheim Nueva biografía concisa del hombre y su genio militar el autor describe, en el contexto de la época, sus batallas / campañas 40+ b / n mapas / ilustración, biblio 1 vol, 224 páginas 2005 REINO UNIDO, WEIDENFELD Y NICOLSON
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1-74830 Kuhn, agosto revisado por Hall, Robert BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA'S EJÉRCITO BAJO FREDERICK 1ST CD contiene texto junto con imágenes en color b / w & amp. 1 vol, 1 pgs 2001 EE. UU., DAN SCHORR
NUEVO-CD. $ 15.00

1-86680 Litten, Neil RAMILLIES: Obra maestra de Marlborough Nuevo estudio importante, ilustración en color, mapas. 1 vol, 230 pgs 2007 Reino Unido, PARTIZAN PRESS
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1-80460 Millner, John Royal Regt of Foot of Ireland COMPENDIUM JOURNAL OF ALL THE MARCHES & amp BATTLES Relato de primera mano raro, Millner estuvo presente en las 10 batallas / asedios 1701-1712, no solo describe los eventos, sino que también enumera las bajas y o / b's, fuente de primer nivel. 1 vol, 364 pgs 2004 REINO UNIDO, NAVAL Y MILITAR PRES
NEW-pb, facsímil de la edición de 1733. $ 40,00

1-1947619 Mugnai, Bruno EL EJÉRCITO IMPERIAL en la época del príncipe Eugenio de Saboya 1690-1720: La caballería - Volumen 1 El volumen 1 incluye ocho páginas a todo color, con muchas ilustraciones y mapas en blanco y negro. Texto en italiano, pero subtítulos en inglés para las imágenes. Todas las planchas a color tienen traducción completa al inglés.

Eugenio, príncipe de Saboya-Carignano y conde de Soissons se convirtió en general a los 24 años y mariscal de campo a los 27. Es considerado el comandante más famoso de la historia del ejército imperial y en algunos círculos europeos, considerado 'el emperador secreto'. ' Después de ser rechazado por Luis XIV de Francia, Eugenio se fue a Austria y comenzó una ardiente carrera en el campo de batalla. Esta serie de tres volúmenes detalla su historia, organización del ejército, equipo y uniformes de la infantería imperial. 1 vol, 80 pgs 2012 ITALIA, TALLER DE SOLDADOS
NUEVO-tapa blanda, [texto en italiano]. $ 32.00

1-1947620 Mugnai, Bruno EL EJÉRCITO IMPERIAL en la era del príncipe Eugenio de Saboya 1690-1720: La caballería - Volumen 2 El volumen 2 incluye ocho páginas a todo color, con muchas ilustraciones y mapas en blanco y negro. Texto en italiano, pero subtítulos en inglés para las imágenes. Todas las planchas a color tienen traducción completa al inglés.

Continúa la historia de Eugene, príncipe de Saboya-Carignano y conde de Soissons, su destreza en el campo de batalla y los uniformes del ejército.

1 vol, 80 pgs 2020 ITALIA, TIENDA DE SOLDADOS
NUEVO-tapa blanda, [texto en italiano]. $ 32.00

1-199200 Owen, John Hely GUERRA EN EL MAR BAJO LA REINA ANNE 1702-1708 Un relato de las operaciones navales británicas a principios del siglo XVIII, este libro incluye descripciones animadas de las figuras importantes de la época, extraídas de una extensa investigación en los registros originales. Ilustrado con mapas y retratos, contiene útiles apéndices sobre la organización de la Armada y la composición de la flota. 1 vol, 360 pgs 2012 Reino Unido, CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
NUEVO-tapa blanda. $ 41.00

1-2078563 Paoletti, Ciro ITALIA, PIEDMONT Y LA GUERRA DE SUCESIÓN ESPAÑOLA: 1701-1712 La Guerra de Sucesión Española es bien conocida en inglés en lo que respecta a Flandes y Alemania, no tanto a España, ni nada a Italia. El frente italiano fue tan importante que los franceses lo consideraron tan importante como el alemán, y comprometieron allí a sus mejores generales. Guillermo III lo consideró mucho más importante que España y, a pesar de no tener allí ningún ejército británico, después de la muerte del rey Guillermo, Londres le asignó una décima parte de sus gastos de guerra.

