Batalla de Suessula, 343

Batalla de Suessula, 343

Batalla de Suessula, 343

La batalla de Suessula (343 a. C.) fue el último gran enfrentamiento durante la Primera Guerra Samnita (343-341 a. C.), y fue una gran victoria romana. Habiendo sufrido derrotas en el monte Gauro y Saticula, los samnitas lograron formar un tercer ejército, que según Livio contenía "toda la fuerza de combate de la nación", y probablemente incluía a los supervivientes de las dos batallas anteriores.

Este ejército cruzó a Campania, donde amenazó a Capua. Los mensajeros de la ciudad llegaron al campamento del cónsul romano Valerius Corvus, que probablemente todavía estaba basado en el monte Gaurus, al sur.

Cuando llegó a Suessula después de una marcha forzada, Valerius construyó un campamento mucho más pequeño de lo normal, aprovechando la falta de equipaje y seguidores del campamento, aún en el monte Gaurus. Cuando los samnitas vieron el campamento romano, creyeron que solo se enfrentaban a un pequeño ejército. Sus comandantes lograron evitar que lanzaran un ataque impetuoso contra el campamento romano, y los dos bandos se establecieron en un breve período de inactividad.

A estas alturas, los samnitas estaban peligrosamente escasos de suministros, y creyendo que solo se enfrentaban a una fuerza romana débil, enviaron grandes grupos de forrajeo para encontrar comida. Valerius aprovechó esto para lanzar un ataque contra el campamento samnita, capturándolo en la primera carrera. Livy registra que murieron más samnitas en sus tiendas que en las paredes.

Según Livy, después de este éxito, Valerius pudo usar su caballería para obligar a las partidas de forrajeo samnitas contra su infantería, en el proceso infligiendo bajas masivas. También registra la captura de 40.000 escudos, aunque admite que se capturaron más escudos que los samnitas asesinados. Con toda probabilidad, la mayor parte del ejército samnita escapó de regreso a través de la frontera, porque si las cifras de bajas de Livy son creíbles, entonces los samnitas perdieron la gran mayoría de sus hombres capacitados en las tres batallas de la Primera Guerra Samnita, y está claro por eventos posteriores que este no fue el caso.

La derrota en Suessula parece haber eliminado cualquier entusiasmo por la guerra en Samnium. Al año siguiente, cuando los romanos fueron distraídos por un motín, no se registran incursiones samnitas, y en 341, cuando un nuevo ejército romano invadió Samnium, fueron recibidos por un enviado de paz, poniendo fin a la guerra.

Conquistas romanas: Italia, Ross Cowan. Una mirada a la conquista romana de la península italiana, la serie de guerras que vieron a Roma transformarse de una pequeña ciudad estado en el centro de Italia en una potencia que estaba a punto de conquistar el antiguo mundo mediterráneo. La falta de fuentes contemporáneas hace que sea un período difícil de escribir, pero Cowan ha producido una narrativa convincente sin ignorar parte de la complejidad.

[leer reseña completa]


Batalla de Suessula

los Batalla de Suessula fue la tercera y última batalla entre los samnitas y la República romana en 343 a. C., [nota 1] el primer año de la Primera Guerra Samnita. Según el historiador de Augusto Livy, [1] los samnitas reunieron su ejército en Suessula, en el extremo oriental de Campania. El cónsul romano Marco Valerio Corvus tomó su ejército mediante marchas forzadas a Suessula. Cuando los samnitas tuvieron que dispersar su ejército para buscar comida, Valerius aprovechó la oportunidad para capturar el campamento samnita y luego derrotar a los recolectores samnitas. Los historiadores modernos creen que los detalles de la batalla fueron completamente inventados por Livio y sus fuentes analísticas, y la historicidad de la batalla también ha sido cuestionada.


Indhold

Ifølge Livy startede den første samnitiske krig, fordi samnitterne angreb Sidicini, en stamme der bor nord para Campania. Den Campani, ledet af bystaten Capua, sendt en hær til at hjælpe Sidicini, men blev slået i kamp ved Samnites. Samnitterne invaderede derefter Campania og vandt et andet slag på sletten nær Capua. Overfor nederlag appellerede Campani til Rom om hjælp. Romerne, til trods for at de havde en traktat med samnitterne, gik med på at hjælpe og erklærede krig mod samnitterne.

De to romerske konsuler para 343, Marcus Valerius Corvus og Aulus Cornelius Cossus, marcherede hver deres hære mod samnitterne. Valerius førte ham ind i Campania og Cornelius hans ind i Samnium. I Campania vandt Valerius den første romerske sejr mod samnitterne i slaget ved Gaurus-bjerget nær Cumae, mens Cornelius i slaget ved Saticula forvandlede en næsten katastrofe til en anden romersk sejr takket værere Publius Decius Muss heltemod.


¿El multijugador gratuito de Halo Infinite abre la puerta a Battle Royale?

¿Podría el modo multijugador de Halo Infinite ser gratuito, con actualizaciones de temporada, ser un precursor de la implementación del modo Battle Royale en el juego?

Foto: Xbox Game Studios

Ha sido un viaje largo y arduo para Halo infinito. Anunciado por primera vez en el E3 2018, el juego se ha enfrentado a una serie de retrasos, informes de drama detrás de escena y muchas críticas después de su decepcionante presentación en julio pasado. Al subir al escenario en el E3 2021, 343 Industries tenía algo que demostrar: es Halo infinito ¿Verdaderamente el futuro de la querida serie de disparos o un paso en falso para el estudio?

Durante la conferencia de Xbox y Bethesda, 343 no solo rehuyó mostrar otra demostración de juego con guión, sino que decidió no anunciar una fecha de lanzamiento para el juego. Un breve avance cinematográfico que presenta la historia de la campaña y # 8217s y un carrete chisporroteante que destaca el componente multijugador fueron la extensión de 343 & # 8217s tiempo en el escenario. En este momento, Halo infinito todavía está etiquetado como un juego & # 8220Holiday 2020 & # 8221.

Si esto será suficiente para cambiar la percepción alrededor Halo infinito Queda por verse como una secuela problemática, pero una cosa que seguramente entusiasmará a los fanáticos es la revelación de que el juego y el modo multijugador # 8217 será gratuito para todos los usuarios de Xbox y PC, con el juego cruzado y la progresión cruzada habilitada. entre las plataformas. Esto hace que Halo infinitoEl modo multijugador & # 8216 es el más accesible de la historia de la franquicia & # 8217, y podría convertirse en un punto de partida perfecto para los nuevos jugadores que aún están indecisos.

El multijugador recibirá actualizaciones de temporada, la primera de las cuales se llama & # 8220Heroes of Reach & # 8221. Cada lanzamiento de temporada traerá nuevos mapas, modos y opciones de personalización al juego, incluida la armadura Yoroi Spartan que se muestra en el siguiente avance:

El contenido del anuncio & # 8211 continúa a continuación

Una mezcla de lo antiguo y lo nuevo está al frente y al centro en el carrete chisporroteante. Vemos nuevas versiones del rifle de asalto, rifle de batalla, Needler y otros, así como los vehículos clásicos Warthog y Ghost en algunos mapas nuevos, incluido uno que se parece a Halo 3& # 8216s clásico Valhalla. Gran batalla en equipo, ¿alguien? Hablando de tipos de partidos clásicos, Slayer, Capture the Flag y Oddball parecen estar contabilizados.

Pero, ¿qué pasa con los nuevos modos? Si hay & # 8217s un modo multijugador aureola los fans han estado hablando desde Halo infinito se anunció por primera vez, es Battle Royale. Desde 2018, la mayoría de aureola& # 8216s principales competidores en el espacio de disparos AAA, incluidos Obligaciones y Campo de batalla, han lanzado sus versiones del popular tipo de combate de supervivencia PvP. Así será aureola ¿seguir el ejemplo? Solo podemos especular.

El hecho de que Halo infinitoEl modo multijugador de & # 8216 será gratuito, sin duda deja la puerta abierta para el modelo de negocio de Battle Royale, que permite a los jugadores jugar el modo de forma gratuita al mismo tiempo que los incita a comprar nuevas máscaras, accesorios, mapas y operadores para personalizar su experiencia. Las actualizaciones de temporada también son fundamentales para una batalla real, ya que agregan nuevos modos, eventos en el juego, desafíos y cosméticos a lo que de otra manera es esencialmente un Día de la Marmota-como una experiencia en la que juegas y mueres en el mismo mapa una y otra vez durante meses.

En resumen, la infraestructura para implementar un modo Battle Royale en el juego ciertamente está ahí, sin mencionar que aureola como franquicia estaba experimentando con tipos de partidas PvP de varios equipos más de una década antes de que la batalla real fuera siquiera una cosa. La serie también ha presentado durante mucho tiempo Big Team Battle, un tipo de partida con un número de jugadores más alto que el formato habitual de Deathmatch.

¿Podría 343 traducir esa historia en algo a una escala mucho mayor, agregando los detalles de diseño moderno necesarios para el modo y al mismo tiempo conservando lo que hace aureola único (como las habilidades sobrehumanas de los espartanos)? A aureola El modo Battle Royale podría al menos atraer a los jugadores más jóvenes que han crecido con Fortnite y Call of Duty: zona de guerra para probar el juego de disparos de ciencia ficción, que, enfrentémoslo, ya no está en su época dorada.

