Batalla de Granson, 2 de marzo de 1476

Batalla de Granson, 2 de marzo de 1476

Batalla de Granson, 2 de marzo de 1476

Victoria suiza sobre las fuerzas invasoras de Charles the Rash, duque de Borgoña. Carlos había reunido un ejército multinacional, con componentes de la propia Borgoña, Alemania, Italia, Flandes e Inglaterra. Los suizos le dieron a Charles la ventaja táctica ese día y, sin embargo, ganaron la batalla. La vanguardia suiza se había adelantado mucho al ejército principal y se encontró solo con Charles. Después de que dos ataques de caballería sobre ellos fracasaron, Charles ordenó a su infantería que flanqueara a los suizos, con el nieto de la línea retrocediendo, mientras que las alas golpeaban al suizo por un lado. En este punto, apareció la mayor parte del ejército suizo. Las alas de Borgoña vieron la retirada del centro de Borgoña y la llegada de refuerzos suizos, y huyeron rápidamente del campo de batalla, antes de que las nuevas tropas suizas llegaran a la batalla. Carlos perdió su artillería y el contenido de su campamento a manos de los suizos, pero debido a la naturaleza rápida del colapso de su ejército sufrió pocas bajas.

Cronología de la historia militar desde 1401 hasta 1600

La historia militar de los años 1400 y 1500 estuvo llena de batallas en la Guerra de los Cien Años entre Francia e Inglaterra y estuvo marcada por la vida y la muerte de Juana de Arco. Esta parte de la historia vio la caída del Imperio Bizantino, el resultado final de las Guerras Inglesas de las Rosas, la Guerra de los Ochenta Años, la Guerra de los Treinta Años y la Guerra de los Nueve Años, entre muchos otros conflictos sangrientos.


Hoy en la historia - 2 de marzo

537 - Asedio de Roma: El ejército ostrogodos bajo el mando del rey Vitiges comienza el asedio de la capital. Belisarius lleva a cabo una acción dilatoria fuera de la Puerta Flaminiana, él y un destacamento de sus Bucellarii están casi aislados.

986 - Luis V se convierte en rey de los francos.

1121 - Dirk VI se convierte en el Conde de Holanda.

1127 - Asesinato de Carlos el Bueno, conde de Flandes.

1444 - Skanderbeg organiza un grupo de nobles albaneses para formar la Liga de Lezhë.

1458 - Jorge de Poděbrady es elegido rey de Bohemia.

1476 - Guerras de Borgoña: La Antigua Confederación Suiza entrega a Carlos el Temerario, duque de Borgoña, una gran derrota en la Batalla de Nieto en el Cantón de Neuchâtel.

1484 - El Colegio de Armas se incorpora formalmente mediante la Carta Real firmada por el Rey Ricardo III de Inglaterra.

1498 - La flota de Vasco da Gama visita la isla de Mozambique.

1561 - Mendoza, Argentina es fundada por el conquistador español Pedro del Castillo.

1657 - Gran Incendio de Meireki: Un incendio en Edo (ahora Tokio), Japón, causó más de 100,000 muertes que duró tres días.

1717 - The Loves of Mars and Venus es el primer ballet realizado en Inglaterra.

1776 - Guerra Revolucionaria Estadounidense: Unidades de la milicia patriota arrestan al Gobernador Real de Georgia James Wright e intentan evitar la captura de barcos de suministro en la Batalla de los Barcos de Arroz.

1791 - La comunicación a larga distancia se acelera con la presentación de una máquina de semáforo en París.

1797 - El Banco de Inglaterra emite los primeros billetes de una libra y dos libras.

1807 - El Congreso de los Estados Unidos aprueba la Ley que prohíbe la importación de esclavos, que prohíbe la importación de nuevos esclavos al país.

1808 - Se celebra en Edimburgo la reunión inaugural de la Wernerian Natural History Society, una antigua sociedad científica escocesa.

1811 - Guerra de Independencia Argentina: Una flota realista derrota a una pequeña flotilla de barcos revolucionarios en la Batalla de San Nicolás en el Río de la Plata.

