Historia de South Bend, Indiana

Historia de South Bend, Indiana

La historia temprana de South Bend, Indiana, tiene un elenco decididamente francés. El explorador francés La Salle desembarcó en las orillas del St. Dos años después, se reunió con líderes nativos americanos en el mismo sitio y concluyó los Tratados de Miami con ellos. En 1820, el primer colono permanente, Pierre Navarre, construyó una cabaña en el lado norte del río St. Joseph. Casi 20 años después, el Reverendísimo Edward Sorin, junto con seis hermanos católicos, fundaron la institución más famosa de South Bend, la Universidad de Notre Dame. Mary's College, que se mudó de Bertrand, Michigan. El College Football Hall of Fame está ubicado en South Bend y abrió su exhibición al público el 25 de agosto de 1995.South Bend creció industrialmente durante el siglo XX, con importantes fabricantes como Bendix y Studebaker liderando el avance económico de la ciudad. Gradualmente, la pérdida de muchos de los principales fabricantes de South Bend presentó desafíos para la ciudad, pero el número de pequeños fabricantes se ha expandido en los últimos años.


Historia del torno de South Bend

Antes de la Web, antes de los satélites, antes de la fibra óptica, el hipertexto y los módems, los telégrafos unían el mundo. Una dirección de cable conocida por muchos en ese momento era "Twins". Si envió esta dirección por cable, se comunicaría con John y Miles O'Brien, fundadores de South Bend Lathe Works. Los hermanos eran gemelos idénticos que se parecían mucho, incluso sus amigos cercanos no podían distinguirlos, a pesar de que uno había perdido tres dedos en un accidente.

No se sabe cómo Miles perdió los dedos. Quizás los perdió mientras manejaba uno de los tornos que los hermanos diseñaron, construyeron y probaron en el taller de una sola habitación que establecieron en 1906 como The South Bend Machine Tool Company. Este esfuerzo fue la culminación de 20 años de experiencia en herramientas y matrices. Nacieron en el condado de Cork, Irlanda en 1868, y fueron criados por su padre después de que su madre muriera al dar a luz. La familia emigró a Connecticut en la década de 1870, donde John y Miles asistieron a escuelas públicas y parroquiales. A la edad de 15 años, encontraron trabajo en la planta de Stanley Works en Nueva Inglaterra, donde comenzaron a aprender su oficio. Miles trabajó durante un tiempo bajo la tutela de Thomas Edison, hasta que el inventor les dijo a los hermanos que completaran su experiencia en el taller de máquinas con cursos de ingeniería. Asistieron a la Universidad Purdue en West Lafayette, Indiana, luego trabajaron en varios trabajos en todo el estado. En un momento, John fue contratado como superintendente en una planta de bicicletas, pero no fue hasta un año después que el propietario descubrió que Miles realmente ocupaba el puesto, porque John ya trabajaba en Elkhart, Indiana.

A la edad de 35 años, los hermanos decidieron montar su propio taller y construir un torno que habían estado diseñando desde antes de los días de Miles en la Edison Phonograph Company. Alquilaron una tienda de una habitación llena de equipos por $ 65 al mes en la esquina de las calles West Washington y Johnson en South Bend, Indiana. En un momento, construyeron un motor utilizado para soplar los tubos de las calderas para su casero. Cuando les pidió que hicieran más, se negaron. Querían concentrarse únicamente en los tornos, la más fundamental de las máquinas herramienta. Como resultado, se invitó a los O'Brien a buscar otra tienda para hacer sus tornos. Entonces, en 1908, se mudaron a una parte alquilada de la antigua planta de máquinas de coser Singer en E. Madison Street en South Bend, y se convirtieron en South Bend Lathe Works, para reflejar con mayor precisión su producto. Para 1919, South Bend Lathe Works fabricó 44 tamaños de un estilo de torno, y para 1930, construyó el 47 por ciento de los tornos de motor en los Estados Unidos durante 1929 y 1930, según un informe de noticias publicado en 1931, que citó un estudio de el Departamento de Comercio de Estados Unidos.

En el cuarto de siglo transcurrido desde su fundación, South Bend Lathe Works se convirtió en el mayor fabricante exclusivo de tornos de precisión para el trabajo de metales en el mundo, con clientes en más de 88 países. Las máquinas se utilizaron en todo tipo de industria, en escuelas, talleres domésticos y grandes fabricantes desde Bermuda hasta Mali, Indochina y Siberia. Los tornos de South Bend fueron elegidos por ingenieros y científicos que acompañaron al almirante Richard Byrd en sus dos expediciones a la Antártida. Se utilizaron donde se requería la máxima precisión, "incluidos los equipos de radio y aviones", según el South Bend Tribune en 1936. Miles murió ese año, poniendo fin a una relación de por vida. Parte de su éxito fue su voluntad de trabajar como iguales. Ambos tenían el título de "Presidente" en sus tarjetas de presentación. Uno servía como presidente y otro como secretario-tesorero, y cada dos años intercambiaban funciones.

Gran parte de su éxito se debió también a su enfoque en la formación de maquinistas expertos. John O'Brien escribió "Cómo hacer funcionar un torno", que vendió millones de copias en todo el mundo, así como manuales sobre la instalación y el mantenimiento de tornos. Al menos el 75 por ciento de las escuelas y universidades en los Estados Unidos usaban tornos de South Bend en sus departamentos de ingeniería, vocacionales y técnicos, según un artículo anterior de South Bend, The New-Times. También desarrollaron y comercializaron un torno de precisión de 9 pulgadas asequible para el taller doméstico, capaz de la misma precisión que las máquinas utilizadas en la industria. Treinta años después de que dos hombres se dispusieran a construir un torno, se empleó a 475 hombres y mujeres para fabricar alrededor de 100 estilos diferentes de tornos que varían en tamaño desde nueve a 16 pulgadas de columpio y longitudes de cama de dos a 14 pies, y 40 accesorios diferentes para ellos. Durante los años de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, South Bend Lathe Works no solo recibió contratos gubernamentales para construir tornos, sino también una bandera de la Oficina de Artillería y el prestigioso banderín "E", el premio más alto otorgado a una organización de fabricación por la Marina de los EE. UU. Por su desempeño sobresaliente. en contratos navales. El año siguiente al final de la guerra, John O'Brien murió.

Los cambios continuaron después de la guerra. En 1959, American Steel, más tarde conocida como Amsted Industries, de Chicago, Illinois, compró South Bend Lathe Works con su plantilla de 360. En los años siguientes, la línea de productos se amplió e incluyó máquinas perforadoras y roscadoras y prensas mecánicas. La compañía también se mudó a la antigua planta Studebaker en Sample Street en South Bend en 1965. Amsted casi cerró la planta en 1975, pero sus 500 empleados y funcionarios de la ciudad solicitaron una subvención del Plan de propiedad de acciones para empleados y la convirtieron en la más grande propiedad de los empleados. planta en los EE. UU. El año siguiente, la revista Time informó sobre un cambio financiero para South Bend Lathe Works en un artículo sobre los planes de acciones de propiedad de los empleados. El artículo decía que el aumento de la productividad se debió a la recuperación económica en los EE. UU., Pero que South Bend Lathe podría no existir en absoluto, si no fuera por el ESOP. Después de varios cambios de propiedad, la empresa está "en casa" y el deseo de triunfar nunca ha sido tan grande.

Nuestra línea de productos incluye los legendarios tornos 10K y Heavy 10, así como una amplia gama de tamaños de otros tornos que cubren todos los tamaños de usuarios hasta los talleres de maquinaria industrial pesada. Nuestra selección de máquinas de la más alta calidad satisfará al propietario más exigente.
Los hermanos O'Brien estarían orgullosos de la actual South Bend Lathe Co.

Una historia relacionada con la familia O'Brien: en 1946, la hija y sobrina de los hermanos O'Brien inventaron el pañal desechable. ¡Lea la historia completa!