Pero a lo largo de los años, 343 ha dicho que no le interesa. Un mes despues Halo infinito fue revelado por primera vez, aureola El escritor de la franquicia Jeff Easterling derribó los rumores de que Battle Royale llegaría al juego, diciendo & # 8220I & # 8217 Te lo diré ahora mismo, el único BR que nos & # 8217 estamos interesados ​​es Battle Rifle. & # 8221 aureola El director de desarrollo de la franquicia, Frank O & # 8217 Connor, reiteró nuevamente en 2019 que el juego no se lanzaría con un modo Battle Royale.


Conflictos militares similares o similares a Samnite Wars

La Primera, Segunda y Tercera Guerras Samnitas (343–341 a. C., 326-304 a. C. y 298-290 a. C.) se libraron entre la República Romana y los samnitas, que vivían en un tramo de los Apeninos al sur y al norte de Roma. de los lucanos. Wikipedia

La tercera y última batalla entre los samnitas y la República romana en el 343 a. C., el primer año de la Primera Guerra Samnita. Según el historiador de Augusto Livy, los samnitas reunieron a su ejército en Suessula, en el extremo oriental de Campania. Wikipedia

La primera batalla de la Primera Guerra Samnita y también la primera batalla librada entre la República Romana y los Samnitas. Descrito por el historiador romano Livio como parte del Libro Siete de su historia de Roma, Ab Urbe Condita, donde narra cómo el cónsul romano Marco Valerio Corvus ganó una reñida batalla contra los samnitas en el monte Gauro, cerca de Cumas, en Campania. Wikipedia

Guerra librada por Pirro, el rey de Epiro. Solicitado por la gente de la ciudad griega de Tarentum en el sur de Italia para ayudarlos en su guerra con la República Romana. Wikipedia

Se libró del 91 al 87 a. C. entre la República Romana y otras ciudades y tribus de Italia que hasta entonces habían sido aliadas (socii) de Roma durante siglos. Los aliados italianos querían la ciudadanía romana, no solo por el estatus y la influencia que la acompañaba, sino también por el derecho al voto en la República Romana. Wikipedia

La primera batalla de la Tercera Guerra Samnita. En la batalla, los samnitas, asistidos por los galos, derrotaron a los romanos, comandados por Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus. Wikipedia

Luchó en el 293 a. C. entre la República romana y los samnitas. Los romanos, liderados por el cónsul Lucius Papirius Cursor, salieron victoriosos. Wikipedia

Luchó en 277 a. C. entre un ejército romano y samnita durante la Guerra Pírrica. El pueblo samnita se alió con el rey Pirro de Epiro contra la República romana para recuperar la independencia que había perdido durante las guerras romanas samnitas, pero cuando Pirro salió de Italia en 278 a. C. rumbo a Sicilia, Pirro y 27 aliados italianos se quedaron para defenderse de los romanos. en su propia. Wikipedia

La batalla decisiva de la Tercera Guerra Samnita, librada en 295 a. C. cerca de Sentinum, en la que los romanos lograron vencer a una formidable coalición de samnitas, etruscos, umbros y galos senone. Los romanos obtuvieron una victoria decisiva que rompió la coalición tribal (los etruscos, umbros y senones se retiraron de la guerra) y allanó el camino para la victoria completa de los romanos sobre los samnitas. Wikipedia

Unidad táctica de la República Romana adoptada durante las Guerras Samnitas (343-290 aC). También el nombre de las insignias militares que porta dicha unidad. Wikipedia

Conflicto entre la República Romana y sus vecinos, los pueblos latinos de la antigua Italia. Terminó con la disolución de la Liga Latina y la incorporación de su territorio a la esfera de influencia romana, con los latinos ganando derechos parciales y diferentes niveles de ciudadanía. Wikipedia

La batalla se libró en el 315 a. C. durante la Segunda Guerra Samnita, oponiéndose a la República Romana y los Samnitas, que derrotaron a los romanos. En 315 a. C., los romanos eligieron a Lucius Papirius Cursor y Quintus Publilius Philo como cónsules. Wikipedia

La segunda de las tres batallas descritas por el historiador romano Livio, en el Libro Siete de su historia de Roma, Ab Urbe Condita, tuvo lugar en el primer año de la Primera Guerra Samnita. Marchando desde Saticula cuando estaba casi atrapado por un ejército samnita en un paso de montaña. Wikipedia

La segunda de las tres guerras libradas entre Cartago y Roma, las dos principales potencias del Mediterráneo occidental en el siglo III a. C. Durante diecisiete años, los dos estados lucharon por la supremacía, principalmente en Italia e Iberia, pero también en las islas de Sicilia y Cerdeña y, hacia el final de la guerra, en el norte de África. Después de inmensas pérdidas materiales y humanas en ambos bandos, los cartagineses fueron derrotados. Wikipedia

Batalla peleada c. 387 a. C. entre los Senones, una tribu gala liderada por Brennus que había invadido el norte de Italia, y la República Romana. Luchó en la confluencia de los ríos Tiber y Allia, a 11 millas romanas al norte de Roma. Wikipedia

Luchó en el 225 a. C. entre la República Romana y un grupo de galos que vivían en Italia. Los galos derrotaron a los romanos, pero ese mismo año, una batalla decisiva en Telamón tuvo el resultado opuesto. Wikipedia

Acontecimiento decisivo de la Segunda Guerra Samnita. Mera formalidad histórica: no hubo combates y no hubo bajas. Wikipedia

Pueblo itálico antiguo que vivió en Samnium. Atribuido a la traición cometida por algunos de sus ciudadanos. Wikipedia

La expansión romana en Italia cubre una serie de conflictos en los que Roma pasó de ser una pequeña ciudad-estado italiana a ser el gobernante de la península italiana. La tradición romana atribuye a los reyes romanos la primera guerra contra los sabinos y las primeras conquistas alrededor de las colinas de Alban y hasta la costa del Lacio. Wikipedia

Luchó en el 305 a. C. entre los romanos y los samnitas. Los romanos fueron dirigidos por dos cónsules, Tiberius Minucius Augurinus y Lucius Postumius Megellus. Wikipedia

La era de la civilización romana clásica, liderada por el pueblo romano, que comienza con el derrocamiento del Reino Romano, data tradicionalmente del 509 a. C. y termina en el 27 a. C. con el establecimiento del Imperio Romano. Durante este período, el control de Roma se expandió desde los alrededores inmediatos de la ciudad hasta la hegemonía sobre todo el mundo mediterráneo. Wikipedia

Luchó en el 325 a. C. durante la Segunda Guerra Samnita entre la República Romana, dirigida por el magister equitum, Quintus Fabius Maximus Rullianus, y los samnitas cerca de Imbrinium, una ciudad del Samnium. Nombrado dictador con el propósito de continuar la guerra contra los samnitas después de que el cónsul Lucius Furius Camillus cayera enfermo ese mismo año. Wikipedia

Personas en cursiva antigua. La migración volsciana hacia el sur del Lacio provocó un conflicto con los antiguos habitantes de esa región, los latinos bajo el liderazgo de Roma, la ciudad-estado dominante de la región. Wikipedia

Importante batalla de la Tercera Guerra Samnita, librada en el 297 a. C. cerca de Città di Castello (junto a Perugia, en lo que hoy es el centro de Italia), en la que los romanos vencieron a un decidido ejército samnita. El resultado conduciría a la decisiva batalla de Sentinum, que otorgó a Roma el dominio del centro de Italia. Wikipedia

Cronología de la historia italiana, que comprende importantes cambios legales y territoriales y eventos políticos en Italia y sus estados predecesores, incluida la Antigua Roma y la Italia prehistórica. Las fechas de la era prehistórica son aproximadas. Wikipedia

Los socii (en inglés) o foederati (en inglés) eran confederados de Roma y formaban una de las tres denominaciones legales en la Italia romana (Italia) junto con los ciudadanos romanos (Cives) y los Latini. Parte (los latinos). Wikipedia

Cónsul romano en los años 312 a. C., 308 a. C., 297 a. C. y 295 a. C. Era miembro de una familia que era famosa por sacrificarse en el campo de batalla por Roma. Elegido cónsul en 312 a. C. junto con Marco Valerio Corvus. Wikipedia

Los tratados entre Roma y Cartago son los cuatro tratados entre los dos estados que se firmaron entre el 509 a. C. y el 279 a. C. Los tratados influyeron en el curso de la historia del Mediterráneo y son importantes para comprender la relación entre las dos ciudades más importantes de la región durante esa época. Revelan cambios en cómo Roma se percibía a sí misma y cómo Cartago percibía a Roma, y ​​las diferencias entre la percepción de las ciudades y sus características reales. Wikipedia

Etapa importante de la expansión romana en la península italiana. Los samnitas eran un grupo de tribus montañesas que ocupaban los Apeninos centrales. Wikipedia

General samnita que luchó contra los romanos, en la Segunda Guerra Samnita. Derrotado y hecho prisionero en 305 a. C., en la batalla de Bovianum. Wikipedia

Ovius y Novius Calavius ​​(ambos murieron en 314 a. C.), hermanos, eran hijos de Ofilius Calavius, un noble de Campania durante la Segunda Guerra Samnita (326-304 a. C.). Insurrección contra los romanos, pero cuando se descubrió su conspiración y se tomaron las medidas necesarias para evitar que su plan llegara a buen término, se deshicieron de ellos mismos en lugar de enfrentar el arresto. Wikipedia


Batalla de Suessula, 343 - Historia

Este sabio método de tratar a las diversas comunidades de sujetos cimentó más estrechamente las ciudades latinas con Roma y fue el comienzo de una política importante, que se llevó a cabo más plenamente en la organización posterior de Italia y del mundo mediterráneo.