1815 - Firma del tratado de la Convención de Kandy por los invasores británicos y los líderes del Reino de Kandy.

1825 - Roberto Cofresí, uno de los últimos piratas caribeños exitosos, es derrotado en combate y capturado por las autoridades.

1836 - Revolución de Texas: Declaración de independencia de la República de Texas de México.

1855 - Alejandro II se convierte en zar de Rusia.

1865 - Guerra del Cabo Oriental: El incidente de Völkner en Nueva Zelanda.

1867 - El Congreso de los Estados Unidos aprueba la primera Ley de Reconstrucción.

1877 - Elecciones presidenciales de EE. UU., 1876: solo dos días antes de la inauguración, el Congreso de los EE. UU. Declara a Rutherford B. Hayes ganador de las elecciones a pesar de que Samuel J. Tilden había ganado el voto popular el 7 de noviembre de 1876.

1882 - La reina Victoria escapa por poco de un intento de asesinato de Roderick McLean en Windsor.

1885 - Guerra Sino-Francesa: Victoria francesa en la Batalla de Hòa Mộc cerca de Tuyên Quang, en el norte de Vietnam.

1901 - Se funda United States Steel Corporation como resultado de la fusión entre Carnegie Steel Company y Federal Steel Company, que se convirtió en la primera corporación del mundo con un capital de mercado de más de mil millones de dólares.

1901 - El Congreso de los Estados Unidos aprueba la Enmienda Platt que limita la autonomía de Cuba, como condición para la retirada de las tropas estadounidenses.

1903 - En la ciudad de Nueva York se abre el Martha Washington Hotel, convirtiéndose en el primer hotel exclusivo para mujeres.

1917 - La promulgación de la Ley Jones – Shafroth otorga a los puertorriqueños la ciudadanía estadounidense.

1919 - La primera Internacional Comunista se reúne en Moscú.

1933 - La película King Kong se estrena en el Radio City Music Hall de Nueva York.

1937 - El Comité Organizador de Trabajadores del Acero firma un convenio colectivo con U.S. Steel, que lleva a la sindicalización de la industria siderúrgica de los Estados Unidos.

1939 - El cardenal Eugenio Pacelli es elegido Papa y toma el nombre de Pío XII.

1941 - Segunda Guerra Mundial: las primeras unidades militares alemanas entran en Bulgaria después de que se une al Pacto del Eje.

1943 - Segunda Guerra Mundial: Batalla del Mar de Bismarck: las fuerzas de Estados Unidos y Australia hunden barcos convoyes japoneses.

1949 - El capitán James Gallagher aterriza su B-50 Superfortress Lucky Lady II en Fort Worth, Texas, después de completar el primer vuelo sin escalas alrededor del mundo en 94 horas y un minuto.

1949 - Se instala la primera farola automática en New Milford, Connecticut.

1955 - Norodom Sihanouk, rey de Camboya, abdica del trono en favor de su padre, Norodom Suramarit.

1956 - Marruecos obtiene su independencia de Francia.

1962 - En Birmania, el ejército dirigido por el general Ne Win toma el poder en un golpe de estado.

1962 - Wilt Chamberlain establece el récord de anotaciones de un solo juego en la Asociación Nacional de Baloncesto al anotar 100 puntos.

1965 - La Fuerza Aérea de Estados Unidos y Vietnam del Sur comienzan la Operación Rolling Thunder, una campaña de bombardeos sostenida contra Vietnam del Norte.

1969 - En Toulouse, Francia, se realiza el primer vuelo de prueba del Concorde anglo-francés.

1969 - Las fuerzas soviéticas y chinas se enfrentan en un puesto fronterizo en el río Ussuri.

1970 - Rhodesia se declara república, rompiendo sus últimos vínculos con la corona británica.

1972 - Se lanza la sonda espacial Pioneer 10 desde Cabo Cañaveral, Florida, con la misión de explorar los planetas exteriores.

1977 - Libia se convierte en la Jamahiriya Árabe Libia Popular Socialista cuando el Congreso General del Pueblo adoptó la "Declaración del Establecimiento de la Autoridad del Pueblo".