Se consideró tan importante en Viena que el emperador envió allí a su mejor general. Por último, fue el frente donde todas las esperanzas francesas de someter Europa murieron en Turín en 1706 tras la primera herida dramática que sufrieron en Blenheim en 1704. 185 ilustraciones, mapas y planos en b / n, 16 páginas láminas a color
1 vol, 356 pgs 2021 REINO UNIDO, HELION Y EMPRESA
NUEVO-tapa blanda. $ 50.00 con un descuento del 15% rct

1-LEG1703 Pole, Steve BLENHEIM 1704: 13 de agosto de 1704 La batalla de Blenheim 1704 es un juego de nivel táctico para dos jugadores que cubre una de las batallas fundamentales durante la Guerra de Sucesión española. Un jugador asume el papel de Marlborough, al mando de las fuerzas británicas y aliadas, y el otro de Tallard, al frente de los franco-bávaros. En Blenheim, Marlborough se encontró enfrentado por una fuerza franco-bávara superior en una fuerte posición defensiva. Al igual que la gran victoria de Hannibal en Cannas, Blenheim se ganó mediante la implementación exitosa de un plan audaz e imaginativo. Los flancos de las fuerzas franco-bávaras fueron inmovilizados por furiosos ataques con adversidades desfavorables que despojaron su centro de tropas re-desplegadas para apuntalar las alas apretadas. Luego, Marlborough liberó a su caballería para aplastar lo que quedaba del centro franco-bávaro y dividir el ejército de Tallard en dos. La amenaza de que la Francia de Luis XIV llegara a dominar Europa había terminado.

El Sistema de Siete Hexágonos (SHS) deriva su nombre del mapa que está dividido en áreas que comprenden siete hexágonos, lo que permite al jugador adoptar varias posiciones dentro de un área para reflejar diferentes formaciones tácticas, por lo que es más probable que un ataque tenga éxito o defienda. las unidades se mantendrán firmes. El SHS incorpora varias características únicas destinadas a replicar de una manera simple e intuitiva las opciones disponibles para un comandante (el jugador de guerra) de un gran ejército. Entonces, aunque el comandante tiene total libertad para diseñar un plan, y mucho al posicionar unidades que aún no se han enfrentado al enemigo, una vez que se une la batalla, las opciones se vuelven cada vez más limitadas y los eventos imprevistos pueden jugar un papel importante en la determinación del resultado. No obstante, incluso a nivel táctico, las decisiones de un comandante son cruciales para dar forma a los eventos. La clave del éxito es un plan sólido con un margen de error que permita la mala suerte, el hábil despliegue de unidades para poder implementar ese plan y el compromiso oportuno de reservas.

Contiene: mapa de 22x34 pulgadas, 88 fichas, dos ayudas para el juego y un libro de reglas de 20 páginas.
1 vol, 1 pgs 2017 EE. UU., LEGION WARGAMES LLC
Caja NUEVA, disponible a finales de marzo de 2021. $ 56.00 con un descuento del 10% rct

1-19690 Sapherson, C.A. FUERZAS DE LA CORONA SUECA: 1688-1721 Folleto de 8.5x5.5 pulgadas que cubre la organización, regimientos de infantería, caballos y dragones, artillería, banderas y estandartes, Armada y distribución de las fuerzas suecas en 1701. Incluye 32 manos en blanco y negro -Ilustraciones dibujadas de banderas con detalles de color que las acompañan. 1 vol, 36 pgs 2003 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
NUEVO-tapa blanda. $ 8,00

1-20930 Sapherson, C.A. CABALLERÍA FRANCESA, EL: 1688-1715 Equipo, normas, organización, biblio. 1 vol, 32 pgs 2003 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
NUEVO-tapa blanda. $ 8,00