SELECCIONES DE LECTURA
Arnold, Hist., Cap. 29, `` La Gran Guerra Latina '' (2). 1
How y Leigh, cap. 13, `` Subyugación del Lacio '' (1).
Liddell, Cap. 20, `` Gran Guerra Latina '' (1).
Ihne, Hist., Bk. III., Cap. 6, `` Gran Guerra con los Latinos '' (2).
Mommsen, vol. I., Bk. II., Cap. 5, Subyugación de los latinos (2).

MAPA DE LATIUM Y CAMPANIA después de la conquista latina, ubicando las principales ciudades y distinguiendo entre (a) pueblos totalmente incorporados, (B) ciudades parcialmente incorporadas, (C) sujetos aliados, (D) Colonias latinas y (mi) Colonias romanas. & # 151 How y Leigh, p. 103, también mapa entre págs. 402 y 403 (1) Shuckburgh, mapas en págs. 30 y 128 (1) Liddell, pág. 193 (1) Pelham, págs. 81, 82 (1).


Palabras clave principales del artículo siguiente: roma, antes de Cristo, romanos, saco, 390, antigua, batalla, allia, derrota, batallas, río, galos.

TEMAS CLAVE
Batalla del río Allia (390 a. C.): los galos derrotan a los romanos y luego saquean Roma. [1] En 105 a. C. los romanos fueron derrotados en la Batalla de Arausio y fue la más costosa que Roma había sufrido desde la Batalla de Cannas. [2] Después de que Cimbri concediera inadvertidamente a los romanos un indulto al desviarse para saquear Iberia, Roma tuvo la oportunidad de prepararse cuidadosamente y enfrentarse con éxito a los Cimbri y Teutones en la Batalla de Aquae Sextiae (102 a. C.) y la Batalla de Vercellae ( 101 a.C.) donde ambas tribus fueron prácticamente aniquiladas, poniendo fin a la amenaza. [2] Batalla de Mylae - Una fuerza naval romana bajo el mando de C. Duillius derrota a la flota cartaginesa, dando a Roma el control del Mediterráneo occidental. [1] Cuando el ejército romano obtuvo una victoria convincente sobre estas fuerzas combinadas, debe haber quedado claro que poco pudo evitar el dominio romano de Italia y en la batalla de Populonia (282 a. C.) Roma destruyó los últimos vestigios del poder etrusco en la región. [2] El malestar interno alcanzó su etapa más grave en las dos guerras civiles o marchas sobre Roma del cónsul Lucius Cornelius Sulla a principios del 82 a. C. En la Batalla de la Puerta Colline en la misma puerta de la ciudad de Roma, un ejército romano bajo el mando de Sila superó a un ejército del senado romano y sus aliados samnitas. [2]

Roma superó a los latinos en la batalla del Vesubio y nuevamente en la batalla de Trifanum, después de lo cual las ciudades latinas se vieron obligadas a someterse al dominio romano. [2] A pesar de la pérdida de un gran ejército casi ante la famosa derrota del hombre de Varus a manos del líder germánico Arminio en la Batalla del Bosque de Teutoburgo en el 9 d.C., Roma se recuperó y continuó su expansión hasta y más allá de las fronteras. del mundo conocido. [2] En el 451 d.C., lideró un ejército combinado, incluido su antiguo enemigo los visigodos, contra los hunos en la batalla de las llanuras catalaunianas, venciéndolos con tanta fuerza que, aunque más tarde saquearon Concordia, Altinum, Mediolanum, Ticinum y Patavium, nunca más amenazaron directamente a Roma. [2]

Desde su origen como ciudad-estado en la península de Italia en el siglo VIII a. La historia de la Antigua Roma estaba estrechamente relacionada con su historia militar. [2] Antigua Roma: Desde los primeros tiempos hasta 476 A. D. (Ed. Revisada). [2]

Batalla de Lilybaeum: primer enfrentamiento naval entre las armadas de Cartago y Roma durante la Segunda Guerra Púnica. [1] Los primeros éxitos, incluido el rechazo del Primer Sitio de Jerusalén y la Batalla de Bet-Horon, solo atrajeron una mayor atención de Roma y el emperador Nerón nombró al general Vespasiano para aplastar la rebelión. [2] Pompeyo inicialmente aseguró a Roma y al senado que podría derrotar a César en la batalla si marchaba sobre Roma. [2] Batalla de Colline Gate - Sulla derrota a los samnitas aliados al partido popular en Roma en la batalla decisiva de la Guerra Civil. [1] Ciertamente, los sasánidas no habían sido intimidados por las batallas anteriores con Roma y en el 253 d. C. los sasánidas bajo el mando de Sapor I penetraron profundamente en territorio romano varias veces, derrotando a una fuerza romana en la batalla de Barbalissos y conquistando y saqueando Antioquia en 252. AD después del sitio de Antiochia. [2] Dado que los Alpes formaban una barrera natural hacia el norte, y Roma no estaba demasiado dispuesta a enfrentarse a los feroces galos en la batalla una vez más, la mirada de la ciudad se volvió hacia Sicilia y las islas del Mediterráneo, una política que la llevaría a conflicto directo con su antiguo aliado Cartago. [2] La extensa campaña en el extranjero por parte de Roma, y ​​la recompensa de los soldados con el botín de esas campañas, llevó a la tendencia de los soldados a volverse cada vez más leales a sus comandantes en lugar de al estado, y la voluntad de seguir a sus generales en la batalla contra el estado. [2]

La Primera Guerra Samnita de entre 343 a. C. y 341 a. C. que siguió a las incursiones samnitas generalizadas en el territorio de Roma fue un asunto relativamente corto: los romanos vencieron a los samnitas tanto en la Batalla del Monte Gauro en 342 a. C. como en la Batalla de Suessula en 341 a. C. obligados a retirarse de la guerra antes de que pudieran continuar con el conflicto debido a la revuelta de varios de sus aliados latinos en la Guerra Latina. [2] En general, el destino de incluso el más grande de los enemigos de Roma, como Pirro y Aníbal, era ganar la batalla pero perder la guerra. [2]

En el 121 a. C., Roma entró en contacto con las tribus celtas de los alobroges y los arvernos, a las que derrotaron con aparente facilidad en la Primera Batalla de Aviñón cerca del río Ródano y la Segunda Batalla de Aviñón, el mismo año. [2] Después de la Primera Guerra Púnica, las batallas navales fueron menos importantes que las batallas terrestres para la historia militar de Roma debido a su extensión de tierras de la periferia y su dominio indiscutible del Mar Mediterráneo. [2] Roma se lanzó a la guerra naval "como un ladrillo al agua" y las primeras batallas navales de la Primera Guerra Púnica, como la Batalla de las Islas Lipari, fueron desastres catastróficos para Roma, como era de esperar de una ciudad que había ninguna experiencia previa real de guerra naval. [2]

Estas guerras, que comenzaron en 264 a. C. fueron probablemente los conflictos más grandes del mundo antiguo hasta la fecha y vieron a Roma convertirse en el estado más poderoso del Mediterráneo occidental, con territorio en Sicilia, África del Norte, Iberia y con el fin de las guerras macedonias (que concurrentemente con las guerras púnicas) Grecia también. [2]

Cronología de las guerras y batallas romanas antiguas Cronología Descripción: Después de conquistar la península italiana alrededor del año 270 a. C., la antigua Roma construyó un imperio centrado en el Mediterráneo. [3] Las batallas más importantes en la antigua Roma no fueron solo por la gloria, fueron clave para la supervivencia continua de la sociedad en su conjunto. [4] Reglas de la lista Vota las batallas más interesantes de la antigua Roma. [4] Realizadas por cientos de hombres, simulacros de batallas navales emocionaron al público en la antigua Roma con gran dramatismo y sangriento espectáculo. [5]