1978 - El checo Vladimír Remek se convierte en el primer no ruso o no estadounidense en ir al espacio, cuando es lanzado a bordo del Soyuz 28.

1983 - Se lanzan discos compactos y reproductores por primera vez en los Estados Unidos y otros mercados. Anteriormente solo estaban disponibles en Japón.

1989 - Doce países de la Comunidad Europea acuerdan prohibir la producción de todos los clorofluorocarbonos (CFC) para finales de siglo.

1990 - Nelson Mandela es elegido vicepresidente del Congreso Nacional Africano.

1991 - La batalla en el campo petrolero de Rumaila pone fin a la Guerra del Golfo de 1991.

1992 - Se incorporan a las Naciones Unidas Armenia, Azerbaiyán, Kazajstán, Kirguistán, Moldavia, San Marino, Tayikistán, Turkmenistán y Uzbekistán.

1995 - Investigadores de Fermilab anuncian el descubrimiento del quark top.

1998 - Los datos enviados desde la nave espacial Galileo indican que Europa, la luna de Júpiter, tiene un océano líquido bajo una gruesa corteza de hielo.

2002 - Invasión estadounidense de Afganistán: comienza la Operación Anaconda (que finaliza el 19 de marzo después de matar a 500 combatientes talibanes y de al-Qaeda, con 11 muertos de soldados occidentales).

2004 - Guerra en Irak: Al-Qaeda lleva a cabo la Masacre de Ashoura en Irak, matando a 170 e hiriendo a más de 500.

2012 - Se produjo un brote de tornado en una gran parte del sur de los Estados Unidos y en la región del Valle de Ohio, lo que resultó en 40 muertes relacionadas con tornados.


Comienza la Guerra de las Rosas

En la batalla inaugural de Inglaterra y la Guerra de las Rosas, los yorkistas derrotan al rey Enrique VI y las fuerzas de Lancaster en St. Albans, a 32 kilómetros al noroeste de Londres. Muchos nobles de Lancaster perecieron, incluido Edmund Beaufort, duque de Somerset, y el rey se vio obligado a someterse al gobierno de su primo, Ricardo de York. La lucha dinástica entre la Casa de York, cuya insignia era una rosa blanca, y la Casa de Lancaster, luego asociada con una rosa roja, se prolongaría durante 30 años.

Ambas familias, estrechamente relacionadas, reclamaron el trono descendiendo de los hijos de Eduardo III, el rey de Inglaterra de 1327 a 1377. El primer rey de Lancaster fue Enrique IV en 1399, y la rebelión y la anarquía abundan durante su reinado. Su hijo, Enrique V, tuvo más éxito y obtuvo importantes victorias en la Guerra de los Cien Años contra Francia. Su hijo y sucesor, Enrique VI, tenía pocas cualidades reales y perdió la mayor parte de la tierra francesa que su padre había conquistado. En casa, prevaleció el caos y los señores con ejércitos privados desafiaron la autoridad de Enrique VI. A veces, su ambiciosa reina, Margarita de Anjou, controlaba efectivamente la corona.

En 1453, Enrique cayó en la locura y en 1454 el Parlamento nombró a Ricardo, duque de York, protector del reino. Los abuelos de Henry y York & # x2019s fueron el cuarto y tercer hijo de Eduardo III, respectivamente. Cuando Henry se recuperó a fines de 1454, despidió a York y restauró la autoridad de Margaret, quien vio a York como una amenaza para la sucesión de su hijo, el Príncipe Eduardo. York reunió un ejército de 3.000 hombres y en mayo los yorkistas marcharon a Londres. El 22 de mayo de 1455, York se encontró con las fuerzas de Henry & # x2019 en St. Albans mientras se encontraba en la carretera norte hacia la capital. El sangriento encuentro duró menos de una hora y los yorkistas triunfaron. El duque de Somerset, gran aliado de Margaret & # x2019, fue asesinado y Henry fue capturado por los yorkistas.

