Muere David Buick

Muere David Buick

En este día de 1929, David Dunbar Buick, el fundador de Buick Motor Company, muere en relativa oscuridad y en circunstancias exiguas a la edad de 74 años. En 1908, la compañía de Buick se convirtió en la fundación de General Motors Corporation; sin embargo, en ese momento David Buick había vendido su participación en la empresa.

Buick nació en Arbroath, Escocia, el 17 de septiembre de 1854 y se mudó con su familia a Detroit, Michigan, cuando era niño. Cuando era joven, trabajó en la industria de la plomería y desarrolló, entre otros inventos, un proceso exitoso para unir esmalte de porcelana a bañeras de hierro fundido. Durante la década de 1890, Buick se interesó por los automóviles y el motor de combustión interna de gasolina. En 1903, fundó Buick Motor Company. Al año siguiente, William Durant, un titán de la industria de los carruajes tirados por caballos, invirtió en la empresa de Buick, que para entonces tenía su sede en Flint, Michigan. Ese mismo año, la compañía fabricó un total de 37 autos, conocidos como el Modelo B. Para 1906, Buick había perdido el control del negocio y vendió sus acciones, que luego valdrían millones de dólares. Dos años más tarde, en 1908, William Durant convirtió a la empresa Buick en la piedra angular de su recién formado holding, General Motors. Durant pronto adquirió Cadillac y Oldsmobile, entre otras compañías automotrices. En 1923, Buick construyó su vehículo número un millón. La marca Buick jugaría un papel clave en el ascenso de General Motors para convertirse en el mayor fabricante de automóviles del mundo a principios de la década de 1930 (un título que mantuvo hasta 2008, cuando fue superado por Toyota con sede en Japón). Hoy en día, Buick es la marca de lujo de nivel de entrada de GM y una de las placas de identificación más antiguas de la industria automotriz.

Después de vender su participación en su empresa, David Buick se involucró en una serie de empresas petroleras, inmobiliarias y automotrices que no tuvieron éxito. Finalmente regresó a Detroit, donde trabajó en trabajos menores antes de su muerte en 1929.


* El precio minorista sugerido por el fabricante excluye el cargo por flete de destino, impuestos, título, licencia, tarifas del distribuidor y equipo opcional. Haga clic aquí para ver todos los cargos de flete de destino de los vehículos Buick.

* El precio minorista sugerido por el fabricante excluye el cargo por flete de destino, impuestos, título, licencia, tarifas del distribuidor y equipo opcional. Haga clic aquí para ver los cargos de flete de destino de todos los vehículos Buick.

El precio minorista sugerido por el fabricante excluye el flete de destino, los impuestos, el título, la licencia, las tarifas del distribuidor y el equipo opcional. Haga clic aquí para ver todos los cargos de flete de destino de los vehículos Buick.

Con el piso del área de carga bajado y los asientos plegados. Carga y capacidad de carga limitada por peso y distribución.

La confianza del conductor de Buick incluye lo siguiente: alerta de colisión frontal, frenado automático de emergencia, asistencia de mantenimiento de carril con advertencia de cambio de carril, indicador de distancia de seguimiento, faros IntelliBeam y frenado de peatón delantero.

La interfaz de usuario del vehículo es un producto de Google ™ y se aplican sus términos y declaraciones de privacidad. Requiere la aplicación Android Auto en Google Play y un teléfono inteligente compatible con Android ™ con Android 5.0 o superior. Se aplican tarifas del plan de datos. Android Auto es una marca comercial de Google LLC.

Los dispositivos Apple iPhone® / iPod® son compatibles con la transmisión de audio por Bluetooth con una funcionalidad limitada. Conéctese a través de USB para utilizar todas las funciones del sistema de infoentretenimiento de Buick.

La funcionalidad varía según el modelo. La funcionalidad completa requiere un teléfono inteligente y Bluetooth® compatibles, y conectividad USB para algunos dispositivos.

Lea el manual del propietario del vehículo para obtener información y limitaciones importantes de las funciones.

MPG estimado por la EPA: 25 en ciudad, 30 en carretera con tracción delantera.

Carga y capacidad de carga limitada por peso y distribución.

MPG estimado por la EPA: 30 en ciudad, 32 en carretera, motor de 1.3L FWD.

Confianza del conductor de Buick: Frenado automático de emergencia, Asistente de mantenimiento de carril con advertencia de cambio de carril, Alerta de colisión frontal, Frenado de peatón delantero, Indicador de distancia de seguimiento e IntelliBeam. Lea el manual del propietario del vehículo para obtener información y limitaciones de funciones más importantes.

La interfaz de usuario del vehículo es un producto de Google ™ y se aplican sus términos y declaraciones de privacidad. Requiere la aplicación Android Auto en Google Play y un teléfono inteligente Android ™ compatible. Se aplican tarifas del plan de datos. Puedes comprobar qué smartphones son compatibles en g.co/androidauto/requirements. Android Auto es una marca comercial de Google LLC.

La interfaz de usuario del vehículo es un producto de Apple® y se aplican sus términos y declaraciones de privacidad. Requiere iPhone® compatible y se aplican tarifas de plan de datos. Apple CarPlay es una marca comercial de Apple Inc. Siri, iPhone y Apple Music son marcas comerciales de Apple Inc, registradas en EE. UU. Y otros países.

Con asientos traseros abatidos. Carga y capacidad de carga limitada por peso y distribución.

El sistema carga de forma inalámbrica un dispositivo móvil compatible. Algunos teléfonos tienen tecnología de carga inalámbrica incorporada y otros requieren un adaptador / cubierta trasera especial. Para verificar la compatibilidad del teléfono u otro dispositivo, haga clic aquí o consulte a su proveedor.

MPG estimado por la EPA: 18 ciudad / 26 carretera FWD.

Requiere el paquete Trailering disponible. Antes de comprar un vehículo o usarlo para remolcar, revise cuidadosamente la sección de remolque del Manual del propietario. El peso de los pasajeros, la carga y las opciones o accesorios pueden reducir la cantidad que puede remolcar.

Bose® es una marca comercial registrada de Bose Corporation en EE. UU. Y otros países.

Antes de comprar un vehículo o usarlo para remolcar, revise cuidadosamente la sección de remolque del Manual del propietario. El peso de los pasajeros, la carga y las opciones o accesorios pueden reducir la cantidad que puede remolcar.

Modelo de preproducción mostrado en todas partes. El modelo de producción real puede variar.

No incluye modelos 1SV. DEBE SER PROPIETARIO ACTUAL DE UN AÑO MODELO 2007 O UN VEHÍCULO GMC O BUICK MÁS NUEVO O UN ARRENDATARIO ACTUAL DE UN AÑO MODELO 2016 O UN VEHÍCULO GMC O BUICK MÁS NUEVO A TRAVÉS DE FINANCIEROS GM POR AL MENOS 30 DÍAS ANTES DE LA VENTA DEL VEHÍCULO NUEVO. Debe financiarse a través de GM Financial. Es posible que algunos clientes no califiquen. No disponible con arrendamiento, financiamiento especial y algunas otras ofertas. Reciba una nueva entrega minorista antes del 30/6/21.


Ese Roadmaster rojo crema

Claramente, hubo algo más que el encantador Tom Cruise y la linda Valeria Golino, que llamó la atención de los espectadores y no, no nos referimos a la actuación estelar de Dustin Hoffman. Nos referimos a la hermosa Sequoia Cream Roadmaster con interiores de cuero rojo.

Como siempre, había más de un auto. En la película se utilizaron dos Roadmasters, uno para fotografías de estudio y promociones y para las escenas verdes. El otro fue modificado para poder soportar el peso de las cámaras y los camarógrafos, y es este coche el que llamó la atención de Hombre de la lluviaEl director, Barry Levinson, quien terminó comprándolo poco después de que terminó la producción.

El coche permaneció en su casa de verano de Connecticut hasta que necesitó algunas reformas para preservar su vida y longevidad. Levinson se acercó primero a un restaurador de autos, pero aparentemente no estaba contento con la forma en que progresaron las cosas.

Para restaurarlo correctamente, se acercó a Wayne Carini de la Persiguiendo autos clásicos fama, de la tienda F40 Motorsports. Carini, a su vez, primero tuvo que deshacer la suspensión trasera más robusta puesta inicialmente para soportar el peso adicional del equipo de la cámara, para poder darle a este automóvil clásico un nuevo aliento de vida.