1-20950 Sapherson, C.A. EJÉRCITOS MARLBURIANOS, 1701-1721 Listas del ejército para (42) países, Ansbach-Baureuth a Wurzburg, biblio. 1 vol, 72 pgs 2003 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
NEW-softcover . $10.00

1-20980 Sapherson, C.A. IMPERIAL INFANTRY, THE:1691-1714 Equipment, standards, organization, biblio. 1 vol, 32 pgs 2003 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
NEW-softcover . $ 8,00

1-22370 Sapherson, C.A. DANISH ARMY THE: 1699-1715 Covers organization, uniforms, and standards, and includes black and white drawings, appendix, and a bibliography. 1 vol, 40 pgs 2003 HOPEWELL, OMM PUBLISHING
NEW-softcover, back in print . $ 8,00

2-15370 Schorr, Dan SWEDISH COLORS & STANDARDS OF THE GREAT NORTHERN W 8x11, packed with flag details & more, biblio. 1 vol, 64 pgs 1987 VA, EDITIONS BROKAW
NEW-softcover . $12.00

1-75420 Stanford, Ian MARLBOROUGH GOES TO WAR:Blenheim-Campaign & Battle The most detailed O/B's for the opposing armies onthe day of battle, appendicies, biblio, index. 1 vol, 80 pgs 2004 UK, PIKE & SHOT SOCIETY
NEW-pb, 2nd edition . 22,00 $

2-72070 Watson, J.N.P. MARLBOROUGH'S SHADOW:Life of the 1st Earl Cadogan This is the story of Marlborough's 'right hand',his Chief of Staff, Quartermaster General andChief of Intelligence, b/w illust, biblio, index. 1 vol, 224 pgs 2003 LONDON, LEO COOPER BOOKS
NEW-dj . 20,00 $


15th Century - The Beginning of the Spanish Empire

The king of Aragon Ferdinand and Castile's Isabella got married, unifying two neighboring kingdoms into one. At that time it was not known as Spain yet, and it wouldn't be for a few years still, but it was the beginning of something great. Isabella and Ferdinand were known as the Catholic Monarchs. Their religious belief is, supposedly, what pushed them to reconquer Andalusia, with its centre in Granada, the southern part of the Peninsula, for quite a few centuries in moorish hands. When this was accomplished they were ready for more.

While Spain expanded south of its own territory, with the conquest of Melilla in the North of Africa, an even bigger chance presented itself in form of a Genovese sailor, Christopher Columbus, who had a sailing project to find a new route to the Indies. Isabella was interested and funded his voyage. As luck would have it, he did not find what he was looking for, but as luck would have it, something much bigger and that would bring much wealth to Spain in the future: a new continent, today known as America. And so the Spanish Empire comienza.


Utrecht, 1713. A Peace possible for Europe

The Treaties of Utrecht ended the War of the Spanish Succession, a conflict that in recent years has been the subject of intense historical debate. The Peace of Utrecht is now analyzed from different perspectives. During negotiations, Philip V of Spain tried to impose their conditions, but eventually he had to accept the agreement of Louis XIV of France with the Maritime powers. The Spanish king had to renounce to the French throne –something h e never really admitted–, and lost his Spanish territories in Europe. He kept instead the Empire in America, being the content of the Treaties regarding colonial trade the subject of a growing historiographical interest. This contribution analyzes also the position of Charles VI of Austria, who claimed the Spanish throne and faced the peace negotiations from a position of apparent strength –although in the final stage of the war he was guided by conflicting interests regarding the rigid defense of his two main scenarios: Catalonia and Italy. In Utrecht-Rastatt, Spanish Habsburg hegemony in Italy was transferred to the Habsburgs of Vienna and this new domain was interpreted in terms of continuity. The Peace of Utrecht is considered a major European peacekeeping project, but it failed to forget a conflict that still remains close in memory.


War over Italy

It is rare that the victims of war are put into the limelight – reports usually speak only of ‘glorious’ or ‘tragic’ battles – but one man’s grim experience of war at Solferino moved him to found a humanitarian relief organization.