Historia

La facultad del Departamento de Historia busca crear un entorno estimulante y de apoyo para el estudio de pueblos, movimientos, naciones y eventos a lo largo de la historia de la humanidad. Nos esforzamos por ayudar a los estudiantes a desarrollar una sólida comprensión del pasado y un compromiso profundo con el presente. De acuerdo con la misión general de IU South Bend, preparamos a los estudiantes para futuras carreras, más investigación y educación, y una vida de ciudadanía cívica.

El estudio de la historia abarca todas las expresiones registradas de la actividad humana desde los primeros tiempos hasta el presente. & # 160 En las clases de historia, los estudiantes analizan datos históricos, buscan patrones y relaciones, y descubren el significado del pasado y su relación con nuestro mundo moderno. mundo. & # 160

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Becas

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Una mirada atrás: 150 años de historia del área de South Bend

Durante los últimos 250 años, han surgido sociedades históricas en los Estados Unidos para preservar, interpretar y recopilar información histórica. Los intereses de estos grupos varían en extensión y amplitud, algunos abarcan la historia nacional y otros se especializan en un condado o ciudad.

Massachusetts, Nueva York y Connecticut albergan algunas de las primeras de estas organizaciones históricas, pero Indiana no se queda atrás. La Sociedad Histórica de Indiana en todo el estado fue establecida en 1830 por ciudadanos prominentes en Indianápolis.

La segunda más antigua del estado, la Sociedad Histórica del Norte de Indiana, surgió en South Bend y hoy se conoce como Museo de Historia. Fundada por muchos nombres familiares en los anales de la historia local (Lathrop Taylor, Horatio Chapin, Elisha Egbert), la primera reunión de la sociedad tuvo lugar el 26 de octubre de 1867.

Originalmente, estos historiadores de sillón celebraban reuniones regulares el primer martes por la noche de cada mes, excepto durante el verano, en el piso superior de la biblioteca de South Bend. En 1906, la organización se mudó al primer piso del Palacio de Justicia del Condado de St. Joseph de 1855 y permaneció allí hasta 1994, cuando se construyó una nueva instalación de museo en los terrenos de la Mansión Oliver en el Distrito Histórico de West Washington Street.

Este año, la Sociedad Histórica del Norte de Indiana está celebrando su 150 aniversario de varias maneras, incluida la exhibición “Nuestro asombroso gabinete de curiosidades: Guardianes de la historia durante 150 años” y la Serie de conferencias 150.

Esta información fue proporcionada por el Museo de Historia. Si desea donar fotografías de museos locales o permitirá que se haga una copia digital de su imagen, llame al museo al 574-235-9664.


Contenido

Memorial Hospital fue fundado en una casa reconvertida en 1894 como Epworth Hospital and Training School. El hospital superó rápidamente esta residencia, y en 1901 se abrió una instalación de cuatro pisos y 50 camas. El Hospital Epworth continuó expandiéndose y en 1945 pasó a llamarse Memorial Hospital of South Bend. El hospital actualmente opera bajo una empresa matriz, Memorial Health System, Inc., que incluye Memorial Hospital, Memorial Health Foundation, Memorial Home Care y Memorial Medical Group. [1] Todas estas organizaciones son organizaciones sin fines de lucro certificadas 501 (c) (3), excepto Memorial Home Care, que es una organización de atención médica domiciliaria con fines de lucro.

En marzo de 2011, se anunció que Memorial Hospital se asociaría con Elkhart General Hospital para fusionar los dos sistemas de atención médica. [4] En 2012, se anunció que el nuevo nombre del sistema de salud combinado será [./Https://www.beaconhealthsystem.org/ Beacon Health System]. [5]

Memorial Hospital es un centro de trauma designado de Nivel II. [1] [2] Los servicios clínicos incluyen cirugía ambulatoria y hospitalaria, cardíaca y vascular, cuidados intensivos neonatales, pediatría, parto, terapia infantil, cáncer, rehabilitación, trastornos del sueño, medicina deportiva, radiología, bariatría, salud ocupacional e investigación clínica. El hospital también brinda servicios de apoyo para pacientes y familias, alcance comunitario y servicios de imágenes. [6] En marzo de 2011, Memorial Hospital compró los activos para pacientes hospitalizados de Madison Center, un centro de salud mental local, agregando aproximadamente 90 camas y comenzando un programa de psiquiatría para pacientes hospitalizados para pacientes adultos y pediátricos en el nuevo Centro Memorial Epworth. [7]

Memorial Hospital otorga una gran importancia a la innovación. Según el Journal of Healthcare Management, "los hospitales están experimentando muchos de los mismos problemas competitivos que afectan a otras industrias, como la falta de servicios diferenciados, un margen operativo cada vez menor y la escasez de talento". [8] Memorial estableció un centro de investigación y desarrollo dedicado para abordar esto. La organización se asoció con numerosas empresas fuera de la atención médica, incluidas 3M, Dupont, IDEO, Land's End, Motorola, Steelcase, Walmart y Whirlpool para desarrollar estándares para la gestión de un programa de innovación interno. [8] [9] [10] Los resultados de los esfuerzos de la organización incluyen un laboratorio de enseñanza de innovación y clínicas de medicina minorista. [9] [10]

Memorial Health System emplea a unas 3.800 personas. [11] Este número lo convierte en el segundo empleador más grande en la región del condado de St. Joseph, Indiana. [3] Según un estudio de impacto económico realizado por Quantech Research Associates, los empleados de Memorial "pagaron más de $ 5 millones en impuestos sobre la renta estatales y locales, además de más de $ 50 millones en impuestos sobre la renta federales". [11] [12] El hospital generó $ 368,5 millones en ingresos en 2008. [13]


Una mirada atrás: 150 años de historia del área de South Bend

Durante los últimos 250 años, han surgido sociedades históricas en los Estados Unidos para preservar, interpretar y recopilar información histórica. Los intereses de estos grupos varían en extensión y amplitud, algunos abarcan la historia nacional y otros se especializan en un condado o ciudad.

Massachusetts, Nueva York y Connecticut albergan algunas de las primeras de estas organizaciones históricas, pero Indiana no se queda atrás. La Sociedad Histórica de Indiana en todo el estado fue establecida en 1830 por ciudadanos prominentes en Indianápolis.

La segunda más antigua del estado, la Sociedad Histórica del Norte de Indiana, surgió en South Bend y hoy se conoce como Museo de Historia. Fundada por muchos nombres familiares en los anales de la historia local (Lathrop Taylor, Horatio Chapin, Elisha Egbert), la primera reunión de la sociedad tuvo lugar el 26 de octubre de 1867.

Originalmente, estos historiadores de sillón celebraban reuniones regulares el primer martes por la noche de cada mes, excepto durante el verano, en el piso superior de la biblioteca de South Bend. En 1906, la organización se mudó al primer piso del Palacio de Justicia del Condado de St. Joseph de 1855 y permaneció allí hasta 1994, cuando se construyó una nueva instalación de museo en los terrenos de la Mansión Oliver en el Distrito Histórico de West Washington Street.

Este año, la Sociedad Histórica del Norte de Indiana está celebrando su 150 aniversario de varias maneras, incluida la exhibición “Nuestro asombroso gabinete de curiosidades: Guardianes de la historia durante 150 años” y la Serie de conferencias 150.

Esta información fue proporcionada por el Museo de Historia. Si desea donar fotografías de museos locales o permitirá que se haga una copia digital de su imagen, llame al museo al 574-235-9664.


Historia de South Bend 150 timeline

Circa 1600: Esta región está habitada por St. Joseph Potawatomi, antepasados ​​directos de la Pokagon Band de Potawatomi que han llamado hogar a la región de los Grandes Lagos durante milenios. Los Potawatomi se asentaron a lo largo de lo que eventualmente se llamará el río St. Joseph.

1679: René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, el primer europeo en viajar a lo que ahora se conoce como South Bend, visita la zona y toma contacto con los Potawatomi y otros nativos que viven a lo largo del río. Poco después, llegan sacerdotes jesuitas con la intención de convertir a los Potawatomi al catolicismo.

1820: Pierre Navarre, un agente de American Fur Co., llega y se convierte en la primera persona de ascendencia europea en establecerse aquí. Establece un puesto para comerciar con el Potawatomi local, se casa con una mujer Potawatomi llamada Angelique y tienen al menos seis hijos juntos.