Contenido

Familia Editar

Tanto el primer libro de Samuel como el primer libro de las Crónicas identifican a David como el hijo de Isaí, el betlemita, el menor de ocho hijos. [15] También tenía al menos dos hermanas, Sarvia, cuyos hijos pasaron a servir en el ejército de David, y Abigail, cuyo hijo Amasa pasó a servir en el ejército de Absalón, siendo Absalón uno de los hijos menores de David. [16] Si bien la Biblia no nombra a su madre, el Talmud la identifica como Nitzevet, una hija de un hombre llamado Adael, y el Libro de Rut lo afirma como el bisnieto de Rut, la moabita, de Booz. [17]

Se describe a David como cimentando sus relaciones con varios grupos políticos y nacionales a través del matrimonio. [18] En 1 Samuel 17:25, declara que el rey Saúl había dicho que convertiría a cualquiera que matara a Goliat en un hombre muy rico, le daría a su hija y declararía a la familia de su padre exenta de impuestos en Israel. Saúl le ofreció a David su hija mayor, Merab, un matrimonio que David rechazó respetuosamente. [19] Saúl luego dio a Merab en matrimonio con Adriel el Meholatita. [20] Habiéndosele dicho que su hija menor, Mical, estaba enamorada de David, Saúl se la dio en matrimonio a David con el pago de David en prepucios filisteos [21] (el antiguo historiador judío Josefo enumera la dote como 100 cabezas filisteas). [22] Saúl se puso celoso de David y trató de matarlo. David escapó. Entonces Saúl envió a Mical a Galim para que se casara con Palti, hijo de Lais. [23] David tomó entonces esposas en Hebrón, según 2 Samuel 3, ellas eran Ahinoam la Yizreelita Abigail, la esposa de Nabal el Carmelita Maaca, la hija de Talmay, rey de Gesur Haggith Abital y Egla. Más tarde, David quiso que Mical regresara y Abner, el comandante del ejército de Is-boset, la entregó a David, lo que causó gran dolor a su esposo (Palti). [24]

El Libro de Crónicas enumera a sus hijos con sus diversas esposas y concubinas. En Hebrón, David tuvo seis hijos: Amnón, de Ahinoam Daniel, de Abigail Absalón, de Maaca Adonías, de Haggith Sefatías, de Abital e Itream, de Egla. [25] Junto a Betsabé, sus hijos fueron Samua, Shobab, Natán y Salomón. Los hijos de David nacidos en Jerusalén de sus otras esposas incluyeron a Ibhar, Elishua, Eliphelet, Nogah, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama y Eliada. [26] Jerimot, que no se menciona en ninguna de las genealogías, se menciona como otro de sus hijos en 2 Crónicas 11:18. Su hija Tamar, por Maachah, es violada por su medio hermano Amnon. David no lleva a Amnón ante la justicia por su violación de Tamar, porque es su primogénito y lo ama, por lo que Absalón (su hermano completo) asesina a Amnón para vengar a Tamar. [27] Aunque Absalón se vengó de la corrupción de su hermana irónicamente, él mismo demostró que no era muy diferente de Amnón, ya que Amnón había buscado el consejo de Jonadab para violar a Tamar, Absalón había buscado el consejo de Ahitophel, quien le aconsejó a Absalón que tuviera relaciones incestuosas. relaciones con las concubinas de su padre a fin de mostrar a todo Israel lo odioso que era con su padre [2 Samuel 16:20] a pesar de los grandes pecados que habían cometido David mostró dolor por la muerte de sus hijos llorando dos veces por Amnón [2 Samuel 13: 31-26] y llorando siete veces por Absalón.

Edición narrativa

Dios se enoja cuando Saúl, el rey de Israel, ofrece ilegalmente un sacrificio [28] y luego desobedece un mandato divino de matar a todos los amalecitas y destruir sus propiedades confiscadas. [29] En consecuencia, Dios envía al profeta Samuel para ungir a un pastor, David, el hijo menor de Isaí de Belén, para que sea rey. [30]

Después de que Dios envía un espíritu maligno para atormentar a Saulo, sus siervos le recomiendan que envíe a buscar a un hombre experto en tocar la lira. Un criado propone a David, a quien el criado describe como "diestro en el juego, hombre de valor, guerrero, prudente en el habla y hombre de buena presencia, y el Señor está con él". David entra al servicio de Saúl como uno de los escuderos reales y toca la lira para consolar al rey. [31]

Se produce la guerra entre Israel y los filisteos, y el gigante Goliat desafía a los israelitas a enviar un campeón para enfrentarlo en un combate singular. [32] David, enviado por su padre para llevar provisiones a sus hermanos que sirven en el ejército de Saúl, declara que puede derrotar a Goliat. [33] Rechazando la oferta del rey de la armadura real, [34] mata a Goliat con su honda. [35] Saulo pregunta el nombre del padre del joven héroe. [36]

Saúl pone a David al frente de su ejército. Todo Israel ama a David, pero su popularidad hace que Saúl le tema ("¿Qué más puede desear sino el reino?"). [37] Saúl trama su muerte, pero Jonatán, el hijo de Saúl, uno de los que ama a David, le advierte de los planes de su padre y David huye. Primero va a Nob, donde el sacerdote Ahimelec lo alimenta y le da la espada de Goliat, y luego a Gat, la ciudad filistea de Goliat, con la intención de refugiarse allí con el rey Aquis. Los sirvientes o funcionarios de Aquis cuestionan su lealtad, y David ve que está en peligro allí. [38] Va junto a la cueva de Adullam, donde su familia se une a él. [39] De allí se va a buscar refugio con el rey de Moab, pero el profeta Gad le aconseja que se vaya y se dirige al bosque de Hereth, [40] y luego a Keila, donde se ve envuelto en una nueva batalla con los filisteos. Saúl planea sitiar a Keila para poder capturar a David, por lo que David abandona la ciudad para proteger a sus habitantes. [41] Desde allí se refugia en el desierto montañoso de Zif. [42]

Jonatán se reúne con David nuevamente y confirma su lealtad a David como futuro rey. Después de que la gente de Zif notifica a Saúl que David se está refugiando en su territorio, Saúl busca confirmación y planea capturar a David en el desierto de Maón, pero su atención se desvía por una nueva invasión filistea y David consigue un respiro en Ein. Gedi. [43] Al regresar de la batalla con los filisteos, Saúl se dirige a Ein Gedi en busca de David y entra en la cueva donde, da la casualidad, se esconden David y sus seguidores, "para atender sus necesidades". David se da cuenta de que tiene la oportunidad de matar a Saúl, pero esta no es su intención: secretamente corta una esquina del manto de Saúl, y cuando Saúl ha salido de la cueva, sale para rendir homenaje a Saúl como rey y para demostrarlo, usando el pedazo de la túnica, que no guarda rencor hacia Saúl. Los dos se reconcilian así y Saúl reconoce a David como su sucesor. [44]

Un pasaje similar ocurre en 1 Samuel 26, cuando David puede infiltrarse en el campamento de Saúl en la colina de Hachilah y quitar su lanza y una jarra de agua de su costado mientras él y sus guardias duermen. En este relato, Abisai le advierte a David que esta es su oportunidad de matar a Saúl, pero David se niega, diciendo que no "extenderá [su] mano contra el ungido del Señor". [45] Saúl confiesa que se ha equivocado al perseguir a David y lo bendice. [46]

En 1 Samuel 27: 1–4 | NKJV, Saúl deja de perseguir a David porque David se refugió por segunda vez [47] con Aquis, el rey filisteo de Gat. Aquis permite que David resida en Siclag, cerca de la frontera entre Gat y Judea, desde donde dirige incursiones contra los gesuritas, los girzitas y los amalecitas, pero hace que Aquis crea que está atacando a los israelitas en Judá, los jerameelitas y los ceneos. . Aquis cree que David se había convertido en un vasallo leal, pero nunca se gana la confianza de los príncipes o señores de Gat y, a petición de ellos, Aquis le ordena a David que se quede atrás para proteger el campamento cuando los filisteos marchen contra Saúl. [48] ​​David regresa a Siclag y salva a sus mujeres ya los ciudadanos de los amalecitas. [49] Jonatán y Saúl mueren en batalla, [50] y David es ungido rey sobre Judá. [51] En el norte, el hijo de Saúl, Is-Boset, es ungido rey de Israel, y se produce la guerra hasta que Is-Boset es asesinado. [52]