Después de la batalla, Richard nuevamente fue nombrado protector inglés, pero en 1456 Margaret recuperó la ventaja. Una paz incómoda se rompió en 1459, y en 1460 los Lancasterianos fueron derrotados, y se le concedió a York el derecho de ascender al trono tras la muerte de Henry. Los lancasterianos luego reunieron fuerzas en el norte de Inglaterra y en diciembre de 1460 sorprendieron y mataron a York fuera de su castillo cerca de Wakefield.

El hijo de York & # x2019s Edward llegó a Londres antes que Margaret y fue proclamado rey Eduardo IV. En marzo de 1461, Edward obtuvo una victoria decisiva contra los Lancaster en la Batalla de Towton, la más sangrienta de la guerra. Henry, Margaret y su hijo huyeron a Escocia y terminó la primera fase de la guerra.

La rivalidad yorkista conduciría más tarde al derrocamiento de Edward en 1470 y la restauración de Enrique VI. Al año siguiente, Edward regresó del exilio en los Países Bajos, derrotó a las fuerzas de Margaret & # x2019, mató a su hijo y encarceló a Henry en la Torre de Londres, donde fue asesinado. Eduardo IV gobernó ininterrumpidamente hasta su muerte en 1483. Su hijo mayor fue proclamado Eduardo V, pero Eduardo IV y su hermano Ricardo III, se apoderaron de la corona y encarcelaron a Eduardo y a su hermano menor en la Torre de Londres, donde probablemente desaparecieron. asesinado. En 1485, Ricardo III fue derrotado y asesinado por los lancasterianos liderados por Henry Tudor en la batalla de Bosworth Field.

Enrique Tudor fue proclamado rey Enrique VII, el primer rey Tudor. Enrique era nieto de Catalina de Valois, viuda de Enrique V y Owen Tudor. En 1486, se casó con la hija de Eduardo IV, Isabel de York, uniendo así las afirmaciones de Yorkista y Lancaster. Se considera que este evento marca el final de la Guerra de las Rosas, aunque algunos yorkistas apoyaron en 1487 una rebelión fallida contra Henry, dirigida por Lambert Simnel. La Guerra de las Rosas dejó poca huella en la gente común inglesa, pero debilitó severamente las filas de la nobleza inglesa.


Reformas administrativas

Mientras tanto, Charles había estado reorganizando su ejército y la administración de sus territorios. Los estatutos promulgados en Thionville (1473) instituyeron compañías de cuatro escuadrones, a sus expensas, y establecieron reglas para la disciplina y la táctica. Charles también tenía muchas armas excelentes. Contrató soldados y tomó a su servicio a muchos condottieri italianos (capitanes mercenarios). Con la intención de centralizar el gobierno, creó por ley un único chambre des comptes para controlar las finanzas ducales de los Países Bajos, un chambre du trésor para inspeccionar la administración de su propio dominio, y un chambre des genéraux para controlar la recaudación de impuestos. De hecho, cobró impuestos muy altos de los Estados Generales (parlamento), que se convirtió en una institución regular en sus territorios. Para administrar justicia, estableció un tribunal llamado gran conseil en Malinas, con jurisdicción para reemplazar a la del parlamento de París, y otro que se reunía alternativamente en Beaune y en Dole.

A Carlos le correspondía adquirir un título real. Durante un corto tiempo se entretuvo en designar la corona del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico, pero a esto renunció. Por otro lado, creía que había persuadido al emperador Federico III, en el curso de las conversaciones en Tréveris, para que aceptara coronarlo rey de Borgoña. Las insignias reales estaban listas y la ceremonia arreglada, cuando Federico huyó precipitadamente por la noche (septiembre de 1473). Probablemente sospechaba del ambicioso Charles.