1823: Alexis Coquillard construye una casa en lo que se convierte en South Bend y es considerado el fundador de la ciudad. Establece un puesto comercial en el río St. Joseph, que se convierte en un centro del comercio de pieles con los nativos americanos.

1829: Se construye la primera oficina de correos en la ciudad, que en ese momento se conoce como Southold.

1830: La ciudad pasa a llamarse South Bend y se establece el primer Tribunal de Circuito.

1831: Se publica el primer periódico de South Bend, North-Western Pioneer y St. Joseph's Intelligencer. Alexis Coquillard y Lathrop Taylor presentan el plano de South Bend, que se convierte en la sede del condado.

1833: Pokagon Band de Potawatomi, bajo el liderazgo de Leopold Pokagon, negocia el derecho a permanecer en el área inferior de los Grandes Lagos, incluida lo que ahora es South Bend. Debido a que los Pokagons demuestran un fuerte apego al catolicismo, pudieron desafiar el Tratado de Chicago de 1833 que estableció las condiciones para la remoción del Potawatomi hacia el oeste.

1838: Más de 850 Potawatomi se ven obligados a abandonar el área y comenzar una caminata de 900 millas a Kansas, recorriendo toda la distancia en poco más de dos meses. El retiro forzoso del Potawatomi por parte del Ejército de los Estados Unidos se conoce como el Camino de la Muerte.

1839: Peter Coleman es el primer afroamericano en establecerse permanentemente en South Bend.

1842: El reverendo Edward Sorin, un joven sacerdote francés, y seis hermanos religiosos llegaron de Vincennes, Indiana, y fundaron la Universidad de Notre Dame.

1844: Se completa la primera presa de South Bend en el río St. Joseph.

1846: Christopher Emerick planta la ciudad de Lowell, Indiana, en el lado este del río St. Joseph. Eventualmente se convierte en parte de South Bend.

1847: Se construye el primer puente sobre el río St. Joseph.

1850: La población de South Bend llega a 1.652.

1851: El primer tren llega a South Bend.

1852: Los hermanos Studebaker abren una herrería en la esquina de Jefferson Boulevard y Michigan Street.

1855: Se establece el primer departamento de bomberos voluntarios.

1855: Se construye el segundo palacio de justicia del condado de St. Joseph.

1855: Saint Mary's Academy se traslada de Bertrand, Michigan, a South Bend. Más tarde pasa a llamarse Saint Mary's College.

1858: Farrow Powell y su familia se convierten en una de las primeras familias afroamericanas en hacer de South Bend su hogar. Los miembros de la familia ayudaron a iniciar la iglesia Olivet AME, la primera iglesia afroamericana en South Bend.

1860: La población de South Bend alcanza los 3.832.

1860: Henry M. Benjamin organiza el primer equipo de béisbol en South Bend, el Hoosier Base Ball Club.

1861: Convocatoria para reclutar soldados de la Unión para luchar en la Guerra Civil.

1861-65: los hermanos Studebaker suministran vagones al Ejército de la Unión durante la Guerra Civil.

1862: Se establece la primera escuela primaria pública.

1862: Camp Rose se estableció en South Bend como un campamento de corta duración donde se reunieron los Regimientos 73, 87 y 99.

1863: Se organiza el Primer Banco Nacional de South Bend.

1865: South Bend se incorpora como ciudad y su primer alcalde, William G. George, es elegido.

1867: Se forma la Sociedad Histórica del Norte de Indiana.

1868: Singer Sewing Machine Co. abre una planta en South Bend.

1868: James Oliver establece South Bend Iron Works Co., que más tarde se convierte en Oliver Chilled Plough Works.

1869: Schuyler Colfax, de South Bend, ex editor del St. Joseph Valley Register, se convierte en vicepresidente de los Estados Unidos.

1870: La Iglesia Episcopal Metodista Africana de Olivet se convierte en la primera iglesia afroamericana fundada en South Bend.

1870: la población de South Bend alcanza los 7,206 habitantes.

1870: Fundación de la preparatoria South Bend.

1870: Se establece Birdsell Manufacturing Co.

1872: South Bend Tribune comienza a publicar.

1872: Good’s Opera House abre sus puertas.

1873: La ciudad ordena la construcción de la fuente de agua.

1878: Comienza el desarrollo de lo que se convertirá en Howard Park, el primer parque de la ciudad.

1878: Se establece O'Brien Paint and Varnish Co.

1879: Se abre el hotel Original Oliver.

1880: La población alcanza los 30.280.

1880: Se establece la primera central telefónica de la ciudad.

1882: Se pone en servicio el primer tranvía eléctrico de los Estados Unidos en Michigan Street.

1882: Se forma la primera YMCA en South Bend.

1882: Se funda South Bend Toy Co.

1886-1889: Tippecanoe Place, la gran mansión de Clement Studebaker y su familia, se construye en West Washington Street.

1889: Se organiza la primera biblioteca pública en South Bend.

1889: Comienza la pavimentación de ladrillos de las calles de South Bend.

1890: la población llega a 21.819.

1896: Se construye el tercer palacio de justicia del condado de St. Joseph. El antiguo palacio de justicia se traslada al frente de Lafayette Boulevard.

1899: Oliver Hotel abre en el centro de South Bend.

1900: La población alcanza los 35,999.

1900: Se establece Leeper Park.

1900: Se abre la estación de ferrocarril Vandalia / Penn en la esquina de las calles Main y Bronson.

1901: Se abre el Hospital Epworth. (Más tarde se convierte en Memorial Hospital).

1902: Se establece el zoológico de Potawatomi como el primer zoológico de Indiana.

1902: Studebaker comienza a producir y vender sus primeros automóviles.

1903: Se abre la primera línea de ferrocarril interurbano del área, que conecta South Bend, LaPorte y Michigan City.

1903: Se inicia el Departamento de Policía de South Bend.

1907: Se publica “La historia del condado de St. Joseph, Indiana”, de Timothy Howard, la primera historia completa del área de South Bend.

1908: Se completa el South Shore Railroad, un interurbano eléctrico que conecta South Bend y Chicago.

1909: Se establece la Cámara de Comercio.

1910: La población alcanza los 58.684.

1913: Se formó la Asociación de Carreteras de Lincoln, responsable del desarrollo de la primera carretera transcontinental para automóviles en los Estados Unidos. La ruta original de la autopista pasa por South Bend.

1917: el sargento. Alex Arch, de South Bend, dispara el primer tiro estadounidense de la Primera Guerra Mundial.

1918: Muchas cervecerías locales cierran al comienzo de la Prohibición en Indiana, que comenzó dos años antes de la Prohibición a nivel nacional. Algunas cervecerías permanecen en el negocio cambiando a la producción de refrescos.

1920: La población llega a 70,983.

1920: La fabricación de automóviles Studebaker se traslada de Detroit a South Bend. Última carreta tirada por caballos producida.

1922: El reverendo Buford Gordon, un sociólogo capacitado y pastor en lo que ahora es la Iglesia First AME Zion en South Bend, escribe y publica “The Negro in South Bend”, el primer estudio sociológico de la experiencia afroamericana aquí.

1922: El Engman Public Natatorium, el natatorio público de propiedad de la ciudad, abre en West Washington Street. Durante los primeros 14 años, solo las personas blancas pudieron usar las instalaciones.

1922: Se abre el Palace Theatre. Más tarde pasó a llamarse Morris Performing Arts Center.

1923: Vincent Bendix funda Bendix Corp. en South Bend, convirtiéndola en una empresa mundial conocida por sus frenos, carburadores y motores de arranque para automóviles y aviones.

1925: Hering House abre en Division Street (ahora Western Avenue) como un centro comunitario y lugar de actividad social para afroamericanos. Continúa hasta 1965.

1928: Los primeros servicios de correo aéreo llegan a South Bend.

1929: Se abre la nueva estación de trenes de Union Station.

1930: La población de la ciudad llega a 104,193.

1931: Se abre el aeropuerto de Bendix. Más tarde se renombró como Aeropuerto Internacional de South Bend.