Los galos derrotan a los romanos en la batalla de Allia en 387 a. C. y saquean Roma. [3] La batalla de Cynoscephalae se libró en Tesalia en 197 a. C. entre el ejército romano, dirigido por Titus Quinctius Flamininus, y la dinastía Antigonid de Macedonia, dirigida por Philip V. Esta derrota macedonia marca el paso del poder imperial de los sucesores de Alejandro el Grande a Roma. [6] La victoria en la batalla trajo nuevos territorios, adquirió riqueza y recursos, persuadió a los enemigos a pedir la paz y envió un mensaje claro de que Roma defendería sus fronteras, que tenía una sed insaciable de expansión y proporcionó una evidencia irrefutable de cuán formidable máquina de combate que los romanos podían presentar en el campo de batalla. [7] Se podían disfrutar de grandes éxitos en la batalla, pero también, las derrotas podrían sacudir a Roma hasta sus cimientos a medida que los oponentes capaces comenzaran a usar las estrategias ganadoras de Roma para su propio beneficio. [7] Roma derrota a un ejército cartaginés en la batalla de Metaurus. [7] La ​​última y decisiva batalla de la Segunda Guerra Púnica, terminó efectivamente tanto con el mando de Aníbal de las fuerzas cartaginesas como con las posibilidades de Cartago de oponerse significativamente a Roma. [8] Roma gana una batalla terrestre al sur de Túnez durante la Primera Guerra Púnica. [7]

La Tercera Guerra Servil fue importante para la historia más amplia de la antigua Roma, principalmente por su efecto en las carreras de Pompeyo y Craso. [6] Tomó True History en el griego original para dominar el idioma. (Mientras que el latín era la lengua vernácula de la antigua Roma, el griego era el idioma utilizado por la élite educada). [9] Durante su tiempo, la naumaquia de César fue probablemente el evento más complejo celebrado en la antigua Roma. [5]

Otra gran batalla simulada en Roma se registra en el año 248 d.C., cuando el emperador Marco Julio Filipo (a veces conocido como Felipe el Árabe debido a su herencia siria) celebró el milésimo aniversario de la fundación de Roma con una naumaquia. [5] Cartago Descripción general del ascenso y caída de Cartago, con una discusión detallada de las victorias de Aníbal contra Roma, incluida la Batalla de Cannas, y su posterior derrota en la Batalla de Zama. [8] Junto con la posterior Batalla de Pydna, a menudo se considera que esta derrota demostró que la falange macedonia, antes la unidad de combate más eficaz en el mundo antiguo, ahora era obsoleta, aunque de hecho la falange pudo forzar a las legiones. retrocedieron y se mantuvieron firmes con espadas hasta que veinte manípulos cayeron sobre su retaguardia (debido a los débiles flancos macedonios y los elefantes romanos que derrotaban al desordenado flanco izquierdo macedonio). [6] Batalla de Munda, (45 a. C.), conflicto que puso fin a la antigua guerra civil romana entre las fuerzas de Pompeyo el Grande y las de Julio César. [10] Inglés: esta categoría es para batallas y campañas en las que lucharon los antiguos romanos: Cannas, Adrianópolis, Farsalia, Metauro, etc. Esta categoría también incluye batallas navales como la batalla de Actium. [11]

Diseñado desde cero, Ancient Battle: Rome ofrece una experiencia de juego de guerra única en iPhone y iPad. [12]

Cartago derrota a Roma en una batalla naval en Drepanum durante la Primera Guerra Púnica. [7] Roma gana una batalla naval contra Cartago en Sulcis durante la Primera Guerra Púnica. [7]


Básicamente, los detalles que los historiadores conocen de las batallas en la antigua Roma provienen con mayor frecuencia de fuentes secundarias como Polibio y Apio para las Guerras Púnicas, o más raramente un relato primario como César & # x27s De Bello Gallico. [13] ¿Cuál fue la batalla más grande, por número de participantes, en la que participó la antigua Roma? Sin contar los asedios. [14]


Estos podrían ser rastros de 2000 años de una batalla con Roma. [15] Los refuerzos y el equipo fueron fundamentales para la batalla victoriosa contra Roma. [dieciséis]

Los textos antiguos sugieren que uno de los primeros romanos prominentes que ocupó una villa a lo largo de la bahía fue Escipión Africano el Viejo, un célebre general que se retiró a su finca costera en 184 a. C. Y a medida que la armada romana procedió a despachar a los piratas que plagaban las costas de Italia, y mientras la riqueza se acumulaba en Roma después de sus conquistas en el Este, la alta sociedad comenzó a invertir en casas frente al mar. [17] La ​​primera naumaquia en el Coliseo tuvo 3000 combatientes y reprodujo una antigua batalla entre Atenas y Siracusa. [18] Aquí hay una lista de algunas de las peores derrotas en batalla sufridas por los antiguos romanos, enumeradas cronológicamente desde el pasado más legendario hasta las derrotas mejor documentadas durante el Imperio Romano. [19]

Roman Battles Lux es un paquete de expansión para Lux Delux que contiene 10 guerras de la Antigua Roma. [20] Visite las secciones siguientes para obtener más información sobre el ejército de la Antigua Roma, incluidas las legiones republicanas e imperiales, las batallas, la armada romana y la Guardia Pretoriana. [21]


Otra batalla naval en el Coliseo fue organizada en el 89 d.C. por Domiciano, que fue la última naumaquia registrada en Roma. [18] Lucan, da cuenta de la Guerra Civil Romana de 49-45 a. C. En este punto de la epopeya, a pesar de que el público pide el fin de la guerra, la batalla continúa cuando César cruza el Rubicón y reúne a sus tropas para marchar sobre Roma. [22] Los romanos, siempre que pudieron volverse y presentar un frente por todos lados al enemigo, resistieron, pero a medida que las filas externas continuaban cayendo, y el resto se apiñaba y rodeaba gradualmente, finalmente todos murieron donde estaban, entre ellos, Marco y Cneo, los cónsules del año anterior, que se habían comportado en la batalla como valientes dignos de Roma. [13]

Cómo mantener a un esclavo en la antigua Roma, 170 aC "El volumen total de vino por hombre durante un año debería ser de aproximadamente cuarenta y dos galones:" consejo para mantener esclavos en la antigua Roma. [23] El Coliseo no era el único anfiteatro de la antigua Roma, había varios esparcidos por todo el imperio. [24] Di lo que quieras sobre la violencia en el fútbol americano, pero el Coliseo de la antigua Roma puede haber sido el recinto deportivo más bárbaro de la historia de la humanidad. [25]


Desde nuestra perspectiva del siglo XXI, las peores derrotas militares de la Antigua Roma deben incluir aquellas que cambiaron el camino y el progreso del poderoso Imperio Romano. [19]

En YouTube puedo ver videos extremadamente detallados de las antiguas batallas romanas que muestran lo que hizo cada sección del ejército y en qué momento. [13] Otras batallas antiguas notables incluyeron Platea (479 aC), Leuctra (371 aC), Chaeronea (338 aC), Gaugamela (331 aC), Asculum (279 aC), Carrhae (53 aC), Farsalia (48 aC), Filipos (42 a. C.) y el bosque de Teutoburgo (9 d. C.). [26] Los relatos antiguos de batallas son, dependiendo de la distancia desde el evento en sí (en el espacio y el tiempo), mezclas de diferentes partes & # x27factual & # x27 (de comandantes y soldados en la batalla), y construcciones mitologizantes / literarias. [13]

La batalla de Cannas (216 d. C.) fue la mayor victoria de Aníbal y la peor derrota de Roma. [27]

Durante los años siguientes, derrotaron a sus enemigos en Roma y persiguieron a los supervivientes hasta Grecia, donde acabaron con ellos en dos de las batallas más sangrientas de la historia romana. [28] Resultaría ser sólo un éxito limitado para Roma, el río Danubio permaneció como la frontera del Imperio durante su duración. Siglo III: Siglo IV: Guerra Gótica (376-382): La Guerra Gótica es el nombre que se le da a una serie de batallas góticas y saqueos del Imperio Romano de Oriente en los Balcanes entre aproximadamente 376/377 y 382. [29]

Primera Guerra Civil Mariano-Silana (88-87 a. C.) La primera guerra civil de Sila fue una de una serie de guerras civiles en la antigua Roma, entre Cayo Mario y Sila, entre 88 y 87 a. C. Segunda Guerra Mitrídatica (83-82 aC) La Segunda Guerra Mitrídatica (83-82 aC) fue una de las tres Guerras Mitrídatas libradas entre Ponto y la República Romana. [29] That is not the case and The Roman Empire and the Silk Routes by Raoul McLaughlin describes the ways in which ancient Rome and China traded goods over the ancient Silk Routes. [30]

The war was a much smaller engagement than the two previous punic wars and primarily consisted of a single action, the Battle of Carthage, but resulted in the complete destruction of the city of Carthage, the annexation of all remaining Carthaginian territory by Rome, and the death or enslavement of the entire Carthaginian population. [29] In the preface to Battles of the Greek & Roman Worlds, author John Drogo Montagu states that its purpose is to bring "together in one volume the ancient literature about the battles of the Greek and Roman worlds from the start of recorded history to the end of the Roman Republic." [31]

United Nations of Roma Victrix (UNRV) represents the all encompassing power of Rome in the ancient world. [21]

Fearing the Spartans would take increasing control of the region, the Romans drew on help from allies to prosecute the Roman-Spartan War, defeating a Spartan army at the Battle of Gythium in 195 BC. They also fought their former allies the Aetolian League in the Aetolian War, against the Istrians in the Istrian War, against the Illyrians in the Illyrian War, and against Achaia in the Achaean War. [2] The opening action of the Cimbrian War, the Battle of Noreia in 112 BC, ended in defeat and near disaster for the Romans. [2] December, Battle of Magnesia - (near Smyrna) Romans under Lucius Cornelius Scipio and his brother Scipio Africanus Major defeat Antiochus III the Great in the decisive victory of the war. [1]