Horace Vernet: The French under the command of Napoleon III attacking with cavalry and infantry at Solferino, painting, 19th century

The war in Italy against Piedmont-Sardinia and France led to the Habsburgs losing Lombardy, acquired in 1714 at the end of the War of the Spanish Succession, to Piedmont in 1859. Venetia had been given to the Habsburgs in the course of the Napoleonic wars in compensation for their temporary loss of Lombardy, which had gone to the Corsican Napoleon. The Congress of Vienna confirmed Habsburg possession of both provinces. As early as 1848 Piedmont-Sardinia had attempted to conquer Lombardy, but had been defeated by the Habsburg commander Field Marshal Radetzky. Piedmont-Sardinia finally achieved victory over the Habsburgs through alliance with France, thus opening up the path to the national unification of Italy.

The infamous high point of this war was the battle of Solferino, in which Austria suffered their decisive defeat on 24 June 1859. The horrors of this battle, which were reckoned with by Emperor Franz Joseph (even though he himself was ‘not conscious of any guilt’), were described by the Swiss businessman Henry Dunant, an eyewitness, as follows: ‘It is a terrible man-to-man battle. Soldiers are treading each other underfoot, knocking each other down with their rifle butts, smashing open their opponents’ heads and slicing open their stomachs with sabre or bayonet … Even the wounded defend themselves to the last. When they have no weapon, they seize their opponent and bite his throat open. Elsewhere … the cavalry carves its way over the dead and dying … bodies are turned into formless masses. The earth is literally soaked in blood, and the ground is bespattered with unrecognizable human remains.’ These terrible experiences motivated Dunant to found the Red Cross, which today is one of the world’s largest humanitarian relief organizations.


4.5 Wars for Empire

Wars for empire composed a final link connecting the Atlantic sides of the British Empire. Great Britain fought four separate wars against Catholic France from the late 1600s to the mid-1700s. Another war, the War of Jenkins’ Ear, pitted Britain against Spain. These conflicts for control of North America also helped colonists forge important alliances with native peoples, as different tribes aligned themselves with different European powers.

GENERATIONS OF WARFARE

Generations of British colonists grew up during a time when much of North America, especially the Northeast, engaged in war. Colonists knew war firsthand. In the eighteenth century, fighting was seasonal. Armies mobilized in the spring, fought in the summer, and retired to winter quarters in the fall. The British army imposed harsh discipline on its soldiers, who were drawn from the poorer classes, to ensure they did not step out of line during engagements. If they did, their officers would kill them. On the battlefield, armies dressed in bright uniforms to advertise their bravery and lack of fear. They stood in tight formation and exchanged volleys with the enemy. They often feared their officers more than the enemy.

Haga clic y explore

Read the diary of a provincial soldier who fought in the French and Indian War on the Captain David Perry Web Site hosted by Rootsweb. David Perry’s journal, which includes a description of the 1758 campaign, provides a glimpse of warfare in the eighteenth century.

Most imperial conflicts had both American and European fronts, leaving us with two names for each war. For instance, King William’s War (1688–1697) is also known as the War of the League of Augsburg. In America, the bulk of the fighting in this conflict took place between New England and New France. The war proved inconclusive, with no clear victor (Figure 4.16).

Queen Anne’s War (1702–1713) is also known as the War of Spanish Succession. England fought against both Spain and France over who would ascend the Spanish throne after the last of the Hapsburg rulers died. In North America, fighting took place in Florida, New England, and New France. In Canada, the French prevailed but lost Acadia and Newfoundland however, the victory was again not decisive because the English failed to take Quebec, which would have given them control of Canada.

This conflict is best remembered in the United States for the French and Native raid against Deerfield, Massachusetts, in 1704. A small French force, combined with a native group made up of Catholic Mohawks and Abenaki (Pocumtucs), attacked the frontier outpost of Deerfield, killing scores and taking 112 prisoners. Among the captives was the seven-year-old daughter of Deerfield’s minister John Williams, named Eunice. She was held by the Mohawks for years as her family tried to get her back, and became assimilated into the tribe. To the horror of the Puritan leaders, when she grew up Eunice married a Mohawk and refused to return to New England.