1933: La Universidad de Indiana comienza a ofrecer un programa de extensión organizado aquí, y la mayoría de las clases se imparten por las tardes en South Bend Central High School.

1934: Los autobuses comienzan a reemplazar los carritos eléctricos en las calles de South Bend.

1936: La huelga de Bendix comienza en la fábrica de Bendix en South Bend. Es la primera huelga de brazos caídos del UAW.

1940: La población de la ciudad es 101,268.

1943: Con muchos hombres sirviendo en la Segunda Guerra Mundial, se forma la All-American Girls Professional Baseball League. Los South Bend Blue Sox son uno de los cuatro equipos originales. Los Blue Sox, jugando partidos en casa en Bendix Field y Playland Park, continúan hasta 1954, todos los años de la existencia de la liga.

1950: El natatorio de la ciudad se integra por completo.

1952: WSBT-TV, propiedad de Schurz Communications Inc., firma en el aire como Canal 34 de UHF y se traslada al Canal 22 en 1958.

1953: Se abre la escuela secundaria St. Joseph.

1956: Se abre Indiana Toll Road, con una ruta justo al norte de South Bend.

1960: La población de la ciudad llega a 132,445.

1961: Se abre el campus de la Universidad de Indiana en South Bend con 1,500 estudiantes y una pequeña facultad de tiempo completo.

1963: Studebaker Corp. anuncia el cierre de la planta de South Bend. El último automóvil se produce aquí el 20 de diciembre.

1965: Comienza la renovación urbana en el centro de South Bend, lo que lleva a la demolición de muchos de los edificios más antiguos de la ciudad.

1966: Se abre el Holy Cross College.

1970: La población de la ciudad es 125,580.

1973: Scottsdale Mall abre en el lado sur de la ciudad.

1977: Se construye el Century Center, el centro de convenciones de la ciudad.

1980: La población de la ciudad es 109,727. Con el cambio de población a los suburbios, es la primera caída de población registrada en la historia de South Bend.

1981: Las escuelas públicas de South Bend se integran completamente, sobre la base de un decreto de consentimiento firmado en un tribunal federal.

1984: El antiguo East Race Waterway industrial de la ciudad se abre como un curso de rafting recreativo en aguas bravas construido por el hombre, el primero en América del Norte.

1987: Se abre el Estadio Regional de Béisbol Stanley Coveleski como hogar de los Medias Blancas de South Bend, una filial de Clase A de los Medias Blancas de Chicago.

1990: La población es de 105.511.

2004: Scottsdale Mall demolido. Terreno remodelado en un nuevo complejo de strip center llamado Erskine Village.

2009: Con muchos de los antiguos edificios de Studebaker Corp. ahora demolidos, la ciudad cambia el nombre de esa área a Ignition Park y comienza a comercializar el terreno para el desarrollo de negocios de alta tecnología.

2015: South Bend Cubs, un afiliado Clase A de los Chicago Cubs, juega su primer partido en casa en el Four Winds Field.


Corte testamentaria

El Tribunal Testamentario de St. Joseph, ubicado en South Bend, Indiana, y ha estado ubicado en el Centro de Justicia Juvenil Thomas N Frederick (JJC) en 1000 South Michigan Street desde 1997. El centro incluye un amplio estacionamiento público, fácil acceso al transporte público y oficinas para: el personal de la corte y los apóstoles, el secretario del condado, el departamento de libertad condicional, el programa CASA, el equipo de producción infantil (Oficina de familias y niños del condado de St. Joseph), el fiscal del condado de St. Joseph y el defensor público del condado de St. Joseph. El JJC es un edificio de vanguardia. Su diseño y tecnología son una parte integral de las instalaciones de Court & aposs. Integrator.com (anteriormente Security Automation Systems) de Noblesville, Indiana, instaló varios componentes para brindar seguridad, incluida la supervisión exhaustiva de áreas seguras y no seguras. Todos los jueces testamentarios se encuentran actualmente en el JJC.

Actualmente, hay tres tipos de tribunales en el sistema de tribunales del condado de St. Joseph. Los jueces y magistrados del sistema de tribunales del condado de St. Joseph están ubicados en tres lugares diferentes en todo el condado. Los magistrados son funcionarios judiciales, similares a los jueces, que llevan a cabo audiencias sobre asuntos, pero no pueden emitir opiniones. Hay dos juzgados en el centro de South Bend que albergan al juez del Tribunal de Circuito, siete jueces del Tribunal Superior y tres magistrados. El Tribunal de Sucesiones también se encuentra en South Bend y alberga al juez del Tribunal de Sucesiones y a tres magistrados. Otro tribunal en Mishawaka alberga un juez del Tribunal Superior y un magistrado del Tribunal de Circuito.


Contenido

Buttigieg nació el 19 de enero de 1982 en South Bend, Indiana, hijo único de Jennifer Anne Montgomery y Joseph A. Buttigieg. Su madre usa el nombre de Anne Montgomery. [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] Sus padres se conocieron y se casaron mientras trabajaban como profesores en la Universidad Estatal de Nuevo México. [26] Su padre nació y se crió en Hamrun, Malta, y había estudiado para ser jesuita antes de emigrar a los Estados Unidos y embarcarse en una carrera secular como profesor de literatura en la Universidad de Notre Dame cerca de South Bend, [27 ] [28] donde enseñó durante 29 años. [29] Su padre es traductor y editor de la edición en inglés de tres volúmenes de Prison Notebooks del filósofo marxista Antonio Gramsci e influyó en su búsqueda de la literatura en la universidad. [30] Su madre nació en el condado de Stanislaus, California, [31] [ fuente generada por el usuario? ] se graduó de Radford High School en El Paso, Texas, [32] Su madre nació en Oklahoma. [20] [33] y su padre nació en Indiana. [20] [34]

Educación

Buttigieg fue el mejor alumno de la clase del 2000 en St. Joseph High School en South Bend. [35] Ese año, ganó el primer premio en la Biblioteca y Museo Presidencial John F. Kennedy Perfiles de valentía concurso de ensayos. Viajó a Boston para aceptar el premio y conoció a Caroline Kennedy y otros miembros de la familia del presidente Kennedy. El tema de su ensayo ganador fue la integridad y el coraje político del entonces representante estadounidense Bernie Sanders de Vermont, uno de los dos únicos políticos independientes en el Congreso. [36] [37] En 2000, Buttigieg también fue elegido como uno de los dos estudiantes delegados de Indiana al Programa Juvenil del Senado de los Estados Unidos, [38] una competencia anual de becas patrocinada conjuntamente por el Senado de los Estados Unidos y las Fundaciones Hearst. [39]

Buttigieg asistió a la Universidad de Harvard, donde se especializó en historia y literatura. [40] Se convirtió en presidente del Comité Asesor de Estudiantes del Instituto de Política de Harvard y trabajó en el estudio anual del instituto sobre las actitudes de los jóvenes en materia de política. [41] [42] Escribió su tesis de pregrado, titulada La misión del americano tranquilo en el desierto, sobre la influencia del puritanismo en la política exterior de Estados Unidos como se refleja en la novela de Graham Greene El Americano Tranquilo. [43] [44] El título de su tesis también es una alusión al trabajo del historiador estadounidense Perry Miller. Recado en el desierto. [45] Se graduó magna cum laude de Harvard en 2004, y fue elegido miembro de Phi Beta Kappa. [1]

Buttigieg recibió una beca Rhodes para estudiar en la Universidad de Oxford. [1] En 2007, recibió una licenciatura con honores de primera clase en filosofía, política y economía después de estudiar en Pembroke College, Oxford. [46] [47] [48] [49] En Oxford, fue editor de la Oxford International Review, [50] y fue cofundador [50] y miembro del Democratic Renaissance Project, un debate informal y un grupo de discusión de aproximadamente una docena de estudiantes de Oxford. [51] [52]

Carrera profesional

Antes de graduarse de la universidad, Buttigieg fue becario de investigación en WMAQ-TV, la filial de NBC News de Chicago. [53] He also interned for Democrat Jill Long Thompson during her unsuccessful 2002 congressional bid. [54]