In 52 BC, following the Siege of Avaricum and a string of inconclusive battles, Caesar defeated a union of Gauls led by Vercingetorix at the Battle of Alesia, completing the Roman conquest of Transalpine Gaul. [2] The second consular army duly defeated the Macedonians at the Battle of Pydna in 168 BC and the Macedonians, lacking the reserve of the Romans and with King Perseus captured, duly capitulated, ending the Third Macedonian War. [2] The army that faced the Romans at the Battle of Sentinum in 295 BC included Samnites, Gauls, Etruscans and Umbrians. [2] In 243 AD, Emperor Gordian III's army retook the Roman cities of Hatra, Nisibis and Carrhae from the Sassanids after defeating the Sassanids at the Battle of Resaena but what happened next is unclear: Persian sources claim that Gordian was defeated and killed in the Battle of Misikhe but Roman sources mention this battle only as an insignificant setback and suggest that Gordian died elsewhere. [2] In 85 AD, the Dacians had swarmed over the Danube and pillaged Moesia and initially defeated an army the Emperor Domitian sent against them, but the Romans were victorious in the Battle of Tapae in AD 88 and a truce was drawn up. [2] Despite Macrinus having his position ratified by the Roman senate, the troops of Varius Avitus declared him to be emperor instead, and the two met in battle at the Battle of Antioch in 218 AD, in which Macrinus was defeated. [2] In the same year the Goths inflicted a crushing defeat on the Eastern Empire at the Battle of Adrianople, in which the Eastern Emperor Valens was massacred along with tens of thousands of Roman troops. [2] Civil War - 366 - Battle of Thyatira - The army of the Roman emperor Valens defeats the usurper Procopius. [1] After initial successes, he marched his army deep into the desert but here his army was cut off deep in enemy territory, surrounded and slaughtered at the Battle of Carrhae in "the greatest Roman defeat since Hannibal" in which Crassus himself perished. [2] After training more sailors and inventing a grappling engine known as a Corvus, a Roman naval force under C. Duillius was able to roundly defeat a Carthaginian fleet at the Battle of Mylae. [2] Battle of the Lipari Islands - A Roman naval force is defeated by the Carthaginians. [1]

The Romans were defeated at the Battle of Suthul but fared better at the Battle of the Muthul and finally defeated Jugurtha at the Battle of Thala, the Battle of Mulucha, and the Battle of Cirta (104 BC). [2] Following two major military expeditions to Iberia, the Romans finally crushed Carthaginian control of the peninsula in 206 BC, at the Battle of Ilipa, and the peninsula became a Roman province known as Hispania. [2] Battle of Mutina (193 BC) - Roman victory over the Boii, decisively ending the Boian threat. [1] The fortunes of the two sides fluctuated throughout its course: the Samnites seized Neapolis in the Capture of Neapolis in 327 BC, which the Romans then re-captured before losing at the Battle of the Caudine Forks and the Battle of Lautulae. [2] The Romans then proved victorious at the Battle of Bovianum and the tide turned strongly against the Samnites from 314 BC onwards, leading them to sue for peace with progressively less generous terms. [2]

Despite defeats such as the Battle of Fucine Lake, Roman troops defeated the Italian militias in decisive engagements, notably the Battle of Asculum. [2] Battle of Ebro River - In a surprise attack, Romans defeat and capture the Carthaginian fleet in Hispania. [1] Battle of Cissa - Romans defeat Carthaginians near Tarraco and gain control of the territory north of the Ebro River. [1]

Battle of Cape Ecnomus - A Carthaginian fleet under Hamilcar and Hanno is defeated in an attempt to stop a Roman invasion of Africa by Marcus Atilius Regulus. [1] During a term as praetor in Iberia, Pompey's contemporary Julius Caesar of the Roman Julii clan defeated the Calaici and Lusitani in battle. [2] In 46 BC Caesar lost perhaps as much as a third of his army when his former commander Titus Labienus, who had defected to the Pompeians several years earlier, defeated him at the Battle of Ruspina. [2] As early as 53 BC, the Roman general Crassus had invaded Parthia, but he was killed and his army was defeated at the Battle of Carrhae. [2] In the subsequent First Mithridatic War, the Roman general Lucius Cornelius Sulla forced Mithridates out of Greece proper after the Battle of Chaeronea and later Battle of Orchomenus but then had to return to Italy to answer the internal threat posed by his rival Marius consequently, Mithridates VI was defeated but not destroyed. [2] The arrival of the Roman Stilicho and his army forced Alaric to lift his siege and move his army towards Hasta (modern Asti) in western Italy, where Stilicho attacked it at the Battle of Pollentia, capturing Alaric's camp. [2] Perseus initially had greater military success against the Romans than his father, winning the Battle of Callicinus against a Roman consular army. [2] Battle of the Silarus - Hannibal destroys the army of the Roman praetor M. Centenius Penula. [1] Battle of the Ticinus - Hannibal defeats the Romans under Publius Cornelius Scipio the elder in a cavalry fight. [1] Battle of the Trebia - Hannibal defeats the Romans under Tiberius Sempronius Longus with the use of an ambush. [1]

After Caesar's preliminary low-scale invasions of Britain, the Romans invaded in force in 43 AD, forcing their way inland through several battles against British tribes, including the Battle of the Medway, the Battle of the Thames, the Battle of Caer Caradoc and the Battle of Mona. [2] Following a general uprising in which the Britons sacked Colchester, St Albans and London, the Romans suppressed the rebellion in the Battle of Watling Street and went on to push as far north as central Scotland in the Battle of Mons Graupius. [2] Septimius Severus and Pescennius Niger, both rebel generals declared to be emperors by the troops they commanded, clashed for the first time in 193 AD at the Battle of Cyzicus, in which Niger was defeated. [2] Albinus was proclaimed emperor by his troops in Britain and, crossing over to Gaul, defeated Severus' general Virius Lupus in battle, before being in turn defeated and killed in the Battle of Lugdunum by Severus himself. [2] Gordian III's fate is not certain, although he may have been murdered by his own successor, Philip the Arab, who ruled for only a few years before the army again raised a general, Decius, by their proclamation to emperor, who then defeated Philip in the Battle of Verona. [2] In the Battle of Forum Gallorum Antony, besieging Caesar's assassin Decimus Brutus in Mutina, defeated the forces of the consul Pansa, who was killed, but Antony was then immediately defeated by the army of the other consul, Hirtius. [2] Pompey was decisively defeated in the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC despite outnumbering Caesar's forces two to one. [2] Pompey initially defeated Caesar at the Battle of Dyrrachium in 48 BC but failed to follow up on the victory. [2] Caesar defeated the Helvetii in 58 BC at the Battle of the Arar and Battle of Bibracte, the Belgic confederacy known as the Belgae at the Battle of the Axona, the Nervii in 57 BC at the Battle of the Sabis, the Aquitani, Treviri, Tencteri, Aedui and Eburones in unknown battles, and the Veneti in 56 BC. In 55 and 54 BC he made two expeditions to Britain. [2]

In 203 BC at the Battle of Bagbrades the invading Roman army under Scipio Africanus Major defeated the Carthaginian army of Hasdrubal Gisco and Syphax and Hannibal was recalled to Africa. [2] In the Battle of the Aous Roman forces under Titus Quinctius Flamininus defeated the Macedonians, and in a second larger battle under the same opposing commanders in 197 BC, in the Battle of Cynoscephalae, Flamininus again beat the Macedonians decisively. [2] Battle of the Lupia River (11 BC) - Roman forces under Augustus's stepson Drusus win a victory in Germany. [1] Battle of the Asio River - Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius defeats a Popular army under Gaius Carrinas. [1] Battle of the Siler River - Marcus Crassus defeats the army of Spartacus. [1]

War with Visigoths - 436 - Battle of Narbonne - Flavius Aetius again defeats the Visigoths led by Theodoric. [1] Battle of Campania - Slave Revolt led by Spartacus defeat a Roman army. [1] These forces drove out the Roman garrisons near the Rhine and defeated a Roman army at the Battle of Castra Vetera, after which many Roman troops along the Rhine and in Gaul defected to the Batavian cause. [2] In 260 AD at the Battle of Edessa the Sassanids defeated the Roman army and captured the Roman Emperor Valerian. [2] The lone exception to this rule was Gallienus, emperor from 260 to 268 AD, who confronted a remarkable array of usurpers, most of whom he defeated in pitched battle. [2] The army was mostly spared further infighting until around 273 AD, when Aurelian defeated the Gallic usurper Tetricus in the Battle of Chalons. [2] They defeated Aurelian at the Battle of Placentia in 271 AD but were beaten back for a short time after they lost the battles of Fano and Pavia later that year. [2] They were beaten again in 298 AD at the battles of Lingones and Vindonissa but fifty years later they were resurgent again, making incursions in 356 AD at the Battle of Reims, in 357 AD at the Battle of Strasbourg, in 367 AD at the Battle of Solicinium and in 378 AD at Battle of Argentovaria. [2]