Con la muerte del hijo de Saúl, los ancianos de Israel llegan a Hebrón y David es ungido rey sobre todo Israel. [53] Conquista Jerusalén, anteriormente una fortaleza jebusea, y la convierte en su capital. [54] Trae el Arca de la Alianza a la ciudad, [55] con la intención de construir un templo para Dios, pero el profeta Natán lo prohíbe, profetizando que el templo sería construido por uno de los hijos de David. [56] Natán también profetiza que Dios ha hecho un pacto con la casa de David declarando, "tu trono será establecido para siempre". [57] David gana victorias adicionales sobre los filisteos, moabitas, edomitas, amalecitas, amonitas y el rey Hadad-ezer de Aram-Zoba, después de lo cual se convierten en tributarios. Su fama aumentó como resultado, ganándose los elogios de figuras como el rey Toi de Hamat, el rival de Hadadézer. [58]

Durante un sitio de la capital amonita de Rabá, David permanece en Jerusalén. Espía a una mujer, Betsabé, que se baña y la llama para que quede embarazada. [59] [60] [61] El texto de la Biblia no establece explícitamente si Betsabé consintió en tener relaciones sexuales. [62] [63] [64] [65] David llama a su esposo, Urías el hitita, de regreso de la batalla para descansar, con la esperanza de que regrese a casa con su esposa y se presuma que el niño es suyo. Sin embargo, Urías no visita a su esposa, por lo que David conspira para que lo maten en el fragor de la batalla. David luego se casa con la viuda Betsabé. [66] En respuesta, Natán, después de atrapar al rey en su culpa con una parábola que realmente describió su pecado por analogía, profetiza el castigo que caerá sobre él, declarando que "la espada nunca se apartará de tu casa". [67] Cuando David reconoce que ha pecado, [68] Natán le advierte que su pecado está perdonado y que no morirá, [69] pero el niño sí. [70] En cumplimiento de las palabras de Natán, Absalón, el hijo de David, alimentado por la venganza y el deseo de poder, se rebela. [71] Gracias a Husai, un amigo de David a quien se le ordenó infiltrarse en la corte de Absalón para sabotear con éxito sus planes, las fuerzas de Absalón son derrotadas en la batalla del Bosque de Efraín, y es atrapado por su largo cabello en las ramas de un árbol donde, contrariamente a la orden de David, es asesinado por Joab, el comandante del ejército de David. [72] David lamenta la muerte de su hijo predilecto: "¡Oh hijo mío Absalón, hijo mío, hijo mío Absalón! ¡Ojalá hubiera muerto en lugar de ti, Absalón, hijo mío, hijo mío!" [73] hasta que Joab lo persuade de que se recupere de "la extravagancia de su dolor" [74] y cumpla con su deber para con su pueblo. [75] David regresa a Gilgal y es escoltado a través del río Jordán y de regreso a Jerusalén por las tribus de Judá y Benjamín. [76]

Cuando David es anciano y postrado en cama, Adonías, su hijo mayor sobreviviente y heredero natural, se declara rey. [77] Betsabé y Natán van a David y obtienen su acuerdo para coronar al hijo de Betsabé, Salomón, como rey, de acuerdo con la promesa anterior de David, y la rebelión de Adonías es sofocada. [78] David muere a la edad de 70 años después de haber reinado durante 40 años, [79] y en su lecho de muerte le aconseja a Salomón que camine en los caminos de Dios y se vengue de sus enemigos. [80]

Salmos editar

El Libro de Samuel llama a David un hábil intérprete de arpa (lira) [82] y "el dulce salmista de Israel". [83] Sin embargo, mientras que casi la mitad de los Salmos se titulan "Un Salmo de David" (también traducido como "a David" o "para David") y la tradición identifica varios con eventos específicos en la vida de David (p. Ej., Salmos 3, 7 , 18, 34, 51, 52, 54, 56, 57, 59, 60, 63 y 142), [84] los títulos son adiciones tardías y ningún salmo puede atribuirse a David con certeza. [85]

El Salmo 34 se atribuye a David con motivo de su huida de Abimelec (o el rey Aquis) fingiendo estar loco. [86] Según la narración paralela en 1 Samuel 21, en lugar de matar al hombre que le había provocado tantas bajas, Abimelec permite que David se vaya, exclamando: "¿Estoy tan corto de locos que tienes que traer a este hombre aquí? para seguir así delante de mí? ¿Tiene que entrar este hombre en mi casa? [87]

Tel Dan Stele Modificar

La estela de Tel Dan, descubierta en 1993, es una piedra con inscripciones erigida por Hazael, un rey de Damasco a finales del siglo IX / principios del VIII a. C. Conmemora la victoria del rey sobre dos reyes enemigos y contiene la frase hebrea: ביתדוד, bytdwd, que la mayoría de los eruditos traducen como "Casa de David". [88] Otros eruditos han desafiado esta lectura, [89] pero es probable que se trate de una referencia a una dinastía del Reino de Judá que remonta su ascendencia a un fundador llamado David. [88]

Mesha Stele Modificar

Dos epigrafistas, André Lemaire y Émile Puech, plantearon en 1994 la hipótesis de que la estela de Mesha de Moab, que data del siglo IX, también contiene las palabras "Casa de David" al final de la línea 31, aunque esto se consideró menos cierto que el mención en la inscripción de Tel Dan. [90] En mayo de 2019, Israel Finkelstein, Nadav Na'aman y Thomas Römer concluyeron a partir de las nuevas imágenes que el nombre del gobernante contenía tres consonantes y comenzaba con una apuesta, que excluye la lectura "Casa de David" y, junto con la ciudad de residencia del monarca "Horonaim" en Moab, hace probable que el mencionado sea Rey Balak, un nombre también conocido de la Biblia hebrea. [91] [92] Más tarde ese año, Michael Langlois usó fotografías de alta resolución tanto de la inscripción en sí como del apretón original del siglo XIX de la estela entonces todavía intacta para reafirmar la opinión de Lemaire de que la línea 31 contiene la frase "Casa de David ". [92] [93] Respondiendo a Langlois, Na'aman argumentó que la lectura de la "Casa de David" es inaceptable porque la estructura de la oración resultante es extremadamente rara en las inscripciones reales semíticas occidentales. [94]

Portal de bubastita en Karnak Editar

Además de las dos estelas, el erudito bíblico y egiptólogo Kenneth Kitchen sugiere que el nombre de David también aparece en un relieve del faraón Shoshenq (generalmente identificado con Shishak en la Biblia. [95] [96] El relieve afirma que Shoshenq allanó lugares en Palestina en 925 a. C. , y Kitchen interpreta un lugar como "Alturas de David", que estaba en el sur de Judá y el Negev, donde la Biblia dice que David se refugió de Saúl. El relieve está dañado y la interpretación es incierta. [96]

Crítica bíblica Editar

Crítica literaria Editar

Aparte de estos, todo lo que se sabe de David proviene de la literatura bíblica. Algunos estudiosos han llegado a la conclusión de que esto probablemente se compiló a partir de registros contemporáneos de los siglos XI y X a. C., pero que no existe una base histórica clara para determinar la fecha exacta de compilación. [97] Otros eruditos creen que los Libros de Samuel se compusieron sustancialmente durante la época del rey Josías a fines del siglo VII a. C., se extendieron durante el exilio babilónico (siglo VI a. C.) y se completaron sustancialmente alrededor del 550 a. C. El erudito del Antiguo Testamento Graeme Auld sostiene que se realizó una edición adicional incluso después de esa fecha: el cuarto de siclo de plata que el siervo de Saúl ofrece a Samuel en 1 Samuel 9 "casi con certeza fija la fecha de la historia en el período persa o helenístico" porque un cuarto de siclo se sabía que existía shekel en la época hasmonea. [98] Los autores y editores de Samuel se basaron en muchas fuentes anteriores, incluyendo, para su historia de David, la "historia del ascenso de David" [99] y la "narrativa de sucesión". [100] [101] El Libro de las Crónicas, que cuenta la historia desde un punto de vista diferente, probablemente se compuso en el período 350-300 a. C. y utiliza a Samuel y Reyes como fuente. [102]

La evidencia bíblica indica que el Judá de David era algo menos que una monarquía en toda regla: a menudo lo llama negid, que significa "príncipe" o "jefe", en lugar de melek, que significa "rey", el David bíblico no crea nada de la compleja burocracia que necesita un reino (incluso su ejército está formado por voluntarios), y sus seguidores están relacionados en gran medida con él y con su pequeña área de origen alrededor de Hebrón. [103]