After college, Buttigieg worked on John Kerry's 2004 presidential campaign as a policy and research specialist for several months in Arizona and New Mexico. [55] [56] When he accepted the offer to work for Kerry's campaign, he declined another to work for Barack Obama's 2004 United States Senate campaign. [55] From 2004 to 2005, Buttigieg was conference director of the Cohen Group. [57] In 2006, he lent assistance to Joe Donnelly's successful congressional campaign. [58]

After earning his Oxford degree, in 2007 Buttigieg became a consultant at the Chicago office of McKinsey & Company, [59] [60] where he worked on energy, retail, economic development, and logistics for three years. [61] [62] His clients at McKinsey included the health insurer Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan, electronics retailer Best Buy, Canadian supermarket chain Loblaws, two nonprofit environmentalist groups (the Natural Resources Defense Council and Energy Foundation) and several U.S. government agencies (the EPA, Energy Department, Defense Department, and Postal Service). [63] [64] He took a leave of absence from McKinsey in 2008 to become research director for Jill Long Thompson's unsuccessful campaign for Indiana governor. [65] [66] [67] Buttigieg left McKinsey in 2010 in order to focus full-time on his campaign for Indiana state treasurer. [59]

Buttigieg has been involved with the Truman National Security Project since 2005 and serves as a fellow with expertise in Afghanistan and Pakistan. [61] In 2014, he was named to the organization's board of advisors. [68]

Military service

Buttigieg joined the U.S. Navy Reserve through the direct commission officer (DCO) program and was sworn in as an ensign in naval intelligence in September 2009. [69] In 2014, he took a seven-month leave during his mayoral term to deploy to Afghanistan. [70] [71] [72] While there, Buttigieg was part of a unit assigned to identify and disrupt terrorist finance networks. Part of this was done at Bagram Air Base, but he was also an armed driver for his commander on more than 100 trips into Kabul. Buttigieg has jokingly has referred to this role as "military Uber", because he had to watch out for ambushes and explosive devices along the roads and ensure that the vehicle was guarded. [73] In order to better communicate with the local Afghans, he learned some Dari (a dialect of the Persian language). Buttigieg was awarded the Joint Service Commendation Medal. [6] He resigned his commission from the U.S. Navy Reserve in 2017. [74] [75]

Indiana state treasurer election

Buttigieg was the Democratic nominee for state treasurer of Indiana in 2010. He received 37.5% of the vote, losing to Republican incumbent Richard Mourdock. [76] [77] Much of Buttigieg's campaign had focused on criticizing Mourdock for investing state pension funds in Chrysler junk bonds, and for having subsequently filed a lawsuit against Chrysler's bankruptcy restructuring, which Buttigieg argued imperiled Chrysler jobs in the state of Indiana. [78] [79] [80]

First term

Buttigieg was elected mayor of South Bend in the November 2011 election, with 10,991 of the 14,883 votes cast (74%). [81] He took office in January 2012 at the age of 29, becoming the second-youngest mayor in South Bend history (Schuyler Colfax III had become mayor in 1898 when aged 28) [82] and the youngest incumbent mayor, at the time, of a U.S. city with at least 100,000 residents. [81]

On April 14, 2011, before Buttigieg took office as mayor, Jiha'd Vasquez, a 16-year-old black boy, was found hanging from an electrical tower. [83] [84] Vasquez's backpack, on the ground near his body, had several items missing, according to Vasquez's mother Stephanie Jones. [83] The coroner, Chuck Hurley, who had no medical experience, claimed Vasquez's death was a suicide Buttigieg later appointed Hurley to serve as interim police chief. [83] Vasquez's body was cremated without an autopsy being conducted. [83] Jones attempted to get Buttigieg to investigate her son's death, but he did not, fearing "potential political risks." [83] According to Jones, Buttigieg told her to call his office, but she never got a response. [83] Jones and South Bend NAACP legal redress chair Tom Bush claimed the event was a cover-up, with Bush saying he suspected the Ku Klux Klan may be involved and hoped for a federal investigation, but did not expect it, saying "the only reason this will get done is if you’re on a microphone yelling and screaming." [85] When Buttigieg's presidential campaign was asked about the incident by a reporter in 2019, they did not give a response. [83] In 2019, Jones and St. Joseph County coroner Mike McGann argued that the case should be reopened however, sheriff William Redman said he would not consider reopening the case unless further evidence came to light. [85]

In 2012, after a federal investigation ruled that South Bend police had illegally recorded telephone calls of several officers, Buttigieg demoted police chief Darryl Boykins. [86] (Boykins had first been appointed in 2008 by Mayor Stephen Luecke, and reappointed by Buttigieg earlier in 2012. [87] ) Buttigieg also dismissed the department's communications director, the one who had actually "discovered the recordings but continued to record the line at Boykins' command". [86] The police communications director alleged that the recordings captured four senior police officers making racist remarks and discussing illegal acts. [86] [88] The city is 26% black, but only 6% of the police force is black. [89]

Buttigieg has written that his "first serious mistake as mayor" came shortly after taking office in 2012, when he decided to ask for Boykins's resignation. The city's first ever African-American police chief accepted the request. However, the next day, backed by supporters and legal counsel, Boykin requested reinstatement. When Buttigieg denied this request, Boykin sued the city for racial discrimination, [90] arguing that the taping policy had existed under previous police chiefs, who were white. [91] Buttigieg settled the suits brought by Boykins and the four officers out of court for over $800,000. [86] [92] A federal judge ruled in 2015 that Boykins's recordings violated the Federal Wiretap Act. [88] Buttigieg came under pressure from political opponents to release the tapes, but said that doing so would be a violation of the Wiretap Act. [88] He called for the eradication of racial bias in the police force. [86] An Indiana court is hearing a case for the release of the tapes. [91]

As mayor, Buttigieg promoted a number of development and redevelopment projects. [93] Buttigieg was a leading figure behind the creation of a nightly laser-light display along downtown South Bend's St. Joseph River trail as public art. The project cost $700,000, which was raised from private funds. [94] The "River Lights" installation was unveiled in May 2015 as part of the city's 150th anniversary celebrations. [86] He also oversaw the city's launching of a 3-1-1 system in 2013. [95] [96] Buttigieg's administration oversaw the sale of numerous city-owned properties. [97] [98] [99] [100] One of Buttigieg's signature programs was the "Vacant and Abandoned Properties Initiative". Known locally as "1,000 Properties in 1,000 Days", it is a project to repair or demolish blighted properties across South Bend. [101] [102] The program reached its goal two months before its scheduled end date in November 2015. [103] By the thousandth day of the program, before Buttigieg's first term ended, nearly 40% of the targeted houses were repaired, and 679 were demolished or under contract for demolition. [104] Buttigieg took note of the fact that many homes within communities of color were the ones demolished, leading to early distrust between the city and these communities. [105]

While mayor, Buttigieg served for seven months in Afghanistan as a lieutenant in the U.S. Navy Reserve, returning to the United States on September 23, 2014. [106] While deployed, he was assigned to the Afghan Threat Finance Cell, a counterterrorism unit that targeted Taliban insurgency financing. [107] [108] In his absence, Deputy Mayor Mark Neal, South Bend's city comptroller, served as executive from February 2014 until Buttigieg returned to his role as mayor in October 2014. [81] [106] [109]

In 2015, during the controversy over Indiana Senate Bill 101 – the original version of which was widely criticized for allowing discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people – Buttigieg emerged as a leading opponent of the legislation. Amid his reelection campaign, he came out as gay to express his solidarity with the LGBTQ community. [110] [111]

Second term

In 2014, Buttigieg announced that he would seek a second term in 2015. [112] He won the Democratic primary with 78% of the vote, defeating Henry Davis Jr., the city councilman from the second district. [113] In November 2015, he was elected to his second term as mayor with over 80% of the vote, defeating Republican Kelly Jones by a margin of 8,515 to 2,074 votes. [114]