In North America, possession of Georgia and trade with the interior was the focus of the War of Jenkins’ Ear (1739–1742), a conflict between Britain and Spain over contested claims to the land occupied by the fledgling colony between South Carolina and Florida. The war got its name from an incident in 1731 in which a Spanish Coast Guard captain severed the ear of British captain Robert Jenkins as punishment for raiding Spanish ships in Panama. Jenkins fueled the growing animosity between England and Spain by presenting his ear to Parliament and stirring up British public outrage. More than anything else, the War of Jenkins’ Ear disrupted the Atlantic trade, a situation that hurt both Spain and Britain and was a major reason the war came to a close in 1742. Georgia, founded six years earlier, remained British and a buffer against Spanish Florida.

King George’s War (1744–1748), known in Europe as the War of Austrian Succession (1740–1748), was fought in the northern colonies and New France. In 1745, the British took the massive French fortress at Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia (Figure 4.17). However, three years later, under the terms of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, Britain relinquished control of the fortress to the French. Once again, war resulted in an incomplete victory for both Britain and France.

THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR

The final imperial war, the French and Indian War (1754–1763), known as the Seven Years’ War (1756–1763) in Europe, proved to be the decisive contest between Britain and France in America. It began over rival claims along the frontier in present-day western Pennsylvania. Well-connected planters from Virginia faced stagnant tobacco prices and hoped expanding into these western lands would stabilize their wealth and status. Some of them established the Ohio Company of Virginia in 1748, and the British crown granted the company half a million acres in 1749. However, the French also claimed the lands of the Ohio Company, and to protect the region they established Fort Duquesne in 1754, where the Ohio, Monongahela, and Allegheny Rivers met.

The war began in May 1754 because of these competing claims between Britain and France. Twenty-two-year-old Virginian George Washington, a surveyor whose family helped to found the Ohio Company, gave the command to fire on French soldiers near present-day Uniontown, Pennsylvania. This incident on the Pennsylvania frontier proved to be a decisive event that led to imperial war. For the next decade, fighting took place along the frontier of New France and British America from Virginia to Maine. The war also spread to Europe as France and Britain looked to gain supremacy in the Atlantic World.

The British fared poorly in the first years of the war. In 1754, the French and their native allies forced Washington to surrender at Fort Necessity, a hastily built fort constructed after his attack on the French. In 1755, Britain dispatched General Edward Braddock to the colonies to take Fort Duquesne. The French, aided by the Potawotomis, Ottawas, Shawnees, and Delawares, ambushed the fifteen hundred British soldiers and Virginia militia who marched to the fort. The attack sent panic through the British force, and hundreds of British soldiers and militiamen died, including General Braddock. The campaign of 1755 proved to be a disaster for the British. In fact, the only British victory that year was the capture of Nova Scotia. In 1756 and 1757, Britain suffered further defeats with the fall of Fort Oswego and Fort William Henry (Figure 4.18).

The war began to turn in favor of the British in 1758, due in large part to the efforts of William Pitt, a very popular member of Parliament. Pitt pledged huge sums of money and resources to defeating the hated Catholic French, and Great Britain spent part of the money on bounties paid to new young recruits in the colonies, helping invigorate the British forces. In 1758, the Iroquois, Delaware, and Shawnee signed the Treaty of Easton, aligning themselves with the British in return for some contested land around Pennsylvania and Virginia. In 1759, the British took Quebec, and in 1760, Montreal. The French empire in North America had crumbled.

The war continued until 1763, when the French signed the Treaty of Paris . This treaty signaled a dramatic reversal of fortune for France. Indeed, New France, which had been founded in the early 1600s, ceased to exist. The British Empire had now gained mastery over North America. The Empire not only gained New France under the treaty it also acquired French sugar islands in the West Indies, French trading posts in India, and French-held posts on the west coast of Africa. Great Britain’s victory in the French and Indian War meant that it had become a truly global empire. British colonists joyously celebrated, singing the refrain of “Rule, Britannia! / Britannia, rule the waves! / Britons never, never, never shall be slaves!”