It took two further defeats at the Battle of Nicaea later that year and the Battle of Issus the following year, for Niger to be destroyed. [2] Battle of Ilipa - Scipio again decisively defeats the remaining Carthaginian forces in Hispania. [1] Battle of the Axona (Aisne) - Caesar defeats the forces of the Belgae under King Galba of Suessiones. [1] Caesar defeated the combined forces of Titus Labienus and Gnaeus Pompey the Younger at the Battle of Munda in Iberia. [2] Caesar first directed his attention to the Pompeian stronghold of Iberia but following campaigning by Caesar in the Siege of Massilia and Battle of Ilerda he decided to attack Pompey in Greece. [2] Constantine's son Constantius II inherited his father's rule and later defeated the usurper Magnentius in first the Battle of Mursa Major and then the Battle of Mons Seleucus. [2] At the famous Battle of Zama Scipio decisively defeated - perhaps even "annihilated" - Hannibal's army in North Africa, ending the Second Punic War. [2] Together with Lucius Antonius, Mark Antony's wife Fulvia raised an army in Italy to fight for Antony's rights against Octavian but she was defeated by Octavian at the Battle of Perugia. [2] Despite being defeated in Iberia in the Battle of Baecula, Hasdrubal managed to break through into Italy only to be defeated decisively by Gaius Claudius Nero and Marcus Livius Salinator on the Metaurus River. [2] Overcoming several mutinies in the armies along the Rhine, Germanicus defeated the Germanic tribes of Arminius in a series of battles culminating in the Battle of the Weser River. [2] Battle of the Weser River (16) - Legions under Germanicus defeat German tribes of Arminius. [1] Battle of Turin - Constantine I defeats forces loyal to Maxentius. [1] Just as he had been raised by the army, Maximinus was also brought down by them and despite winning the Battle of Carthage against the senate's newly proclaimed Gordian II, he too was murdered when it appeared to his forces as though he would not be able to best the next senatorial candidate for the throne, Gordian III. [2] In 436 AD he led a Hunnic army against the Visigoths at the Battle of Arles, and again in 436 AD at the Battle of Narbonne. [2] From 314 AD onwards, Constantine defeated Licinius in the Battle of Cibalae, then the Battle of Mardia, and then again at the Battle of Adrianople, the Battle of the Hellespont and the Battle of Chrysopolis. [2] Xanthippus managed to cut off the Roman army from its base by re-establishing Carthaginian naval supremacy and then defeated and captured Regulus at the Battle of Tunis. [2] Battle of the Port of Carthage - Roman forces under Lucius Hostilius Mancinus are defeated by the Carthaginians. [1] Battle of the Eurymedon - Roman forces under Lucius Aemilius Regillus defeat a Seleucid fleet commanded by Hannibal, fighting his last battle. [1] July - Battle of Bibracte - Caesar again defeats the Helvetians, this time decisively. [1] Most of the battles are not recorded, due primarily to the turmoil of the time, until Diocletian, a usurper himself, defeated Carinus at the Battle of the Margus and become emperor. [2] Successive emperors Valens and Theodosius I also defeated usurpers in, respectively, the Battle of Thyatira, and the battles of the Save and the Frigidus. [2] Civil War - 388 - Battle of the Save - Emperor Theodosius I defeats the usurper Magnus Maximus. [1] Civil War - 394 - Battle of the Frigidus - Theodosius I defeats and kills the usurper Eugenius and his Frankish magister militum Arbogast. [1] Civil War - 432 - Battle of Ravenna - Bonifacius defeats rival Roman general Flavius Aetius, but is mortally wounded in the process. [1] Battle of the Guadalquivir - Roman army under Gaius Lucius Marcius Séptimus defeats a Carthaginian army under Hannón at Guadalquivir. [1] Battle of Campania II - a Roman army under Marcus Crassus defeat Spartacus's army of slaves. [1] In 275 BC, Pyrrhus again met the Roman army at the Battle of Beneventum. [2] In 42 BC Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fought the indecisive Battle of Philippi with Caesar's assassins Marcus Brutus and Cassius. [2] The Jugurthine War of 111-104 BC was fought between Rome and Jugurtha of Numidia and constituted the final Roman pacification of Northern Africa, after which Rome largely ceased expansion on the continent after reaching natural barriers of desert and mountain. [2]

Motivated by his diplomatic obligations to Tarentum, and a personal desire for military accomplishment, Pyrrhus landed a Greek army of some 25,000 men and a contingent of war elephants on Italian soil in 280 BC, where his forces were joined by some Greek colonists and a portion of the Samnites who revolted against Roman control, taking up arms against Rome for the fourth time in seventy years. [2] Unable to defeat Hannibal himself on Italian soil, and with Hannibal savaging the Italian countryside but unwilling or unable to destroy Rome itself, the Romans boldly sent an army to Africa with the intention of threatening the Carthaginian capital. [2] The first non-apocryphal Roman wars were wars of both expansion and defence, aimed at protecting Rome itself from neighbouring cities and nations and establishing its territory in the region. [2] Although the Roman historian Livy (59 BC- 17 AD) lists a series of seven kings of early Rome in his work Ab urbe condita, from its establishment through its earliest years, the first four kings ( Romulus, Numa, Tullus Hostilius and Ancus Marcius ) may be apocryphal. [2] Memories of the sack of Rome by Celtic tribes from Gaul in 390/387 BC, had been made into a legendary account that was taught to each generation of Roman youth, were still prominent despite their historical distance. [2] After the defeat of the Seleucid Emperor Antiochus III the Great in the Roman-Syrian War (Treaty of Apamea, 188 BC) in the eastern sea, Rome emerged as the dominant Mediterranean power and the most powerful city in the classical world. [2] In 91 BC the Social War broke out between Rome and its former allies in Italy, collectively known as the Socii, over the grievance that they shared the risk of Rome's military campaigns, but not its rewards. [2] The Cimbrian War (113-101 BC) was a far more serious affair than the earlier clashes of 121 BC. The Germanic tribes of the Cimbri and the Teutons or Teutones migrated from northern Europe into Rome's northern territories, where they clashed with Rome and her allies. [2] Rome was therefore forced to contend by around 340 BC against both Samnite incursions into their territory and, simultaneously, in a bitter war against their former allies. [2] Again in 508 BC Tarquin persuaded the king of Clusium, Lars Porsenna, to wage war on Rome, resulting in a siege of Rome and afterwards a peace treaty. [2] By the spring of 49 BC, when Caesar crossed the Rubicon river with his invading forces and swept down the Italian peninsula towards Rome, Pompey ordered the abandonment of Rome. [2] By the beginning of the 3rd century, Rome had established itself in 282 BC as a major power on the Italian Peninsula, but had not yet come into conflict with the dominant military powers in the Mediterranean at the time: Carthage and the Greek kingdoms. [2] Desiring to prevent Philip from aiding Carthage in Italy and elsewhere, Rome sought out land allies in Greece to fight a proxy war against Macedon on its behalf and found partners in the Aetolian League of Greek city-states, the Illyrians to the north of Macedon and the kingdom of Pergamon and the city-state of Rhodes, which lay across the Aegean from Macedon. [2] The new war in Sicily against Carthage, a great naval power, forced Rome to quickly build a fleet and train sailors. [2] The willingness of both Rome and Carthage to become embroiled on the soil of a third party may indicate a willingness to test each other's power without wishing to enter a full war of annihilation certainly there was considerable disagreement within Rome about whether to prosecute the war at all. [2]

Judea was already a troubled region with bitter violence among several competing Jewish sects and a long history of rebellion The Jews' anger turned on Rome following robberies from their temples and Roman insensitivity- Tacitus says disgust and repulsion - towards their religion. [2] Rome discovered the agreement when Philip's emissaries, along with emissaries from Hannibal, were captured by a Roman fleet. [2] After swiftly recovering from the sack of Rome, the Romans immediately resumed their expansion within Italy. [2] The Samnites were a people just as martial and as rich as the Romans and had the objective of their own to secure more lands in the fertile Italian plains on which Rome itself lay. [2]