En menos de tres años, el sueño de Charles se desvaneció. La corona se le había escapado de los dedos. Se vio obligado a renunciar a su plan de tomar la pequeña ciudad de Neuss, que había sitiado sin éxito durante 11 meses (julio de 1474 a junio de 1475), a los ciudadanos de Colonia. Además, el Tratado de Picquigny (29 de agosto de 1475), celebrado por Eduardo IV y Luis XI, aseguró la deserción de su aliado inglés. Atacado por René de Lorena, que había firmado un acuerdo con Luis XI (agosto de 1474), y por una coalición de los suizos, Segismundo de Austria y las ciudades del Alto Rin, Carlos tomó Nancy en noviembre de 1475, pero en marzo y junio. 1476, fue derrotado por los suizos, en Granson y en Morat. En octubre perdió a Nancy. Luego, el 5 de enero de 1477, se libró una nueva batalla en las afueras de Nancy, y el propio Charles fue asesinado, su cuerpo mutilado fue descubierto unos días después.

La fragilidad de su logro se demuestra por los serios desafíos que tuvo durante la minoría de María de Borgoña, su hija de Isabel de Borbón. Sin embargo, Carlos el Temerario no fue simplemente un representante tardío del espíritu caballeresco, era un hombre de amplios conocimientos y cultura, ya un príncipe del Renacimiento. Su prisa, su falta de adaptabilidad y su obstinación lo perdieron mucho más que su enfoque visionario y su audacia.


El rey Macbeth es asesinado por Malcolm Canmore

En la batalla de Lumphanan, el rey Macbeth de Escocia es asesinado por Malcolm Canmore, cuyo padre, el rey Duncan I, fue asesinado por Macbeth 17 años antes.

Macbeth era nieto del rey Kenneth II y también tenía derecho al trono a través de su esposa, Gruoch, que era nieta de Kenneth III y el rey escocés que había sido derrocado por Duncan y su predecesor, el rey Malcolm II. Bajo el rey Duncan, Macbeth fue gobernador de la provincia escocesa de Moray y un comandante militar de confianza. Sin embargo, se opuso a los vínculos de Duncan con los sajones del sur y se rebeló. El 14 de agosto de 1040, Macbeth mató a Duncan en una batalla cerca de Elgin, y fue coronado rey de Escocia en su lugar.

En 1054, después de 14 años de gobierno, el rey Macbeth sufrió una gran derrota militar en la batalla de Dunsinane contra Siward, el conde de Northumbria. Siward estaba actuando en nombre de Malcolm Canmore, el hijo de Duncan & # x2019s. Malcolm luego tomó el control de la parte sur de Escocia y pasó los siguientes tres años persiguiendo a Macbeth, quien huyó hacia el norte. El 15 de agosto de 1057, Macbeth fue derrotado y asesinado por Malcolm en la batalla de Lumphanan con la ayuda de los ingleses. Malcolm Canmore fue coronado Malcolm III en 1058.


Afirmación de poder

En el momento de la adhesión de Juan II, este tratado de paz le había obligado a poner a sus hijos pequeños bajo la tutela española cerca de la frontera como prenda de su matrimonio con los castellanos. Alfonso había estado limitado en autoridad por la ambiciosa Casa de Bragança, la familia más rica de Portugal. Juan convocó a las Cortes (asamblea) en Évora (noviembre de 1481) e impuso un drástico juramento de obediencia a sus vasallos. También reafirmó la beneplacet, requiriendo que se le envíen cartas papales antes de su publicación. Negoció con éxito una revisión del tratado con España, mediante la cual sus hijos le fueron devueltos. Luego acusó al duque de Bragança de traición y lo hizo juzgar y decapitar en Évora (junio de 1483). Aunque se presentó evidencia de que los Braganza habían intrigado con Castilla, parece claro que Juan buscó venganza por haber causado la muerte de su abuelo materno, el regente Dom Pedro. Confiscó las vastas propiedades de los Braganças y nombró jueces reales en lo que habían sido jurisdicciones privadas de la nobleza. Cuando una segunda conspiración intentó destituirlo y otorgar la corona al hermano de su esposa, el duque de Viseu, Juan mató a su rival con su propia mano (agosto de 1484).