In 2013, Buttigieg proposed a "Smart Streets" urban development program to improve South Bend's downtown area, [86] and in early 2015 – after traffic studies and public hearings – he secured a bond issue for the program backed by tax increment financing. [115] [116] "Smart Streets" was a complete streets implementation program. [117] "Smart Streets" was aimed at improving economic development and urban vibrancy as well as road safety. [118] Elements of the project were finished in 2016, [86] and it was officially completed in 2017. [118] The project was credited with spurring private development in the city. [116]

In 2016, Buttigieg signed an executive order helping to establish a recognized city identification card. [119] [120]

In a new phase of the Vacant and Abandoned Properties Initiative, South Bend partnered with the Notre Dame Clinical Law Center to provide free legal assistance to qualifying applicants wishing to acquire vacant lots and, with local nonprofits, to repair or construct homes and provide low-income home ownership assistance using South Bend HUD (Housing and Urban Development) funds. [121] [122]

In 2016, the City of South Bend partnered with the State of Indiana and private developers to break ground on a $165 million renovation of the former Studebaker complex, with the aim to make the complex home to tech companies and residential condos. [123] This development is in the so-called "Renaissance District", which includes nearby Ignition Park. [124] [125] In 2017, it was announced that the long-abandoned Studebaker Building 84 (also known as "Ivy Tower") would have its exterior renovated with $3.5 million in Regional Cities funds from the State of Indiana and another $3.5 million from South Bend tax increment financing, with plans for the building and other structures in its complex to serve as a technology hub. [126]

Under Buttigieg, the city also began a "smart sewer" program, the first phase of which was finished in 2017 at a cost of $150 million. [124] The effort utilized federal funds [127] and by 2019 had reduced the combined sewer overflow by 75%. [124] The impetus for the effort was a fine that the EPA had levied against the city in 2011 for Clean Water Act violations. [124] However, Buttigieg also, in 2019, sought for the city to be released from an agreement with the EPA brokered under his mayoral predecessor Steve Luecke, in which South Bend had agreed to make hundreds of millions dollars in further improvements to its sewer system by 2031. [128]

In April 2019, the Common Council approved Buttigieg's request to enable his administration to develop a city climate plan. The Common Council did so, and that month Buttigieg contracted with the Chicago firm Delta Institute to develop a plan. [129] In late November 2019, the city's Common Council voted 7–0 to approve the resultant "Carbon Neutral 2050" plan, setting the goal of meeting the Paris Agreement's 26% emission reduction by 2025, and aiming for a further reductions of 45% by 2035. [130]

Buttigieg continued to support private developments in the city. [131] [132] [133] [134] [135] By one account, by the year 2019, the city had seen $374 million in private investment for mixed-use developments since Buttigieg had taken office. [136] [94] By another account, during Buttigieg's tenure, Downtown South Bend saw roughly $200 million in private investment. [137]

Beginning in August 2018, Buttigieg promoted the idea of moving the city's South Shore Line station from South Bend International Airport to the city's downtown. [138] He made it a goal to have the city complete this project by 2025. [139]

In 2019, South Bend launched Commuters Trust, a new transportation benefit program created in collaboration with local employers and transportation providers (including South Bend Transpo and Lyft) and made possible by a $1 million three-year grant from Bloomberg Philanthropies Mayors Challenge. [140] [141]

Under Buttigieg, South Bend invested $50 million in the city's parks, many of which had been neglected during the preceding decades. [94]

After a white South Bend police officer shot and killed Eric Logan, an African-American man, in June 2019, Buttigieg was drawn from his presidential campaign to focus on the emerging public reaction. Body cameras were not turned on during Logan's death. [142] Soon after Logan's death, Buttigieg presided over a town hall attended by disaffected activists from the African-American community as well as relatives of the deceased man. The local police union accused Buttigieg of making decisions for political gain. [143] [144] In November 2019, Buttigieg secured $180,000 to commission a review of South Bend's police department policies and practices to be conducted by Chicago-based consulting firm 21CP Solutions. [145]

In 2020, the website "Best Cities" ranked South Bend number 39 on its list of the 100 best small cities in the United States, giving much credit to the progress made under Buttigieg. [146]

Increased national profile

In the 2016 U.S. Senate election in Indiana, he campaigned on behalf of Democratic Senate nominee Evan Bayh [147] and criticized Bayh's opponent, Todd Young, for having voiced support in 2010 for retaining the military's don't ask, don't tell policy, which Bayh had voted to repeal. [148] In the 2016 Democratic presidential primaries, Buttigieg endorsed Hillary Clinton. [149] He also endorsed Democratic nominee Lynn Coleman in that year's election for Indiana's 2nd congressional district, which includes South Bend. [150]

In 2016, columnist Frank Bruni of Los New York Times published a column praising Buttigieg's work as mayor, with a headline asking if he might be "the first gay president". [151] Additionally, Barack Obama was cited as mentioning him as one of the Democratic Party's talents in a November 2016 profile on the outgoing president conducted by The New Yorker. [152]

By the end of 2017, it had been noted that, as his national profile increased following his run in the 2017 DNC chairmanship election, Buttigieg had increased his out-of-city travel. [153] By the early months of 2018, there was speculation that Buttigieg was looking towards running for either governor or president in the year 2020. [154] [155] There was some speculation that, despite a presidential bid being a long shot, he garner enough recognition to become a dark horse contender for the vice presidential slot on the Democratic ticket. [154]

For the 2018 midterms, Buttigieg founded the political action committee Hitting Home PAC. [156] That October, Buttigieg personally endorsed 21 congressional candidates. [157] He also later endorsed Mel Hall, Democratic nominee in the election for Indiana's 2nd congressional district. [158] Buttigieg also campaigned in support of Joe Donnelly's reelection campaign in the United States Senate election in Indiana. [159] Buttigieg campaigned for candidates in more than a dozen states, including early presidential primary states such as Iowa and South Carolina, a move indicating potential interest in running for president. [157] He officially announced his run on January 23, 2019. [160]

Succession as mayor

In December 2018, Buttigieg announced that he would not seek a third term as mayor of South Bend. [161] In February 2019, Buttigieg endorsed James Mueller in the 2019 South Bend mayoral election. [162] [163] Mueller was a high-school classmate of Buttigieg's and his mayoral chief of staff, and later executive director of the South Bend Department of Community Investment. [162] Mueller's campaign promised to continue the progress that had been made under Buttigieg's mayoralty. [164] Buttigieg appeared in campaign ads for Mueller and donated to Mueller's campaign. [165] Mueller won the May 2019 Democratic primary with 37% of the vote in a crowded field. [166] [162] [167] In the November 2019 general election, Mueller defeated Republican nominee Sean M. Haas with 63% of the vote. [168] [169] Mueller took office on New Year's Day 2020. [24]

In January 2017, Buttigieg announced his candidacy for chair of the Democratic National Committee (DNC) in its 2017 chairmanship election. [170] He built a national profile as an emerging dark horse in the race for the chairmanship with the backing of former DNC chairman Howard Dean, former Maryland governor Martin O'Malley, Indiana senator Joe Donnelly, and North Dakota senator Heidi Heitkamp. [171] [172] Buttigieg "campaigned on the idea that the aging Democratic Party needed to empower its millennial members". [171]

Former U.S. Secretary of Labor Tom Perez and U.S. representative Keith Ellison quickly emerged as the favored candidates of a majority of DNC members. Buttigieg withdrew from the race on the day of the election without endorsing a candidate, and Perez was elected chair after two rounds of voting. [171]

On January 23, 2019, Buttigieg announced that he was forming an exploratory committee to run for President of the United States in the upcoming 2020 election. [173] Buttigieg sought the Democratic Party nomination for president. [174] [175] If he had been elected, he would have been the youngest and first openly gay American president. [173] Buttigieg officially launched his campaign on April 14, 2019, in South Bend. [8] [176]

Buttigieg described himself as a progressive and a supporter of democratic capitalism. [177] Historian David Mislin identifies Buttigieg as a pragmatic progressive in the tradition of the Social Gospel movement once strong in the Midwest. [178] Buttigieg identifies regulatory capture as a significant problem in American society. [177] Amid the start of his presidential effort, Buttigieg published his debut book, autobiography Shortest Way Home.