Más allá de esto, está disponible la gama completa de posibles interpretaciones. Varios eruditos consideran que la historia de David es un relato heroico similar a la leyenda del Rey Arturo o las epopeyas de Homero, [104] mientras que otros piensan que tales comparaciones son cuestionables. [105] Otros sostienen que la historia de David es una disculpa política, una respuesta a los cargos contemporáneos en su contra, de su participación en asesinatos y regicidio. [106] Los autores y editores de Samuel y Crónicas no tenían como objetivo registrar la historia, sino promover el reinado de David como inevitable y deseable, y por esta razón hay poco sobre David que sea concreto e indiscutible. [11] [12]

Se han escrito algunos otros estudios de David: Baruch Halpern ha descrito a David como un vasallo de toda la vida de Aquis, el rey filisteo de Gat. [107] Steven McKenzie sostiene que David provenía de una familia adinerada, era "ambicioso y despiadado" y un tirano que asesinó a sus oponentes, incluidos sus propios hijos. [85]

Jacob L.Wright ha escrito que las leyendas más populares sobre David, incluido su asesinato de Goliat, su romance con Betsabé y su gobierno de un Reino Unido de Israel en lugar de solo Judá, son la creación de aquellos que vivieron generaciones después de él, en particular los que vivieron en los períodos persa tardío o helenístico. [108]

Isaac Kalimi escribió sobre el siglo X a. C. que: "Casi todo lo que se puede decir sobre el rey Salomón y su época se basa inevitablemente en los textos bíblicos. Sin embargo, aquí tampoco siempre se puede ofrecer una prueba concluyente de que cierto pasaje bíblico refleja la historia histórica real. situación en el siglo X a. C., más allá de argumentar que es plausible en tal o cual grado ". [109]

Crítica arqueológica Editar

Isaac Kalimi escribió en 2018 que: "Ninguna fuente extrabíblica contemporánea ofrece un relato de la situación política en Israel y Judá durante el siglo X a. C. y, como hemos visto, los restos arqueológicos en sí mismos no pueden proporcionar ninguna evidencia inequívoca de los eventos". [110]

Lester L. Grabbe escribió en 2017 que: "La pregunta principal es qué tipo de asentamiento era Jerusalén en Iron IIA: ¿era un asentamiento menor, quizás una gran aldea o posiblemente una ciudadela pero no una ciudad, o era la capital de un estado floreciente, o al menos emergente? ? Las evaluaciones difieren considerablemente ... " [111]

Hayes & amp Miller escribió en 2006: "Por otro lado, si uno no está convencido de antemano por el perfil bíblico, entonces no hay nada en la evidencia arqueológica en sí misma que sugiera que muchas de las consecuencias estuvieran sucediendo en Palestina durante el siglo X a. C., y ciertamente nada que sugiera que Jerusalén fue un gran centro político y cultural ". [112]

Israel Finkelstein y Neil Asher Silberman han declarado que la evidencia arqueológica muestra que Judá estaba escasamente habitada y Jerusalén no era más que una pequeña aldea. La evidencia sugirió que David gobernó solo como un cacique sobre un área que no puede describirse como un estado o como un reino, sino más como un cacicazgo, mucho más pequeño y siempre eclipsado por el reino más antiguo y poderoso de Israel al norte. [113] Postularon que Israel y Judá no eran monoteístas en ese momento, y que los redactores posteriores del siglo VII buscaron retratar una edad de oro pasada de una monarquía unida y monoteísta para satisfacer las necesidades contemporáneas. [114] Notaron una falta de evidencia arqueológica para las campañas militares de David y un subdesarrollo relativo de Jerusalén, la capital de Judá, en comparación con una Samaria más desarrollada y urbanizada, capital de Israel durante el siglo IX a. C. [115] [116] [117]

Amihai Mazar ha escrito que la Monarquía Unida del siglo X a. C. puede describirse como un "estado en desarrollo". [118]

La visión de la Jerusalén davídica como aldea ha sido cuestionada por la excavación de Eilat Mazar de la Estructura de piedra grande y la Estructura de piedra escalonada en 2005. [119] Eilat Mazar propuso que estas dos estructuras pueden haber estado vinculadas arquitectónicamente como una sola unidad, y que se remontan a la época del rey David. Amihai Mazar, Avraham Faust, Nadav Na'aman y William Dever también han argumentado a favor de la datación del siglo X a. C. [118] [120] [121] [122] [123]

Académicos como Israel Finkelstein, Lily Singer-Avitz, Ze'ev Herzog y David Ussishkin no aceptan estas conclusiones. [124] Finkelstein no acepta que estas estructuras datan del siglo X a. C., debido en parte al hecho de que las estructuras posteriores en el sitio penetraron profundamente en las capas subyacentes, que toda el área había sido excavada a principios del siglo XX y luego rellenado, que la cerámica de períodos posteriores se encontró debajo de los estratos anteriores y que, en consecuencia, los hallazgos recolectados por E. Mazar no necesariamente pueden considerarse recuperados in situ. [125] Aren Maeir dijo en 2010 que no ha visto evidencia de que estas estructuras sean del siglo X a. C., y que la prueba de la existencia de un reino centralizado y fuerte en ese momento sigue siendo "tenue". [126]

En 2018, Avraham Faust y Yair Sapir declararon que un sitio cananeo en Tel Eton, a unas 30 millas de Jerusalén, fue tomado por una comunidad judía por asimilación pacífica, y transformado de una aldea en una ciudad central en algún momento a fines del siglo XI. o principios del siglo X a. C. Esta transformación utilizó algunos bloques de sillar en la construcción, que, según ellos, apoya la teoría de la Monarquía Unida. [127] [128]

Judaísmo rabínico Editar

David es una figura importante en el judaísmo rabínico, con muchas leyendas a su alrededor. Según una tradición, David fue criado como el hijo de su padre Isaí y pasó sus primeros años pastoreando las ovejas de su padre en el desierto mientras sus hermanos estaban en la escuela. [129]

El adulterio de David con Betsabé se interpreta como una oportunidad para demostrar el poder del arrepentimiento, y el Talmud afirma que no fue adulterio en absoluto, citando una práctica judía del divorcio en vísperas de la batalla. Además, según fuentes talmúdicas, la muerte de Urías no debía considerarse asesinato, sobre la base de que Urías había cometido un delito capital al negarse a obedecer una orden directa del Rey. [130] Sin embargo, en el tratado del Sanedrín, David expresó remordimiento por sus transgresiones y buscó el perdón. Dios finalmente perdonó a David y Betsabé, pero no quitó sus pecados de las Escrituras. [131]

En la leyenda judía, el pecado de David con Betsabé es el castigo por la excesiva timidez de David que había rogado a Dios que lo llevara a la tentación para que pudiera dar prueba de su constancia como Abraham, Isaac y Jacob (quienes pasaron con éxito la prueba) cuyo los nombres más tarde se unieron con los de Dios, mientras que David finalmente fracasó debido a la tentación de una mujer. [129]

Según midrashim, Adán entregó 70 años de su vida por la vida de David. [132] Además, según el Talmud Yerushalmi, David nació y murió en la festividad judía de Shavuot (Fiesta de las Semanas). Se decía que su piedad era tan grande que sus oraciones podían hacer descender cosas del cielo. [ cita necesaria ]

Cristianismo editar

El concepto del Mesías es fundamental en el cristianismo. Originalmente un rey terrenal gobernando por designación divina ("el ungido", como lo tenía el título de Mesías), el "hijo de David" se convirtió en los últimos dos siglos a. C. en el apocalíptico y celestial que libraría a Israel y marcaría el comienzo de un nuevo Reino. Este fue el trasfondo del concepto de Mesianismo en el cristianismo primitivo, que interpretó la carrera de Jesús "por medio de los títulos y funciones asignados a David en el misticismo del culto de Sión, en el que se desempeñó como sacerdote-rey y en el que fue el mediador entre Dios y el hombre ". [135]

La Iglesia primitiva creía que "la vida de David presagiaba la vida de Cristo Belén es el lugar de nacimiento tanto de la vida de pastor como de David señala a Cristo, el Buen Pastor las cinco piedras elegidas para matar a Goliat son típicas de las cinco heridas de la traición de su Ahitophel, consejero de confianza, y el pasaje sobre el Cedrón nos recuerdan la Sagrada Pasión de Cristo. Muchos de los Salmos Davídicos, como aprendemos del Nuevo Testamento, son claramente típicos del futuro Mesías ". [136] In the Middle Ages, "Charlemagne thought of himself, and was viewed by his court scholars, as a 'new David'. [This was] not in itself a new idea, but [one whose] content and significance were greatly enlarged by him". [137]

Western Rite churches (Lutheran, Roman Catholic) celebrate his feast day on 29 December, Eastern-rite on 19 December. [138] The Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches celebrate the feast day of the "Holy Righteous Prophet and King David" on the Sunday of the Holy Forefathers (two Sundays before the Great Feast of the Nativity of the Lord), when he is commemorated together with other ancestors of Jesus. He is also commemorated on the Sunday after the Nativity, together with Joseph and James, the Brother of the Lord. [ cita necesaria ]

Edad Media Editar

In European Christian culture of the Middle Ages, David was made a member of the Nine Worthies, a group of heroes encapsulating all the ideal qualities of chivalry. His life was thus proposed as a valuable subject for study by those aspiring to chivalric status. This aspect of David in the Nine Worthies was popularised firstly through literature, and was thereafter adopted as a frequent subject for painters and sculptors.