In the American colonies, ties with Great Britain were closer than ever. Professional British soldiers had fought alongside Anglo-American militiamen, forging a greater sense of shared identity. With Great Britain’s victory, colonial pride ran high as colonists celebrated their identity as British subjects.

This last of the wars for empire, however, also sowed the seeds of trouble. The war led Great Britain deeply into debt, and in the 1760s and 1770s, efforts to deal with the debt through imperial reforms would have the unintended consequence of causing stress and strain that threatened to tear the Empire apart.


Watteau’s Peacefully Bittersweet War Scenes

One of the most naturally gifted painters in the history of Western art, Jean-Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) has been beloved for his bucolic, operatic scenes of Rococo frivolity and elegant hedonism known as fêtes galantes. In his masterpiece “Pilgrimage to the Isle Cythera” (1717), aristocratic lovers attended to by fluttering cupids prepare to set off in a golden boat for the fabled island of love, the birthplace of Aphrodite. With his delicate, sensuously flickering touch, lush colors and luminous atmospheres, Watteau anticipated Impressionism, and his dreamlike visions of erotic yearning and melancholic hypersensitivity inspired the 20th-century Surrealists.

What are not so famous are paintings that first drew the attention of discerning collectors to Watteau, pictures focused on the lives of common soldiers in a time of war that he made between 1709 and 1715. While the military subject matter differs markedly from that of the fêtes galantes, there’s an allusive, bittersweet poetry about these early works that looks forward to the later scenes of pastoral dalliance. Of the seven such works known to have survived, four are featured along with 13 related drawings in “Watteau’s Soldiers: Scenes of Military Life in Eighteenth-Century France,” a captivating exhibition at the Frick Collection. Organized by Aaron Wile, a curatorial fellow at the Frick, it’s the first exhibition devoted to this subject.

Considering the subject matter, these works appear remarkably nonviolent. Ranging in width from about 12 inches to 20 inches, the paintings depict scenes far behind the front lines of battle. If you had only these images to go by, you wouldn’t know there was a war going on, much less one as horrendously bloody as the War of the Spanish Succession, an 18th-century worldwide conflict over France’s King Louis XIV’s attempt to take over the Spanish empire after the death of King Charles II of Spain.

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Made from life in red chalk, the drawings represent soldiers in tricorn hats, knee-length coats, knee-high socks and pointy shoes. They’re shown standing, lying down, kneeling and on horseback. They carry muskets, but they’re not shooting or bayoneting. Nor do their sketchily rendered faces reveal aggression, pain or fear. Watteau seems more interested in their clothes and he poses them in their humanity. They’re like mannequins animated by his wonderfully deft touch. In the studio, Watteau used these figures like paper dolls, translating them into paint on canvas and composing oddly disjunctive scenes that seem at once ordinary and mysterious.

The painting “The Portal of Valenciennes” (circa 1710-11) depicts seven soldiers gathered in a shady space near an old city wall. One is lying down napping, two are sitting and smoking pipes and the others, standing and bearing muskets, seem to be engaged in desultory conversation. In the hazy, blue distance, three more soldiers appear on a bridge leading to ancient buildings partly overgrown by plants, and a single sentry resembling a stone statue stands out on a rooftop against the sky. What is specifically going on, what these people are talking about and what they might be thinking is hard to say. Unlike neo-Classical paintings of the day, in which figures and their relationships were articulated with unnaturally glassy precision, Watteau’s paintings convey a feeling that other people are unfathomably mysterious.

In his excellent catalog essay, Mr. Wile sees in Watteau a shift in ideas about representing human psychology. Seventeenth-century neo-Classicists thought that a person’s character and inner life was revealed in his or her expressions. Mr. Wile writes about the influential academician and court painter Charles Le Brun, who believed that “once the mechanisms of the soul’s movements and their resulting effects on the exterior were discovered, the face could become a legible, because universal, sign of emotion.” Le Brun created a catalog of facial expressions that became widely popular as an aid for painters and sculptors.