Initially regarded as a long-shot candidate, [179] [180] [181] Buttigieg rose into the top-tier of candidates in the primary by December 2019. [182] In early February 2020, Buttigieg led the 2020 Iowa Democratic caucuses results with 26.2% to Bernie Sanders' 26.1%, winning 14 delegates to Sanders's 12. [183] [184] The LGBTQ Victory Fund, Buttigieg's first national endorsement, [c] noted the historical first of an LGBTQ candidate winning a state presidential primary. [185] Buttigieg finished second behind Sanders in the New Hampshire primary. [11] After placing a fourth in the South Carolina primary with 8.2% of the vote, behind Joe Biden (48.7%), Bernie Sanders (19.8%), and Tom Steyer (11.3%) he dropped out of the race on March 1, 2020, and endorsed Biden. [14] [15]

In April 2020, Buttigieg launched Win The Era PAC – a new super PAC to raise money and distribute it to down-ballot Democrats. [186] The PAC focused on local elected positions, and its list of endorsements included candidates such as Jaime Harrison, Cal Cunningham, Gina Ortiz Jones, Christine Hunschofsky, and Levar Stoney. [187] On June 8, 2020, the University of Notre Dame announced that it had hired Buttigieg as a teacher and researcher for the 2020–21 academic year. [188]

Buttigieg acted as a surrogate for Biden's campaign in the general election. [189] [190] He delivered a speech on the closing night of the 2020 Democratic National Convention, [191] and also announced Indiana's votes during the convention's roll call. [192] On September 5, 2020, Buttigieg was announced to be a member of the advisory council of the Biden-Harris Transition Team, which was planning the presidential transition of Joe Biden. [193] [194] Ahead of the vice presidential debate, Buttigieg played the role as a stand-in for Republican vice president Mike Pence in Democratic vice presidential nominee Kamala Harris's debate prep. Buttigieg was selected to do this because of his experience working with Pence during the overlapping time when Buttigieg was serving as mayor and Pence was serving as governor of Indiana. [195]

In October 2020, Buttigieg released his second book, Trust: America's Best Chance. [196]

Following the end of his presidential campaign, Buttigieg was considered a possible Cabinet appointee in Joe Biden's administration. [197] [198] After Biden was declared the winner of the election on November 7, 2020, Buttigieg was again mentioned as a possible nominee for Secretary of Veterans Affairs, Ambassador to the United Nations, Ambassador to China or Secretary of Transportation. [199] On December 15, 2020, Biden announced that he would nominate Buttigieg as his Secretary of Transportation. [16] The Senate Commerce Committee advanced Buttigieg's nomination to the full Senate with a vote of 21–3. [200] Buttigieg was confirmed on February 2, 2021, with a vote of 86–13 [201] and was sworn in the next morning. [202]

In his early acts as secretary, Buttigieg worked on re-organizing the department's internal policy structure, including carrying out a thorough review process of rules enacted under the Trump administration. [203] [204]

In late February 2021, Buttigieg addressed the African American Mayors Association to discuss systemic racism. He argued that misguided investments in the federal transport and infrastructure policy had contributed to racial inequity. [205] In early March, Politico noted that Buttigieg had mentioned racial equity in almost every interview he gave to the press as it related to his work at the department. [206]

Early into his tenure, Buttigieg noted that the United States' actions surrounding road traffic safety is lacking and encouraged the improved design of roads. He also encouraged a shift in the policy from decisions based on cars to decisions based on human actions. [207]

In March 2021, Buttigieg indicated he was open to tolls on Interstate 80, but not the tollage of bridges, suggesting "big picture solutions" instead, like a mileage tax. [208] [209] The Biden administration, however, did not include a gas tax or mileage tax in the infrastructure plan it released that month. [210]

In late March 2021, Buttigieg informed Congress that the administration was planning to prioritize the construction of the Gateway Rail Tunnel Project due to its economic significance. [211] The progress of the project, which was stalled by President Trump, [212] was announced to be moving faster, according to New York senator, Chuck Schumer. Buttigieg announced the environmental impact assessment of the project - which was largely seen as a sign of major progress in the project. [213]

Buttigieg has served as a promoter of the American Jobs Plan. [214]

On May 19, 2021, Buttigieg reinstated a Obama-era pilot program which ensures local hiring for public works projects, with the goal of helping minorities and disadvantaged individuals. This program had been revoked in 2017 during the Trump administration, when the Department of Transportation (under the leadership of Elaine Chao) moved back to rules established during the Reagan administration, which banned geographic-based hiring preferences. [215]

Infrastructure

During his 2020 campaign for the Democratic nomination, Buttigieg proposed spending $1 trillion on U.S. infrastructure projects over the next ten years, estimating that the plan would create at least six million jobs. The plan focused on green energy, protecting tap water from lead, fixing roads and bridges, improving public transportation, repairing schools, guaranteeing broadband internet access, and preparing communities for floods and other natural disasters. [216] [217] [218]

Social issues

Buttigieg supports abortion rights [219] [220] and the repeal of the Hyde Amendment, which blocks federal funding for abortion services except in cases of rape, incest, or the life of the mother is in danger. [221] He favors amending civil rights legislation, including the Federal Equality Act so that LGBT Americans receive federal non-discrimination protections. [222]

Buttigieg supports expanding opportunities for national service, including a voluntary year of national service for those turning 18 years old. [223] [224] [225]

In July 2019, Buttigieg shared his "Douglass Plan", named after abolitionist Frederick Douglass, to address systemic racism in America. [226] The initiative would allocate $10 billion to African-American entrepreneurship over five years, grant $25 billion to historically black colleges, legalize marijuana, expunge drug convictions, halve the federal prison population, and propose a federal New Voting Rights Act designed to increase voting access. [227] [226]

Buttigieg supports eliminating the death penalty, [228] marijuana legalization, [229] moving toward reversing criminal sentences for minor drug-related offenses, [230] and eliminating incarceration for drug possession offenses. [231]

In 2019, he called for the U.S. to "decriminalize mental illness and addiction through diversion, treatment, and re-entry programs" with a goal of decreasing "the number of people incarcerated due to mental illness or substance use by 75% in the first term." [232] [233]

Voting rights

Buttigieg favors the abolition of the Electoral College [234] and has also called for restoring voting rights to felons who have completed their prison sentences. [230] [235]

Campaign finance reform

He supports a constitutional amendment on campaign finance to reduce the undue influence of money in politics. [236] During his 2020 presidential run in response to accusation of campaign finance concerns Buttigieg's campaign told Newsweek that the candidate does "not accept contributions from registered federal lobbyists, corporate PACs or the fossil fuel industry." In the statement, it was also made known that "Pete has made enacting critical campaign finance reforms part of his campaign platform, including strengthening the Federal Election Commission (FEC) and pushing to overturn Citizens United and Buckley v. Valeo, if necessary, by a constitutional amendment." [237]

Statehood advocacy

Climate change

During his campaign for the Democratic presidential nomination, Buttigieg stated that, if elected, he would restore the United States' commitment to the Paris Climate Agreement and double its pledge to the Green Climate Fund. He also supports the Green New Deal proposed by House Democrats, [238] [239] solar panel subsidies, and a carbon tax and dividend policy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. [240] [241]

Economic beliefs

Buttigieg identifies as a democratic capitalist and has decried crony capitalism. [242] He has entertained the possibility of antitrust actions against large technology companies on the basis of privacy and data security concerns. [243] During the Democratic primary, he supported deficit and debt reduction, arguing that large debt makes it harder to invest in infrastructure, health and safety. [244]

Workers' rights

In July 2019, he released a plan to strengthen union bargaining power, to raise the minimum wage to $15, and to offer national paid family leave. [245]

Educación

Buttigieg's education plan includes a $700 billion investment in universal full-day child care and pre-K for all children from infancy to age 5. [246] Buttigieg also wants to triple Title I funding for schools. [247] Other goals include doubling the amount of new teachers of color in the next 10 years, addressing school segregation with a $500 million fund, paying teachers more, expanding mental health services in schools, and creating more after-school programs and summer learning opportunities. [246]