David was considered as a model ruler and a symbol of divinely-ordained monarchy throughout medieval Western Europe and Eastern Christendom. David was perceived as the biblical predecessor to Christian Roman and Byzantine emperors and the name "New David" was used as an honorific reference to these rulers. [140] The Georgian Bagratids and the Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia claimed a direct biological descent from him. [141] Likewise, kings of the Frankish Carolingian dynasty frequently connected themselves to David Charlemagne himself occasionally used the name of David as his pseudonym. [140]

Islam Editar

David (Arabic: داوود Dā'ūd o Dāwūd) is an important figure in Islam as one of the major prophets sent by God to guide the Israelites. David is mentioned several times in the Quran with the Arabic name داود, Dāwūd o Dā'ūd, often with his son Solomon. In the Quran David killed Goliath (Q2:251), a giant soldier in the Philistine army. When David killed Goliath, God granted him kingship and wisdom and enforced it (Q38:20). David was made God's "vicegerent on earth" (Q38:26) and God further gave David sound judgment (Q21:78 Q37:21–24, Q26) as well as the Psalms, regarded as books of divine wisdom (Q4:163 Q17:55). The birds and mountains united with David in uttering praise to God (Q21:79 Q34:10 Q38:18), while God made iron soft for David (Q34:10), [142] God also instructed David in the art of fashioning chain mail out of iron (Q21:80) [143] this knowledge gave David a major advantage over his bronze and cast iron-armed opponents, not to mention the cultural and economic impact. Together with Solomon, David gave judgment in a case of damage to the fields (Q21:78) and David judged the matter between two disputants in his prayer chamber (Q38:21–23). Since there is no mention in the Quran of the wrong David did to Uriah nor any reference to Bathsheba, Muslims reject this narrative. [144]

Muslim tradition and the hadiz stress David's zeal in daily prayer as well as in fasting. [145] Quran commentators, historians and compilers of the numerous Stories of the Prophets elaborate upon David's concise quranic narratives and specifically mention David's gift in singing his Psalms as well as his beautiful recitation and vocal talents. His voice is described as having had a captivating power, weaving its influence not only over man but over all beasts and nature, who would unite with him to praise God. [146]

Literatura Editar

Literary works about David include:

  • 1517The Davidiad is a neo-Latinepic poem by the Croatiannational poet, Roman Catholic priest, and Renaissance humanistMarko Marulić (whose name is sometimes Latinized as "Marcus Marulus"). In addition to the small portions that attempt to recall the epics of Homer, The Davidiad is heavily modeled upon Virgil's Eneida. This is so much the case that Marulić's contemporaries called him the "Christian Virgil from Split." The philologistMiroslav Marcovich also detects, "the influence of Ovid, Lucan, and Statius" in the work.
  • 1681–82Dryden's long poem Absalom and Achitophel is an allegory that uses the story of the rebellion of Absalom against King David as the basis for his satire of the contemporary political situation, including events such as the Monmouth Rebellion (1685), the Popish Plot (1678) and the Exclusion Crisis.
  • 1893Sir Arthur Conan Doyle may have used the story of David and Bathsheba as a foundation for the Sherlock Holmes story The Adventure of the Crooked Man. Holmes mentions "the small affair of Uriah and Bathsheba" at the end of the story. [147]
  • 1928Elmer Davis's novel Giant Killer retells and embellishes the biblical story of David, casting David as primarily a poet who managed always to find others to do the "dirty work" of heroism and kingship. In the novel, Elhanan in fact killed Goliath but David claimed the credit and Joab, David's cousin and general, took it upon himself to make many of the difficult decisions of war and statecraft when David vacillated or wrote poetry instead.
  • 1936William Faulkner's ¡Absalón, Absalón! refers to the story of Absalom, David's son his rebellion against his father and his death at the hands of David's general, Joab. In addition it parallels Absalom's vengeance for the rape of his sister Tamar by his half-brother, Amnon.
  • 1946Gladys Schmitt's novel David the King was a richly embellished biography of David's entire life. The book took a risk, especially for its time, in portraying David's relationship with Jonathan as overtly homoerotic, but was ultimately panned by critics as a bland rendition of the title character.
  • 1966Juan Bosch, a Dominican political leader and writer, wrote David: Biography of a King, as a realistic portrayal of David's life and political career.
  • 1970Dan Jacobson's The Rape of Tamar is an imagined account, by one of David's courtiers Yonadab, of the rape of Tamar by Amnon.
  • 1972Stefan Heym wrote The King David Report in which the historian Ethan compiles upon King Solomon's orders "a true and authoritative report on the life of David, Son of Jesse"—the East German writer's wry depiction of a court historian writing an "authorized" history, many incidents clearly intended as satirical references to the writer's own time.
  • 1974 In Thomas Burnett Swann's biblical fantasy novel How are the Mighty Fallen, David and Jonathan are explicitly stated to be lovers. Moreover, Jonathan is a member of a winged semi-human race (possibly nephilim), one of several such races coexisting with humanity but often persecuted by it.
  • 1980Malachi Martin's factional novel King of Kings: A Novel of the Life of David relates the life of David, Adonai's champion in his battle with the Philistine deity Dagon.
  • 1984Joseph Heller wrote a novel based on David called God Knows, published by Simon & Schuster. Told from the perspective of an aging David, the humanity—rather than the heroism—of various biblical characters is emphasized. The portrayal of David as a man of flaws such as greed, lust, selfishness, and his alienation from God, the falling apart of his family is a distinctly 20th-century interpretation of the events told in the Bible.
  • 1993Madeleine L'Engle's novel Certain Women explores family, the Christian faith, and the nature of God through the story of King David's family and an analogous modern family's saga.
  • 1995Allan Massie wrote King David, a novel about David's career that portrays the king's relationship to Jonathan as sexual. [148]
  • 2015Geraldine Brooks wrote a novel about King David, The Secret Chord, told from the point of view of the prophet Nathan. [149][150]

Cuadros Editar

  • 1599CaravaggioDavid and Goliath
  • C. 1610Caravaggio David with the Head of Goliath
  • 1616Peter Paul RubensDavid Slaying Goliath
  • C. 1619Caravaggio, David and Goliath

Sculptures Edit

  • 1440?Donatello, David
  • 1473–1475Verrocchio, David
  • 1501–1504Miguel Angel David
  • 1623–1624Gian Lorenzo Bernini, David

Edición de película

David has been depicted several times in films these are some of the best-known:

  • 1951 En David and Bathsheba, directed by Henry King, Gregory Peck played David.
  • 1959 En Solomon and Sheba, directed by King Vidor, Finlay Currie played an aged King David.
  • 1961 En A Story of David, directed by Bob McNaught, Jeff Chandler played David.
  • 1985 En King David, directed by Bruce Beresford, Richard Gere played King David.
  • 1996 En Dave and the Giant Pickle

Televisión Editar

  • 1976The Story of David, a made-for-TV film with Timothy Bottoms and Keith Michell as King David at different ages. [151]
  • 1997David, a TV-film with Nathaniel Parker as King David and Leonard Nimoy as the Prophet Samuel. [152]
  • 1997Max von Sydow portrayed an older King David in the TV-film Solomon, una secuela de David.[153]
  • 2009Christopher Egan played David on Kings, a re-imagining loosely based on the biblical story. [154]
  • King David is the focus of the second episode of History Channel's Battles BC documentary, which detailed all of his military exploits in the bible. [155]
  • 2013Langley Kirkwood portrayed King David in the miniseries The Bible.
  • 2016Of Kings and Prophets in which David is played by Olly Rix