The faces in Watteau’s paintings, however, are not transparently expressive. Like the faces of dolls with dots for eyes, they are, observes Mr. Wile, “remarkable for their opacity their faces reveal nothing about the contents of their minds, about their thoughts, emotions or desires.” Yet there’s something truthful in that obscurity, for who in our post-Freudian times would deny that faces — even those of our nearest and dearest — hide as much as they expose? In Watteau’s art, this psychological inscrutability extends to whole paintings, whose visible surfaces imply depths you can only guess at.

“The Halt” (circa 1710) arrays across the foreground 10 people resting under a spreading tree: seven soldiers and three women, one in drab, commoner’s garb — a soldier’s wife, maybe — and two in fancy gowns painted in jewel-bright colors who might be wives, lovers or prostitutes. The soldiers, one of whom has his arm in a sling and his head bandaged, appear exhausted. With its dreamy mood of ennui, it seems more than just a genre scene. It’s like a stop in an allegorical journey of life.

“The Supply Train” (circa 1715) feels like purgatory. Two women highlighted in the center sit on the ground next to a large kettle that is suspended over a campfire, while one tends to a baby in a cradle. An emaciated white pack horse stands behind them. To the right, a third woman sits with her back to us in the company of two reclining soldiers, one with his chin in hand gazing into space or, perhaps, into her eyes. A small dog sleeps in the immediate foreground next to a drum and a musket painted with miniaturist precision. In the distance, smoke rises beyond a ramshackle tent, and further afield more soldiers appear enshrouded by a misty gloom like ghosts.

The only painting representing concerted action is “The Line of March” (circa 1710). We see from behind a crowd of soldiers on foot and on horseback funneling between stands of trees. They evidently are heading toward a battle, marked by a glowing conflagration far away near the horizon. There’s a processional, almost mythic feeling, as if they all were on a pilgrimage and that distant burst of light mystically beckoned them to an otherworldly end.


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          Guerra de Sucesión española

          los Guerra de Sucesión española (1702-13) was a European war the North American portion of this war was Queen Anne's War. The war was fought over the European balance of power the Spanish King Charles II had willeded his kingdom to Philip V, a grandson of the French King Louis XIV. A coalition thus fought the war in order to prevent a merging of Spain and France. The war was concluded by the Treaties of Utrecht (1713) and Rastatt (1714).

          Orígenes

          King Charles II of Spain was an invalid from a very young age, and it was clear that he would never produce an heir. The issue of who would rule the Spanish kingdoms after his death became quite contentious. Through his mother Maria Theresa of Spain, an older sister of Charles II, the Dauphin, only legitimate son of Louis XIV, was the most direct heir, but he was a problematic choice: as the heir to the French throne, if he gained both crowns, it would amount to an annexation of Spain and her vast colonial empire by France, at a time when France was already powerful enough to threaten the European balance of power.

          The alternative candidates were Emperor Leopold I, a first cousin of the late king and Electoral Prince Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria. The former presented similarly formidable problems, for Leopold's success would have reunited the powerful Spanish-Austrian Habsburg empire of the 16th century. Although Leopold and Louis were both willing to defer their claims to a younger line of their family - Leopold to his younger son Archduke Charles and Louis to the Dauphin's younger son, the Duc d'Anjou, the Bavarian prince remained a less threatening candidate. As a result, Joseph Ferdinand was the favored choice of England and the Netherlands.

          The War of the Grand Alliance, with essentially the same groupings of countries fighting over different issues, had come to an end just as the Spanish succession was becoming critical. War exhaustion led England and France to agree on the First Partition Treaty, which designated Joseph Ferdinand as heir, in return for which the Dauphin and Archduke Charles received territory in Italy.