His plan for debt-free college partially involves expanding Pell Grants for low and middle-income students, as well as other investments and ending Trump's tax cuts for the wealthy. [248] Under his plan, the bottom 80% of students would get free college, with the other 20% paying some or all of the tuition themselves on a sliding scale. [249] Buttigieg opposes free college tuition for all students because he believes it unfairly subsidizes higher-income families at the expense of lower-income people who do not attend college, a position distinguishing him from other progressives who support free college tuition for all. [250]

La política exterior

Buttigieg called for modifying the structure of defense spending, [251] while suggesting that he might favor an overall increase in defense spending. [252]

Buttigieg has said that he believes the 2001 U.S. invasion of Afghanistan following the September 11 attacks was justified [243] but now supports withdrawing American troops from the region with a maintained intelligence presence. [253] He is a committed supporter of Israel, [254] [255] favors a two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, [255] [256] opposes proposals for Israel to annex the Israeli-occupied West Bank, [255] and disapproves of Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu's comments in support of applying Israeli law in Jewish settlements in the West Bank. [257]

In 2008, Buttigieg wrote an op-ed in the New York Times calling on the United States to support the de facto independent Republic of Somaliland [258]

In June 2019, Buttigieg said: "We will remain open to working with a regime like the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for the benefit of the American people. But we can no longer sell out our deepest values for the sake of fossil fuel access and lucrative business deals." [259] He supports ending U.S. support for Saudi Arabia in Saudi Arabia's war in Yemen. [260]

Buttigieg has condemned China for its mass detention of ethnic Uyghurs in Xinjiang. [261] He criticized Trump's decision to withdraw U.S. troops from Syria, which critics say gave Turkey the green light to launch its military offensive against Syrian Kurds. [262]

Health care

In 2018, Buttigieg said he favored Medicare for All. [263] During his presidential campaign, Buttigieg has promoted "Medicare for All Who Want It" (a public option for health insurance). [264] [265] [266] He has spoken favorably of Maryland's all-payer rate setting. [267] Buttigieg has described "Medicare for All Who Want It" as inclusive, more efficient than the current system, and a possible precursor or "glide path" to single-payer health insurance. [267] [266] He also favors a partial expansion of Medicare that would allow Americans ages 50 to 64 to buy into Medicare, and supports proposed legislation (the Family and Medical Insurance Leave Act), that would "create a fund to guarantee up to 12 weeks of partial income for workers to care for newborn children or family members with serious illnesses." [268]

In August 2019, Buttigieg released a $300 billion plan to expand mental health care services and fight addiction. [269] [233]

Inmigración

Buttigieg supports Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) and has drawn attention to the Trump administration's aggressive deportation policies. He defended a resident of Granger, Indiana, who was deported after living in the U.S. for 17 years despite regularly checking in with ICE and applying for a green card. [270]

Buttigieg has said Trump has been reckless in sending American troops to the southern border, and that it is a measure of last resort. [271]

Buttigieg is a Christian, [272] [273] and he has said his faith has had a strong influence in his life. [223] [274] [151] He was baptized in the Catholic Church as an infant and he attended Catholic schools. [273] While at the University of Oxford, Buttigieg began to attend Christ Church Cathedral and said he felt "more-or-less Anglican" by the time he returned to South Bend. [273] St. Augustine, James Martin, and Garry Wills are among his religious influences. [274] A member of the Episcopal Church, Buttigieg is a congregant at the Cathedral of St. James in downtown South Bend. [223]

In addition to his native English, Buttigieg has some knowledge of Norwegian, Spanish, Italian, Maltese, Arabic, Dari Persian, and French. [275] [46] Buttigieg plays guitar and piano, [276] [277] and in 2013 performed with the South Bend Symphony Orchestra as a guest piano soloist with Ben Folds. [278] [279] Buttigieg was a 2014 Aspen Institute Rodel Fellow. [280]

In a June 2015 piece in the South Bend Tribune, Buttigieg came out as gay. [110] By coming out, Buttigieg became Indiana's first openly gay elected executive. [281] [282] [283] He was the first elected official in Indiana to come out while in office, [284] and the highest elected official in Indiana to come out. [283] Buttigieg was also the first openly gay Democratic presidential candidate, and the second overall, after Republican Fred Karger, who ran in 2012. [285]

On December 14, 2017, in a post on Facebook, Buttigieg announced his engagement to Chasten Glezman, a junior high school teacher. [286] [287] They had been dating since August 2015 after meeting on the dating app Hinge. [28] [288] They were married on June 16, 2018, in a private ceremony at the Cathedral of St. James in South Bend. [289] [273] This made Buttigieg the first mayor of South Bend to get married while in office. [290] Chasten uses his husband's surname, Buttigieg. [291] Buttigieg and his husband plan to have children in the near future, he revealed on The Carlos Watson Show in September 2020. [292]

In 2015, Buttigieg was a recipient of the Fenn Award, given by the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library. It was given in recognition of his work as mayor. [293] In June 2019, to mark the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall riots, Queerty named him one of its "Pride50" people identified as "trailblazing individuals who actively ensure society remains moving towards equality, acceptance and dignity for all queer people". [294] In October 2019, at the Golden Heart Awards, run by God's Love We Deliver, Buttigieg was awarded the "Golden Heart Award for Outstanding Leadership and Public Service". [295] In August 2020, Equality California, an LGBT-rights organization, gave Buttigieg and his husband Chasten their Equality Trailblazer Award. [296] Attitude, an LGBTQ publication, named Buttigieg their Person of the Year in 2020, in recognition of his groundbreaking run for the presidency. [297]


Nuestra historia

Originally opened in 1846, referred to White Hall. Ten years later the county purchased more property on the north side of the St. Joseph River. By the turn of the century it was decided the old structures need replacement to better serve the county. In 1905 the county board of charities purchased a farm northwest of South Bend. In 1907 the Saint Joseph County Infirmary opened, the name change to reflect its change in mission. The facility contained the main house, a pole barn, and a pump house. There was also a poor farm cemetery 1/2 mile east of the home.

By the 1930s, the facility became so overcrowded that patients determined as "feeble-minded" had to be housed with the insane. Although by the early 1950s, those diagnosed with severe mental illness were moved to Norman Beatty Mental Hospital. The lock-up cells however, were used through the 1970s for those that had escaped, were a danger to others or frequently broke rules. In the late 1970s the facility changed it's name to Portage Manor and farming operations ceased. Today the main focus of the facility is residential long-term care.


A Look Back: South Bend was home to one of largest meat markets in northern Indiana

Eastwood’s Meat Market once stood at 224 W. Washington St., near where the Tower Building stands today in downtown South Bend.

In 1901, when this photograph was taken, Eastwood’s was one of 51 meat markets in South Bend.

Today, we enjoy all-in-one grocery stores, but until the 1920s meat was exclusively sold at these specialty stores. Though one might think of the art of butchery as merely dividing up an animal for sale, there are many different specializations. Some butchers worked in primal cuts, the initial separation from the carcass. Secondary butchers divide the primal cuts into boned and trimmed pieces packaged for sale.

Charcutiers were particularly important before refrigeration, creating cured meats such as sausages, bacon and salted pork. Yet others might have ethnic specializations, such as kosher butchers or those catering to the Polish community.

Eastwood’s was a more general store, selling secondary cuts and products from larger meatpackers such as Armour & Co. It was founded by Le Roy Eastwood, who moved to the area with his father shortly after the Civil War. His father opened a meat market in the 100 block of North Main Street. Their store operated for several years, only to be lost to a fire just one day after insurance on the building had expired. After this disaster, the younger Eastwood went into business for himself and, by 1890, owned the largest meat market in northern Indiana.

Eastwood moved to California in 1889 due to what was described as a “catarrhal affection,” and there passed away at the age of 44. His influence led meat magnate Philip D. Armour to send a letter of condolence to Eastwood’s widow. Despite his death, the family business continued for many decades.

Eventually, due to the combined popularity of corporate slaughterhouses, larger grocery stores and ease of transportation, the demand for so many specialized butchers decreased. Fifteen years after this photograph, only six meat markets remained in the city — including Eastwood’s.


Ver el vídeo: South Bend History