Música Editar

  • The traditional birthday song Las Mañanitas mentions King David as the original singer in its lyrics.
  • 1738George Frideric Handel's oratorio Saul features David as one of its main characters. [156]
  • 1921Arthur Honegger's oratorio Le Roi David with a libretto by René Morax, instantly became a staple of the choral repertoire.
  • 1964Bob Dylan alludes to David in the last line of his song "When The Ship Comes In" ("And like Goliath, they'll be conquered").
  • 1983Bob Dylan refers to David in his song "Jokerman" ("Michelangelo indeed could've carved out your features"). [157]
  • 1984Leonard Cohen's song "Hallelujah" has references to David ("there was a secret chord that David played and it pleased the Lord", "The baffled king composing Hallelujah") and Bathsheba ("you saw her bathing on the roof") in its opening verses.
  • 1990 The song "One of the Broken" by Paddy McAloon, performed by Prefab Sprout on the album Jordan: The Comeback, has a reference to David ("I remember King David, with his harp and his beautiful, beautiful songs, I answered his prayers, and showed him a place where his music belongs").
  • 1991 "Mad About You", a song on Sting's album The Soul Cages, explores David's obsession with Bathsheba from David's perspective. [158]
  • 2000 The song "Gimme a Stone" appears on the Little Feat album Chinese Work Songs chronicles the duel with Goliath and contains a lament to Absalom as a bridge. [159]

Musical theater Edit

Playing cards Edit

For a considerable period, starting in the 15th century and continuing until the 19th, French playing card manufacturers assigned to each of the court cards names taken from history or mythology. In this context, the King of spades was often known as "David". [160] [161]

Rembrandt, c. 1650: Saul and David.

Mural of King David from an 18th-century sukkah (Jewish Museum of Franconia).

Miniature from the Paris Psalter: David in the robes of a Byzantine emperor.

King David playing the harp, ceiling fresco from Monheim Town Hall, home of a wealthy Jewish merchant.

King David, stained glass windows from the Romanesque Augsburg Cathedral, late 11th century.

Study of King David, by Julia Margaret Cameron. Depicts Sir Henry Taylor, 1866.

The Ark is brought to Jerusalem (1896 Bible card illustration by the Providence Lithograph Company)

Arnold Zadikow, 1930: The Young David displayed in the entrance of Berlin's Jewish Museum from 1933 until its loss during the Second World War.


Buick was born in Wellington in 1848. His father, William Buick, had come to Wellington in 1841 on the Arab from England. Buick senior farmed in the Hutt Valley, with Buick junior taking over the farm in 1867. [1] On 5 June 1876, he married Mary Ann (Polly [2] ) Buick (née Hill), daughter of I. M. Hill from Nelson. [3]

In 1881, Buick junior bought land in the Manawatu's Kairanga Block. [1] Living at a time when many New Zealanders were immigrants, Buick was proud of his birth in the colony and referred to it on occasions. [1]

In 1885, he started making submissions to the Road Board over access issues. In 1887, he joined the Road Board and within months, he became its chairman. The Road Board ran into financial difficulties over a court case concerning stormwater run off, and ratepayers thus petitioned for the establishment of the Manawatu Land Drainage Board (MLDB), which was established in 1894. In December 1895, Buick became the MLDB's second chairman and held that position until 1898. [1]

New Zealand Parliament
Años Término Electorate Partido
1908–1909 17th Palmerston Independiente
1909–1911 Changed allegiance to: Reforma
1911–1914 18 Palmerston Reforma
1914–1918 19 Palmerston Reforma

He first stood for Parliament in the 1896 election against the incumbent Frederick Pirani in the Palmerston electorate (since 1938 called the Palmerston North electorate) and came within 50 votes of unseating him (1553 versus 1603 votes for Buick and Pirani, respectively). [1] Pirani, who represented the Liberal Government, fell out with Premier Richard Seddon. In the 1899 election, Pirani contested the Palmerston electorate as an Independent, whilst the Liberal Party put William Wood, who had been Mayor of Palmerston North since 1895, forward as their candidate. Buick, who contested the election as a conservative candidate, came a distant third. [1] [4]

The next election contested by Buick was the 1908 general election. [1] William Wood had won the 1902 and 1905 elections, and Buick representing the opposition stood against the incumbent Liberal. The 1908 general election was held under the Second Ballot Act, contested by three candidates. Buick, Wood and William Milverton received 2675, 2626 and 123 votes, respectively. As Buick did not receive an absolute majority, a second ballot was required. [5] Buick won the second ballot with a majority of 93 votes (2811 versus 2718 votes for Buick and Wood, respectively). [1]

In 1909, the opposition started calling itself the Reform Party, and Buick contested the 1911 election under that banner. The Liberal Party put Robert McNab forward. Milverton contested the electorate again, and William Thomson was the fourth candidate. Buick won just over half the votes (3374 of 6732 votes cast, with 3367 votes required to achieve an absolute majority) and a second ballot was thus not required. [1]

The 1914 election was again contested by four candidates. Buick stood again for the Reform Party. Jim Thorn represented the Social Democratic Party. [6] Hugh Crabb was the official candidate for the Liberal Party and the Mayor of Palmerston North, Jimmy Nash, was also a member of the Reform Party. Buick, Thorn, Crabb and Nash received 2739, 1686, 1476 and 1077 votes, respectively. [7] [8] He represented the electorate until his death. [9]

His political interests centred on farming issues. Buick had a conservative outlook, but rejected that label. During the war, he was a stern critic of conscientious objectors. [1]

Buick was a successful breeder of Romney Marsh sheep. [10] Buick bred race horses and they won several high-profile races, which certainly helped his political career. [1] [11] He played a fundamental role in establishing the freezing works in Longburn. [1] [12] For some time, he was the president of the Manawatu Caledonian Society. [10]

Buick's wife died on 1 August 1917. [13] Buick had a serious case of influenza in April 1918. [14] He died in Wellington on 18 November 1918 during the height of the influenza epidemic of 1918. A fellow MP, Alfred Hindmarsh, had died of influenza only five days before him. After Buick's death, the Prime Minister, William Massey, adjourned the House of Representatives as 18 other members were also ill. [15] Buick was buried in Palmerston North [12] at the Terrace End Cemetery, [16] survived by his six children. [17] His parents, William Buick (d. 1880) and Agnes Buick (d. 1897), are buried in the same family plot as David Buick and his wife. [2] [18] [19]


Why Buick is becoming the Cadillac of GM - not Cadillac

This article was published more than 6 years ago. Some information in it may no longer be current.

Somewhere in this universe or beyond, the Scottish inventor of the pushrod engine and founder of Buick Motor Co., David Dunbar Buick, is having the last laugh at the expense of the remnants of the old Henry Ford company, which eventually became General Motor's Cadillac brand.

Buick is becoming the premium brand GM has dreamed of for Cadillac since … forever. Buick has done this quietly, without hype or empty promises. Last year, Buick delivered nearly 1.2 million vehicles in China, the United States, Canada and Mexico, a second straight sales record. Buick's luscious Avenir concept unveiled at this year's Detroit auto show was a hit and will eventually become a production car. And Buick vehicles are dependable and reliable – having finished second only to Toyota's Lexus brand in the latest J.D. Power vehicle dependability study (VDS), and seventh overall on the latest Consumer Reports brand report card. Buick is first among the Detroit-based brands, ahead of Honda and BMW, and CR recommends 83 per cent of Buick's lineup.

Cadillac? GM's brand of endless art and science promises and the poaching of yet another Cadillac head – Johan de Nysschen from Nissan's own luxurious disappointment, Infiniti – keeps stumbling. The latest Cadillac saga includes the pricey headquarters move to New York. This comes after the overhyped tales of the launch in China, the failed distribution deals in Europe and the countless billions spent on a never-ending reinvention and promised renaissance.

Caddy did finish fourth in the VDS, just behind Toyota and ahead of Porsche, Mercedes and others. And later this year, Caddy will launch a new flagship sedan, the CT6. We saw a glimpse of the new CT6 in a commercial during the Oscars and de Nysschen has since hyped, in an online Q and A, a new twin-turbo V-8 for the CT6. Car and Driver reports de Nysschen also "laid bare plans for a new family of V-6 engines" for the car.

So Cadillac is not on cruise control. De Nysschen has rolled out a $12-billion (U.S.), multiyear capital-expansion plan. We'll see new Caddy platforms, powertrains, various technologies and perhaps even designs as good as the Avenir. De Nysschen has the backing of GM chief executive officer Mary Barra, who in a Reuters report said, "We have a lot of work ahead of us with Cadillac."

Cadillac's long-stated strategy has been to give BMW, Mercedes and Audi owners a Detroit-based alternative. "The problem is Cadillac is not BMW," said Larry Dominique, president of ALG in Santa Monica, Calif., in a Reuters report, adding, "The ATS [compact] is the product that Cadillac could have used to build brand equity, but it was overpriced and overproduced."