          Joseph Ferdinand died abruptly the next year, which led to the Second Partition Treaty. Under the terms of that agreement, Charles was to become heir, but the Italian territories that had been parcelled out amongst the two men would now go entirely to France. While France, The Netherlands, and England were all happy with the new arrangement, Austria was not and vied for the entire Spanish inheritance. While the wrangling continued, Charles II unexpectedly spoke out and bequeathed his empire to Anjou, thus keeping the two thrones separate. Louis backed out of the treaty, his grandson was crowned King as Philip V, and the remaining interested parties acquiesced with misgivings.

          Unfortunately, Louis overplayed his hand. He threatened a mercantilist policy in the Spanish/French dominions (thus cutting England and Holland off from Spanish trade) and recognized Philip as his heir, passing over the Dauphin and the Dauphin's eldest son. In 1701, following the death of James II of England, a pensioner at Louis' court, Louis recognized his son, James Francis Edward Stuart, the "Old Pretender", as King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, thus alienating the English. The war began slowly, with Austrian forces under Prince Eugene of Savoy invading the Spanish territories in Italy. France soon intervened, which in turn brought in England, Holland and most of the German states. Minor powers Bavaria, Portugal, and (perversely) Savoy sided with France and Spain.

          Course of the War

          There were two main theaters of the war in Europe: Spain itself and West-Central Europe, especially the Low Countries (although there was also important fighting in Italy and Germany). The latter proved the more important, as Eugene and the English commander, John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough distinguished themselves as military commanders. At first, France was successful in the Alsace, and threatened the Austrian capital, but the two generals managed to link up in Bavaria and won the Battle of Blenheim. France's trans-Rhine ambitions were crushed, and the French were forced into a defensive posture. Bavaria was knocked out of the war, and Portugal and Savoy changed sides.

          In Spain, Valencia and Catalonia switched side in favour of the Austrian pretender, Charles. A British fleet, sent to support Catalans, captured Gibraltar, a possession they held throughout the Siege of Gibraltar and hold to this day.

          Marlborough and Eugene split forces again, with the former going to the Netherlands, and the latter to Italy. Over the next two years, each drove the French back from those territories, with Marlborough winning the notable Battle of Ramillies.

          In 1707, April 25, Batle of Almansa (Valencian country) Austriacist army was defeated by the Borbonic army. Then the war in Spain settled into indecisive skirmishing from which it would not emerge.

          The French fought back, and managed to stall Eugene's invasion into the south of the country, and Marlborough got caught up in an endless succession of fortresses in and around Flanders. In 1708, Eugene and Marlborough once again managed to link up, and defeated the French again at the Battle of Oudenarde. An attempt to march on Paris resulted in the Battle of Malplaquet, which was won by the two generals but at such a cost to their forces that this final invasion had to be called off.

          Paz

          Britain began to get cold feet, too, as an over-decisive victory for Austria would be almost as bad for their interests as one for the French and Spanish. Marlborough fell out of grace with the English (or rather, now, British) crown and with the new Tory government and was recalled. Peace negotiations with France led to the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, in which England, Holland, and France ceased fighting with one another, and Great Britain left the Catalans alone to fight for themselves.

          In 1714, September 11, Barcelona surrendered to the Borbonic army after a long siege. The Franco-Austrian hostilities lumbered on until September 1714, before the signing of the Treaty of Baden.

          With the Peace of Utrecht, the wars to prevent French hegemony that had dominated the 17th century were over for the time being. Philip became the Spanish king, but was removed from the French succession. Louis XIV also agreed to stop supporting the Stuart claim to the throne of England. The Spanish Netherlands, Naples, and Milan were ceded to Austria Sicily (replaced by Sardinia in 1720) was ceded to Savoy Britain was given the exclusive right to slave trading in Spanish America Gibraltar and Minorca were transferred from Spain to the UK and a variety of French colonial possessions were given to Britain.

          In 1715 the Bourbon king Philip V of Spain abolished the constitutions of Kingdom of Valencia and Principality of Catalonia with the Decreto de Nueva Planta.


          Ver el vídeo: Resumen de la guerra de sucesión española