Although the crisis of the 3rd century was not the absolute beginning of Rome's decline, it nevertheless did impose a severe strain on the empire as Romans waged war on one another as they had not done since the last days of the Republic. [2] Throughout the Parthian wars, tribal groups along the Rhine and Danube took advantage of Rome's preoccupation with the eastern frontier (and the plague that the Romans suffered from after bringing it back from the east) and launched a series of incursions into Roman territories, including the Marcomannic Wars. [2] Perhaps due to Rome's lenient treatment of their defeated foe, the Latins submitted largely amicably to Roman rule for the next 200 years. [2] In 224 AD, the Parthian Empire was crushed not by the Romans but by the rebellious Persian vassal king Ardashir I, who revolted, leading to the establishment of Sassanid Empire of Persia, which replaced Parthia as Rome's major rival in the East. [2] Gaul never regained its Celtic identity, never attempted another nationalist rebellion, and remained loyal to Rome until the fall of the Western Empire in 476 AD. However, although Gaul itself was to thereafter remain loyal, cracks were appearing in the political unity of Rome's governing figures- partly over concerns over the loyalty of Caesar's Gallic troops to his person rather than the state - that were soon to drive Rome into a lengthy series of civil wars. [2] Rome still controlled only a very limited area and the affairs of Rome were minor even to those in Italy and Rome's affairs were only just coming to the attention of the Greeks, the dominant cultural force at the time. [2] Pompey fled again, this time to Egypt, where he was murdered in an attempt to ingratiate the country with Caesar and avoid a war with Rome. [2] For a maritime power, the loss of their access to the Mediterranean stung financially and psychologically, and the Carthaginians again sued for peace, during which negotiations, Rome battled the Ligures tribe in the Ligurian War and the Insubres in the Gallic War. [2] The terms of peace that Rome proposed were so heavy that negotiations failed, and in response, the Carthaginians hired Xanthippus of Carthage, a mercenary from the martial Greek city-state of Sparta, to reorganise and lead their army. [2] Macedon began to encroach on territory claimed by several other Greek city states in 200 BC and these pleaded for help from their newfound ally Rome. [2] Over the years, Rome had expanded along the southern Iberian coast until in 211 BC it captured the city of Saguntum. [2] The First Punic War began in 264 BC when settlements on Sicily began to appeal to the two powers between which they lay- Rome and Carthage- in order to solve internal conflicts. [2] A treaty was drawn up between Rome and Macedon at Phoenice in 205 BC which promised Rome a small indemnity, formally ending the First Macedonian War. [2] The Fourth Macedonian War, fought from 150 BC to 148 BC, was the final war between Rome and Macedon and began when Andriscus usurped the Macedonian throne. [2]

Traditionally, Romulus, after founding the city, fortified the Palatine Hill, and shortly thereafter, Rome was " equal to any of the surrounding cities in her prowess in war ". [2] Continuing distrust led to the renewal of hostilities in the Second Punic War when Hannibal Barca, a member of the Barcid family of Carthaginian nobility, attacked Saguntum, a city with diplomatic ties to Rome. [2] The Punic empire of the Carthaginian Barcid family consisted of territories in Iberia, many of which Rome gained control of during the Punic Wars. [2]

The first is the territorial expansionist campaign, normally begun as a counter-offensive, in which each victory brought subjugation of large areas of territory and allowed Rome to grow from a small town to a population of 55 million in the early empire when expansion was halted. [2] Rome first began to make war outside the Italian peninsula during the Punic wars against Carthage, a former Phoenician colony that had established on the north coast of Africa and developed into a powerful state. [2] The Cimbrian War was the first time since the Second Punic War that Italia and Rome itself had been seriously threatened, and caused great fear in Rome. [2]

To this end he stirred up popular nightmares of the first sack of Rome by the Gauls and the more recent spectre of the Cimbri and Teutones. [2]

Battle of Ancyra - Gnaeus Manlius Vulso and Attalus II defeat the Galatian Gauls again before Ancyra, in what was an almost identical repeat of the Battle of Mount Olympus. [1] Battle of Verona - Stilicho defeats Alaric, who withdraws from Italy. [1] Battle of the Metaurus - Hasdrubal is defeated and killed by Nero's Roman army. [1] Mithridates was finally defeated by Pompey in the night-time Battle of the Lycus. [2]

The core of the campaign history of the Roman military is an aggregate of different accounts of the Roman military's land battles, from its initial defense against and subsequent conquest of the city's hilltop neighbors on the Italian peninsula, to the ultimate struggle of the Western Roman Empire for its existence against invading Huns, Vandals and Germanic tribes. [2] The assembled warbands of the Alamanni frequently crossed the limes, attacking Germania Superior such that they were almost continually engaged in conflicts with the Roman Empire, whilst Goths attacked across the Danube in battles such as the Battle of Beroa and Battle of Philippopolis in 250 AD and the Battle of Abrittus in 251 AD, and both Goths and Heruli ravaged the Aegean and, later, Greece, Thrace and Macedonia. [2] After early Sassanid successes including the Battle of Amida in 359 AD and the Siege of Pirisabora in 363 AD, Emperor Julian met Shapur in 363 AD in the Battle of Ctesiphon outside the walls of the Persian capital. [2]

After having won control of the seas, a Roman force landed on the African coast under Marcus Regulus, who was at first victorious, winning the Battle of Adys and forcing Carthage to sue for peace. [2] In the Battle of Carthage the city was stormed after a short siege and completely destroyed, its culture "almost totally extinguished". [2] Following an inconclusive battle near Antipolis, Vitellius' troops attacked the city of Placentia in the Assault of Placentia, but were repulsed by the Othonian garrison. [2] Several succeeding generals avoided battling usurpers for the throne by being murdered by their own troops before battle could commence. [2] Disputes soon broke out amongst the different tribes, rendering co-operation impossible Vespasian, having successfully ended the civil war, called upon Civilis to lay down his arms, and on his refusal his legions met him in force, defeating him in the Battle of Augusta Treverorum. [2] In just four years, a state without any real naval experience had managed to better a major regional maritime power in battle. [2] Battle of Lake Trasimene - In another ambush, Hannibal destroys the Roman army of Gaius Flaminius, who is killed. [1] Battle of Cannae - Hannibal destroys the main Roman army of Lucius Aemilius Paulus and Publius Terentius Varro in what is considered one of the great masterpieces of the tactical art. [1] Battle of Herdonia - Hannibal destroys the Roman army of the praetor Gnaeus Fulvius. [1] Further east, Trajan turned his attention to Dacia, an area north of Macedon and Greece and east of the Danube that had been on the Roman agenda since before the days of Caesar when they had beaten a Roman army at the Battle of Histria. [2]

Battle of Sacriporto - Fought between the Optimates under Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix and the Populares under Gaius Marius the Younger, Optimate victory. [1] Battle of Fidentia - Fought between the Optimates under Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus and the Populares under Lucius Quincius, Optimate victory. [1] Battle of Faventia - Fought between the Optimates under Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius and the Populares under Gaius Norbanus Balbus, Optimate victory. [1]

Battle of Grumentum - Roman general Gaius Claudius Nero fights an indecisive battle with Hannibal. [1] In the first battle on Italian soil at Ticinus in 218 BC Hannibal defeated the Romans under Scipio the Elder in a small cavalry fight. [2] The Romans raised a consular army under Quintus Caecilius Metellus, who swiftly defeated Andriscus at the Second battle of Pydna. [2] Viriathus' new coalition bested Roman armies at the Second Battle of Mount Venus in 144 BC and again at the failed Siege of Erisone. [2] Despite being defeated on African soil, the Romans with their newfound naval abilities, roundly beat the Carthaginians in naval battle again- largely through the tactical innovations of the Roman fleet - at the Battle of the Aegates Islands. [2] Second Battle of Capua - Hannibal is not able to break the Roman siege of the city. [1] Emperor Trajan recommenced hostilities against Dacia and, following an uncertain number of battles, defeated the Dacian general Decebalus in the Second Battle of Tapae in 101 AD. With Trajan's troops pressing towards the Dacian capital Sarmizegethusa, Decebalus once more sought terms. [2] Second Battle of Clusium - Pompei Magnus defeats a numerically superior Populares army under Gaius Carrinas and Gaius Marcius Censorinus. [1] Her death led to partial reconciliation between Octavian and Antony who went on to crush the army of Sextus Pompeius, the last focus of opposition to the second triumvirate, in the naval Battle of Naulochus. [2] A Roman force under Manius Acilius Glabrio defeated Antiochus at the Battle of Thermopylae and forced him to evacuate Greece: the Romans then pursued the Seleucids beyond Greece, beating them again in naval battles at the Battle of the Eurymedon and Battle of Myonessus, and finally in a decisive engagement of the Battle of Magnesia. [2] The Lusitanians were initially successful, defeating a Roman army at the Battle of Tribola and going on to sack nearby Carpetania, and then besting a second Roman army at the First Battle of Mount Venus in 146 BC, again going on to sack another nearby city. [2]

Early in his reign Tarquinius Superbus, Rome's seventh and final king, called a meeting of the Latin leaders at which he persuaded them to renew their treaty with Rome and become her allies rather than her enemies, and it was agreed that the troops of the Latins would attend at a grove sacred to the goddess Ferentina on an appointed day to form a united military force with the troops of Rome. [2]

FUENTES SELECCIONADAS CLASIFICADAS(36 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)


Free «Roman History: The Unification of Italy» Essay Paper

Etruscans and Samnites were the most dangerous neighbors of Rome. The first war against Samnites took place in Campania (B.C. 343-341). Two Roman armies were sent into the field, one &ndash to protect Campania, another to invade Samnium. The first victory of Rome took place at Mt. Gaurus then two united Roman armies defeated Samnites at Suessula. In such a way Romans gained control of Northern Campania. Rome decided to make a treaty with Samnites and to withdraw from war. They started preparation for conquest of Latium. Latium demanded from Romans to unite with them into one republic with both of them having equal rights. Romans refused, and Latins in alliance with Campanians started war against Romans in alliance with Samnium (B.C. 340-338). The later invaded Campania Tibur, Praeneste, Aricia, Lanuvium, Antium and Pedum were defeated in succession. Latin revolt came to an end. There was a danger of Latin towns&rsquo revolts, because towns were united in leagues. Romans adopted a policy of isolation that meant to destroy leagues for towns of Latium to be fully incorporated into Roman state their inhabitants were to gain either full Roman citizenship or imperfect citizenship (Latin right). Romans established Roman and Latin colonies, as well as Dependent Allies (Morey ch. X).