Ay. The truth hurts. And thus, as Forbes points out, Caddy's sales momentum began flagging toward the end of fiscal 2013 and deliveries have continued to fall ever since. Sales in the key U.S. market were down 6.5 per cent last year and this year, while the big and profitable Escalade SUV is sizzling, GM is offering fat discounts to move ATS and CTS sedans, considered by Caddy as rivals for BMW's 3- and 5-Series, respectively. In Cadillac's dreams.

At least GM has Buick. In all the important markets last year, Buick's sales were up double digits, including 31 per cent in Canada. The future is even brighter. ¿Por qué? With due respect to David Buick, the GM people running Buick stopped living in the past five years ago when they turned to reinventing what was then a stark Buick reality coming out of GM's bankruptcy.

The Verano compact premium launched in 2011 is a winner and the Encore small crossover landed in 2013, just when young urban types began seriously looking for it or something like it. Instead of trying to be and to beat the Germans, Buick filled gaps in the marketplace to answer the needs of emerging car buyers before those consumers even asked.

"You could really argue that Buick is a white-space brand,"

AutoPacific Inc. analyst Dave Sullivan told Automotive News.

This is a great story. Let's hope GM leaves Buick alone to be unusually innovative. And keep praying for a Cadillac revival.

Here are the number of total vehicles sold in Canada by each brand. (Mouse over the bars on the graph to see the exact figures)


Carradine's Best-Known Roles: "Kung Fu" and "Kill Bill"

Carradine was perhaps best known for his role as Caine, a Chinese martial-arts master wandering the American West in the 1970s television series "Kung Fu." Though he had starred in more than 100 films, his career was most recently revived in Quentin Tarantino's "Kill Bill" (2003) and "Kill Bill II" (2004) in which he played a steely assassin.

The actor spoke openly about his earlier abuse of drugs and alcohol but had reportedly remained sober for several years. Friends and family said he had no history of depression.

"I didn't get into drinking till I was in my 40s, and by that time I had stepped away from the rest of drugs," he told the Irish Times in 2004.

"There was only a period of a few years when I was drinking too much. I had a friend who was a mentor, and he suddenly said, 'I've never seen you abuse a substance before.' I said, 'Am I doing that now?' And I was. That was spring of 1996. I like to think that I stopped drinking on St. Patrick's Day, but it was actually a month later," he told the paper.

Of primarily Irish ancestry, Carradine's ambiguous features landed him a lifetime of roles playing a range of ethnicities, although he was often cast as Chinese.

He most recently starred as Poon Dong, a Chinese mobster, in the action film "Crank: High Voltage."


David Buick dies - HISTORY

LONDON, Sunday, May 28--The Duke of Windsor, who gave up the British throne in 1936 to marry an American divorcee, died in his home near Paris early today, a Buckingham Palace spokesman announced here. The Duke was 77 years old.

A statement from Buckingham Place, the official residence of Queen Elizabeth, the Duke&aposs niece said:

"It is announced with deep regret that his Royal Highness, the Duke of Windsor, has died at his home in Paris at 2:25 A.M., Sunday, May 28, 1972.

"A further announcement from the Palace will be made later about the funeral arrangements."

The death announcement reached New York shortly after 1:10 A.M. Eastern daylight time.

The Duke, who reigned for 10 months as King Edward VIII before abdicating, had been ill for some time.

The Duke defied the British Establishment to marry Mrs. Bessie Wallis Warfield Simpson, a twice-divorced American.

The couple lived in virtual self-exile from Britain since the abdication.

Queen Elizabeth visited her ailing uncle at his Paris home during her state visit to France earlier this month. The Duke, who would have been 78 on June 23, was too ill to leave the first-floor sitting room of the house overlooking the Bois de Boulogne.

The Duke underwent a hernia operation earlier this year.

One of his personal physicians, Dr. Arthur Antenucci, of the Roosevelt Hospital in New York City, flew to Paris to see him two days ago.

In Paris, a spokesman for the Duke said: "He died peacefully."

Asked what had been the cause of death, the spokesman--the Duke&aposs longtime secretary, John Utter--said: "Just natural causes."

Two weeks before the Queen, Prince Phillip and the Prince of Wales made their teatime call on the Duke and Duchess at their home near Longchamp Racecourse during the royal visit to France this month, the Duke was reported to be "in need of a long rest."

After the 40-minute royal visit, the Duke was said to be in good spirits. Later the Duke&aposs secretary said he was being treated at home for an illness, but its nature and his treatment were not disclosed.

"But you must believe me when I tell you that I have found it impossible to carry the heavy burden of responsibility and to discharge my duties as King, as I would wish to do, without the help and support of the woman I love."

With these words, delivered with sadness over the radio on Dec. 11, 1936, to his subjects in Britain, Edward VIII, later the Duke of Windsor, became the first monarch in British history to voluntarily abdicate his throne, which he did 11 months after assuming it.

A popular king, Edward VIII touched off a sensation at home and abroad with the announcement that he intended to leave the throne to marry Mrs. Bessie Wallis Warfield Simpson, an American who had been twice divorced.

Edward had been determined to marry Mrs. Simpson, although Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin had tried to dissuade him, on the ground that the King, as head of the Church of England, would be violating the church&aposs doctrines against divorce.

In the absence of legislation that would permit the marriage, King Edward chose to abdicate. He was succeeded by his brother, the Duke of York, who became King George VI. The new King made his predecessor the Duke of Windsor.

"I now quit altogether public affairs, and I lay down my burden," Edward said in his broadcast the day after the act of abdication had been signed. Then, on Dec. 12, at 2 A.M., he left England. He married Mrs. Simpson six months later in France.

He remained in virtual exile from Britain ever since, estranged from the royal family until recently. It was not until 1965 that Queen Elizabeth II met the Duchess of Windsor at the bedside of the Duke while he was in London for eye operations.

Two years later, the Duke and Duchess were formally received by the Queen at a memorial ceremony for Edward&aposs mother, Queen Mary. Last May 18, Queen Elizabeth visited her ailing uncle at his Paris home.

After the abdication, the Duke and Duchess attracted wide publicity as they traveled about. They often attended charity balls and other events in New York, where they stayed at the Waldorf- Astoria.

The Duke performed some official duties in World War II, when he was appointed governor and commander in chief of the Bahamas.

Much of the time in recent years was spent at their home in the Bois du Boulogne on the edge of Paris, where the Duke enjoyed gardening and occasionally received visitors, including Emperor Hirohito of Japan on his world tour last year.

Edward was born on June 23, 1894, in the 57th year of the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria. His mother was the former Princess Victoria Mary of Teck, later to be Queen Mary, and his father was the Duke of York, later to become King George V.

He was christened Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David of the House of Saxe- Coburg-Gotha. In 1917, George V renounced the German name and proclaimed it the House of Windsor.

Edward--whom the royal family referred to by his last given name, David--spent much of his childhood at Sandringham in Norfolk, in a household where his father insisted on stern discipline. "I have often thought," the Duke later wrote, "that my father liked children only in the abstract."

In 1907, Edward entered the Royal Naval College at Osborne on the Isle of Wight, where the discipline was rigorous. With the death of his grandfather, Edward VII, in 1910, and the ascension of George V, Edward became heir apparent and was sent to Magdalen College at Oxford for a broader education.

Edward did not excel in academics, but he enjoyed college life, engaging in such extracurricular pursuits as dancing and playing the banjo.

When World War I began, he was transferred to the Grenadier Guards. As a result of his own persistence he was eventually sent to France, where he served on the staff of the commander of the British Expeditionary Force. He was never permitted on the front lines for long, but was under fire several times.

After the war, the Prince of Wales took a series of royal tours around the world that attracted great attention. He was accorded a particularly thunderous welcome in New York in 1919, and newspapers carried headlines stressing his eligibility as a bachelor.

The Prince&aposs genuine friendliness, which allowed him to mingle with people, combined with a somewhat shy, almost wistful manner, convinced those who saw him that he would be a popular king.

In 1930 the Prince met Mrs. Ernest Simpson, wife of an American maritime broker. Mrs. Simpson&aposs first marriage, to E. Winfield Spencer, had ended in divorce.

"In character," the Duke later wrote in his memoirs, "Wallis was, and still remains, complex and elusive, and from the first I looked upon her as the most independent woman I had ever met. This refreshing trait I was inclined to put down as one of the happier outcomes of the events of 1776."

About the time that the Prince of Wales decided that he wanted to marry Mrs. Simpson, his father, George V, died, on Jan. 20, 1936. Two days later, Edward VIII was proclaimed King. In his 11 months on the throne, Edward made it clear through his personal style that his would be an unorthodox approach to the monarchy.

But as it became clear that a marriage to Mrs. Simpson, who had received a preliminary divorce decree that October, could not be accommodated with his own position, Edward VIII decided to abdicate before his coronation. The marriage took place June 3, 1937, at the Chateau de Cande at Monts, near Tours, France.

"I did not value the crown so lightly that I gave it away hastily," he later explained. "I valued it so deeply that I surrendered it, rather than risk any impairment of its prestige."


David Buick dies - HISTORY

July 1, 2003, by Bill Cawthon

A number of auto companies have been celebrating their centennials recently. Probably the most publicity has been focused on Ford Motor Company's one-hundredth birthday, but another company, arguably as crucial to the development of the modern American auto industry, also hit the century mark.

Buick turned one hundred on May 19, 2003. If my claim for Buick's importance surprises you, consider this: Buick was the company upon which the world's largest auto company, General Motors, was built. Buick gave GM founder Billy Durant the credibility and leverage to acquire Oakland (the predecessor of Pontiac) and the cash to buy Cadillac.

David Dunbar Buick. Illustration produced from a photo in the General Motors' archives. Copyright 2003 General Motors and Wieck Media Services.

Recent Buick ads have featured the ghost of GM stylist Harley Earl. But the real ghosts in Buick's past are far more interesting. They are also more tragic: both of the men most responsible for the creation of Buick died in poverty and obscurity. I wrote about Billy Durant a while back this time, I want to introduce you to David Buick.

David Dunbar Buick was born at 26 Green Street in Arbroath, Scotland, on September 17, 1854. His father, Alexander Buick, was a joiner and brought his family to the United States when David was two years old. The Buicks settled in Detroit, Michigan, which was a busy lumber town at the time. David's father died three years later and his mother went to work for a candy butcher to support the family.

Buick was fifteen when he got a job with the Alexander Manufacturing Company, a plumbing fixture manufacturer. When the business failed in 1882, Buick and William Sherwood, an old friend from Buick's school days, took it over and renamed it Buick & Sherwood. Buick became president of the new enterprise.

Within a few years, Buick & Sherwood was prospering. Buick, an inveterate tinker, developed a number of improvements to the company's products, but his most lasting contribution to the plumbing industry was the invention of a method of bonding porcelain enamel to cast iron bathroom fixtures. This was a huge improvement and one that is still in use today.

Had Buick stayed with his plumbing company, it's quite possible he would have been a very wealthy man. But, like so many tinkers and inventors of the time, he was captivated by the new internal combustion engine and the automobile.

David Buick was temperamental by nature and had poor business skills. His newfound obsession with engines was the final straw for an already strained partnership. His old friend and partner finally laid down the law, telling Buick to either get on with their real business or get out of it. Buick chose the latter alternative and sold the company for $100,000, a large sum of money at that time.

The first Buick built in Flint. One assumes the coachwork would come later. Detail from a photo in the General Motors' archives. Copyright 2003 General Motors and Wieck Media Services.

Buick used his share of the proceeds to open the Buick Auto-Vim and Power Company in 1899. The company was formed to manufacture gasoline engines for agricultural and stationary use, but it wasn't long before Buick became interested in building an automobile. Ahead lay the road to ruin for David Dunbar Buick.

Little is known about the first Buick car, including who actually built it. When he began Buick Auto-Vim and Power, Buick had hired a talented machinist named Walter Lorenzo Marr. Either Buick or Marr built the car, but there is no doubt about who owned it. Buick had already burned through his original investment and, strapped for cash, he sold the car to Marr for $225.

In 1902, Buick organized the Buick Manufacturing Company to make engines for other automakers and produce Buick automobiles. Buick and Marr developed the powerful and efficient "Valve-In-Head" engine for which the company became famous. By the end of the year, the company had produced one car and was again in dire financial straits. Buick produced great products, but the company always spent too much on development.

A 1905 Model C, one of the last Buicks produced while David Buick was with the company. A year later, he severed all ties with Buick Motor Company. Illustration from a photo in the General Motors' archives. Copyright 2003 General Motors and Wieck Media Services.

The following year, Buick borrowed $5,000 from Benjamin and Frank Briscoe, successful manufacturers and early auto industry promoters, and formed Buick Motor Company. This was the company that turned 100 a month and a half ago. The company was capitalized with a stock value of $100,000, of which Buick got $300. Since all Briscoe wanted was his money repaid, he made a deal with Buick offering him all the stock if he could repay the original loan within four months. If not, Buick would lose all his interest in the company.

There are differing accounts of what happened next. Some say David Buick sold the company to get the cash to repay Briscoe others say that Briscoe arranged the deal, hoping to get his money back. In any event, Buick Motor Company was sold to James Whiting of the Flint Wagon Works in Flint, Michigan and everything was moved the 115 miles from Detroit to Flint. A year later, Buick managed to build a second car, but by then Whiting was also worried about his investment and was looking for a buyer.

In 1904, Buick managed to turn out 37 Model B automobiles. Whiting gave one to William Crapo Durant, a very successful businessman and owner of Durant-Dort, the country's largest carriage maker. While Durant had no interest in cars, he drove the Buick for a couple of months and discovered that it would climb hills and drive through mud better than any other car on the market. On November 1, 1904, Durant reorganized the company and became general manager of Buick.

Although David Buick was still president, Durant was now the driving force. Durant was a classic Type A personality and wanted to see volume sales of mass-produced vehicles. Buick, on the other hand, regarded every car as a work of art. The two clashed, but in the end, it was no contest. Durant had every investor on his side. In 1906, 52-year-old David Buick left the company he had created and moved his family back to Detroit. Two years later, he sold his stock in Buick to Durant for $100,000. This was one of Buick's worst business decisions. In 1921 Benjamin Briscoe said that if Buick would have held on to his stock, it would have already been worth $10 million. It's estimated Buick's stock would today be valued at well over $100 million.

Back in Detroit, David Buick's luck didn't change. A General Motors press release about the Buick centennial claims that he prospered for a number of years, but other sources tell of a series of bad investments that wiped out his settlement from Durant. He did make one more attempt to get into the auto industry after the First World War, hoping to manufacture a patented carburetor he had developed. He even designed another car and built a prototype in 1923. However, nothing ever came of these ventures and Buick faded from the automotive scene.

In the last years of his life, Buick held a series of low-paying jobs. At the end, he was an inspector at the Detroit School of Trades. Far from being able to afford one of the cars that bore his name, Buick was impoverished and couldn't even afford a telephone. But he was not bitter. In 1928, he was interviewed by Bruce Catton, a young newspaper reporter who went on to become a Pulitzer Prize-winning historian. In their talk, Buick was very candid about his life, expressing no regrets and holding no enmity towards Durant. Of course, by that time, in one of automotive history's great ironies, Durant had also been forced out of the company he had formed, though his ultimate downfall was still a couple of years in the future.

Even thought it's now highly stylized, the Buick family crest is still the symbol of the Buick line of cars. Illustration from materials in the General Motors' archives. Copyright 2003 General Motors and Wieck Media Services. Buick and the Buick logo are registered trademarks of General Motors Corporation.

Less than a year later, on March 5, 1929, David Dunbar Buick died of complications of colon cancer in Harper Hospital in Detroit. He was 74 years old.

In that same year, General Motors produced 196,104 Buicks, making it the sixth most-popular car line in the United States. Eight years later, General Motors adopted the Buick family crest as the logo for the car line.

The house in which David Buick was born is gone torn down to make way for public housing. In 1994, General Motors placed a plaque on Green Street, commemorating the birthplace of Arbroath's most famous son. There has also been talk of renaming a nearby highway for Buick.

Next time you see the "ghost" of Harley Earl talking about designing you a great car, think about the real ghost behind the name, David Dunbar Buick, who believed each car was a work of art.

Bill Cawthon is an award-winning modeller and collector. His primary modeling interests are model railroading and vehicle models in 1:87 and 1:160 scales. He has written numerous articles for regional and division NMRA publications and is a contributor to the newsletter of the 1-87 Vehicle Club. He follows both the automobile industry and the European scale vehicle industry.

In real life, Bill is a full-time marketing and public relations consultant for the high-tech industry. He lives in Houston, Texas with his wife and four children.

Bill writes bi-weekly for Promotex Online. To learn more about him, click here.


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