There was a question of supremacy in Central Italy between Rome and Samnium. Second Samnite War (B.C. 326-304) started after Samnites gave military support to Paleopolis. Romans invaded to withdraw troops, but Samnites refused. As a result of this, Romans declared war and siege of Paleapolis. Samnites gained their first victory at Caudine Forks (B.C. 321). Etruscans came to aid Samnites but were defeated at Lake Vadimonis. After that, chief city of Samnium, Bovianum, was captured and war came to the end. The Third Samnite War (B.C. 298-290) was fought between Rome and principal nations of Italy &ndash Samnites, Umbrians, Etruscans and Gauls. Attempt of Samnites to get control of Lucania led to declaration of war by Rome. Romans won in the battle of Sentinum (B.C. 295). After this event, Italian coalition dispersed. As a result of this war, Rome gained control of Central Italy and secured itself with establishment of the new colonies at Minturnae, Sinuessa and Venusia (Morey ch. XI).

The most important Greek city in Southern Italy was Tarentum. Romans declared war with Tarentum because, when Roman fleet that anchored in harbor of Tarentum was attacked and captured, Tarentum refused to give reparations. Tarentum appealed for help from Epirus king, Pyrrhus. At battle of Heraclea (B.C. 280) Roman army was defeated after coming into contact with Pyrrhus army&rsquos Macedonian phalanx. Pyrrhus suffered great losses and decided that Romans cannot be conquered by the forces he had. That is why he sent his minister Cineas with proposal of peace, to which Romans refused. Another battle won by Pyrrhus was fought at Asculum (B.C. 279). After battle of Beneventum (B.C. 275) Pyrrhus led remnants of his army back to Greece. Afterwards, Tarentum was besieged (B.C. 272) but allowed to retain its local government. Lucancians, Bruttians, Picenum, Umbria, Etrucia had fallen submitted to Rome (Morey ch. XII).

With every extension of territory, Rome extended its authority as a sovereign power. Roman population was subdivided into ruling body of citizens and subject body of people. Roman domain now included Latium, Northern Campania, Southern Etrucia, Sabine country, Picenum and part of Umbria. Inhabitants of its colonies were allowed to retain their rights of citizenship, were permitted to vote and make laws. Rome also incorporated into its territory some conquest towns under name &ldquomunicipia&rdquo. Every citizen between age of seventeen and forty-five was obliged to serve in Roman army. In case of war, four legions of soldiers were raised. Romans fought in a manner of Greek phalanx, in Solid Square, and encouraged their soldiers by rewards and honors (Morey ch. XIII).


Samnite Wars

By the mid-4th century BC, Italy was still divided between Latins, Greeks, Etruscans, and other civilizations, with the Oscan-speaking, semi-nomadic Samnites being one of the most powerful nations on the peninsula. The Samnites, who lived along the Apennine mountain range, were a tribal confederation consisting of the Hirpani, Caudini, Pentri, and Carricini, and the four, often-divided tribes made up the Samnite League. The League was normally governed by a central council made up of all four tribes led by a warchief, and, in 354 BC, the Roman Republic and the Samnites allied against a common enemy, the Volsci. However, relations quickly soured, as, just over a decade later, the Samnites attacked the Sidicini and Campanians who came to aid them.

First Samnite War and Latin War

Despite their alliance with the Samnites, Rome was unwilling to risk a rival power gaining hegemony over Campania's agriculturally-rich land, and Rome intervened on behalf of the coastal confederation, whose members submitted themselves to the Republic. In 343 BC, the Romans defeated the Samnites at Mons Gaurus, Saticula, and Suessula before the Romans could take advantage, however, Rome's Latin allies rose in rebellion in the "Latin War", forcing the Romans and Samnites to make peace and resume their alliance. The Campanians and Sidicini were motivated to join the anti-Roman uprising, and, in 340 BC, the Romans crushed the uprising at Mount Vesuvius it was not until 337 BC that the Latins were forced to submit to Roman authority. A hierarchy was created in which Rome's Latin subordinates no longer had military or diplomatic dealings with other powers, and the inhabitants of loyal cities such as Aricia and Lanuvium became Roman citizens, while the disloyal but crucial port city of Antium received the same perk, along with a Roman garrison.

Second Samnite War

However, hostilities between the Romans and the Samnite League resurfaced in 328 BC when a Roman colony was established at Fregellae on the Samnite side of the River Liris, and this, coupled with the expanding Roman presence in Campania, led to further deterioration of relations. In 326 BC, a pro-Roman faction in Neapolis expelled the Samnite garrison and handed over the city to Roman control. The war began with a Roman offensive into western Samnium, and Quintus Fabius Maximus Rullianus disobeyed orders by attacking a Samnite army and winning a great victory at Imbrinium. Roman pressure continued to build in the years after, and, in 321 BC, the Samnite council appointed the statesman Gaius Pontius as commander for the year. He decried any thought of surrender and proclaimed the just nature of the war on Rome. He and his army encamped at Caudium, where they awaited the arrival of a Roman consular army. In the ensuing Battle of Caudine Forks, the Samnites surrounded the Romans in a mountain pass and rained missiles on them until they agreed to surrender, and Pontius - ignoring his father's advice to massacre them - let them surrender and be paroled, taking 600 equites as hostages for good measure. A five-year-long break in hostilities followed this humiliation, and Rome's inflexible Greek phalanx was replaced by the manipular legion Rome used these years to rearm, train, and drill in the new style.

Roman troops invading Samnium

In 315 BC, Rome renewed the conflict, quickly capturing Saticula. The Romans were defeated at Lautulae, allowing for the Samnites to sack Roman lands. However, in 314 BC, the Romans crushed a Samnite army at Terracina, proving to be the tipping point. Luceria and the lands around it fell to the Romans shortly after, and Fregellae was recovered in 313 BC. In 312 BC, the Romans founded new colonies and built the Appian Way to facilitate military logistics. In 310 BC, the Etruscans briefly joined the war on the Samnite side, but they were defeated at Lake Vadimo, curtailing their war-making capacity. Rome then used its allies and road network to overpower Samnium, forcing the Samnites to make peace in 304 BC. The Romans tripled their territory during the war, and, from 302 to 298 BC, the Romans fought annual campaigns in Umbria and Etruria simultaneously to expand their borders. By this point, Roman empire-building in the Italian peninsula alarmed many of the independent peoples.

Third Samnite War

In 297 BC, the Samnites their southern frontier and invaded Lucania, laying waste to it and forcing the Lucanians to send panicked emissaries to Rome. The Roman Senate, seeking an opportunity to fight a just war and crush Samnite power, allied with the Lucanians and then demanded that the Samnites withdraw. When the Samnites withdrew, the Third Samnite War began. The legions undertook destructive campaigns in both Samnite and Etruscan territory, and, rather than be defeated piecemeal, the Samnite leader Gellius Egnatius marched into Etruria and joined forces with the Etruscan armies there. The united army was defeated in 297 BC, but Rome had more trouble with a united front. Egnatius formed a grand alliance of Samnites, Etruscans, Umbrians, and mercenary Senones against Roman expansion, and a Roman double-consular army invaded Umbria in 295 BC. This army faced the allied Samnite army at the Battle of Sentinum, during which the Romans won a hard-fought and costly victory they lost 8,700 men and their heroic consul, Publius Decius Mus, but the Samnites had lost 25,000 men, plus 8,000 prisoners. Meanwhile, 3,000 more Etruscans were slain in Etruria, and, while the Samnites and Gauls continued to resist Rome for another half-decade, Sentinum decided the fate of Italy. In 290 BC, the Third Samnite War ended, and the vast majority of central Italy fell under Roman control.


MOUNT GAURUS - 343 BC

Antecedentes históricos
The Samnites were attacking into Campania and the Campanians appealed to Rome for help. Negotiations between Rome and Samnium were rebuffed by the Samnites so Rome declared war. This would become the First Samnite war and would see conflict between these two nations on and off for 53 years until Rome was finally triumphant.
The Roman Consul Marcus Valerius Corvus took an army south and camped near Mount Gaurus West of Neapolis (Naples). He was met by a Samnite army of similar size and a long and determined struggle commenced between the two armies. Valerius finally ordered an all out assault by all his troops which eventually broke the enemy resolve and many of them were slaughtered in their rout before being saved by nightfall.
Further Roman victories at Saticula and Suessula would bring this first war to a close in 341 BC and result in the assimilation of Campania into the growing Roman empire. The peace terms would still allow the Samnites to attack the Sidinici and thus lead to the outbreak of the Latin War in 340 BC (see Battle of Veseris).
The stage is set. The battle lines are drawn and you are in command. El resto es historia.


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