Renacimiento del Clan Maclean Siglo XX y presente mdash

En 1911, Sir Fitzroy Donald Maclean de Duart, Bt, 26º Jefe, proclamó con orgullo que me alegra decir que la antigua fortaleza de los Macleans es ahora propiedad mía de los 400 Macleans que se unieron a él para celebrar la recuperación del castillo de Duart. Han pasado 221 años desde que el estandarte de Maclean ha estado sobre este antiguo castillo. y sé perfectamente que el honor de esa bandera y el honor de nuestro clan estarán siempre a salvo en tus manos. Sir Fitzroy era un veterano de la guerra de Crimea, amigo del rey Eduardo VII y un conocido cercano tanto de la reina Victoria como de Jefferson Davis. El Clan Maclean debe gran parte de su resurgimiento a su liderazgo como su jefe. Sir Fitzroy vivió hasta los 101 años, y el último día de su nacimiento, la enemistad con los Campbell llegó a su fin.

Aunque los jefes del siglo XVII tuvieron dificultades para dominar el panorama político centrado en la corte, en el siglo XVIII habían dominado su oficio político al tiempo que mantenían la orgullosa tradición militar de nuestros antepasados. Los jefes y jefes de Maclean recientes se han convertido en la encarnación de los estadistas guerreros modernos. Sir Fitzroy Hew Royle Maclean, de Dunconnel, Bt, que fue enviado por el primer ministro Winston Churchill para ayudar a Tito, fue la inspiración para el amigo Ian Flemming y el personaje de rsquos, James Bond. Sir Fitzroy se convirtió más tarde en diplomático y miembro del Parlamento. Lord Charles Maclean de Duart and Morvern, Bt, KT, GCVO, KBE, PC, Baron Maclean, 27th Chief, modernizó el movimiento Scouting antes de ser seleccionado para servir como jefe de la casa de la reina Isabel II y rsquos como Lord Chamberlain. Lord Maclean fue posiblemente el jefe escocés más influyente de la era moderna. Sir Lachlan Maclean de Duart y Morvern, Bt, CVL, DL, 28º Jefe, sirvió en el Servicio Aéreo Especial (SAS), una unidad de élite de fuerzas especiales del Ejército Británico, antes de una exitosa carrera en los negocios. Sir Lachlan ahora trabaja para preservar la historia del Clan Maclean & rsquos para las generaciones futuras.

Desde la restauración de Duart Castle, los Macleans de todo el mundo se han convertido en uno de los clanes escoceses modernos más activos e involucrados. El Clan Maclean hoy es verdaderamente una familia mundial.

Referencias

  1. 1. MacLean, J. P. Una historia del clan MacLean desde su primer asentamiento en el castillo de Duard, en la isla de Mull, hasta el período actual. Cincinnati: R. Clarke, 1889. 1p22-34, 1bp160, 1cp243. Impresión.
  2. 2. Sinclair, Alexander Maclean. El Clan Gillean. Charlottetown: Haszard y Moore, 1899. 2p29-42, 2bp50.
  3. 3. Kennedy, Matthew. Una disertación cronológica, genealógica e histórica de la familia real de los Estuardo. París: Impreso por L. Coignard, 1705. Impresión.
  4. 4. N.p. MS 72.1.1. Biblioteca Nacional de Escocia. c.1400.
  5. 5. O'Clery, Peregrine. Libro de genealogías O'Clery. 1632. MS 23 D 17, P33, Col A38 B. Royal Irish Academy, n.p.
  6. 6. Maclean-Bristol, Nicholas. Guerreros y sacerdotes: la historia del clan Maclean, 1300-1570. East Linton, East Lothian, Escocia: Tuckwell, 1995. p2-12, 6bp162. Impresión.
  7. 7. Broun, Dauvit, & ldquoAedán mac Gabráin & rdquo en Michael Lynch (ed.), El compañero de Oxford para la historia de Escocia. Oxford UP, Oxford, 2001. 7p40-42, 7bp161-162. Impresión.
  8. 8. Magnússon, Magnús. Escocia: la historia de una nación. Nueva York: Atlantic Monthly, 2000. p38-40. Impresión.
  9. 9. Campbell, Donald. Tratado sobre el lenguaje, la poesía y la música de los clanes de las tierras altas. Edimburgo: D.R. Collie, 1862. p211. Impresión.
  10. 10. McGregor, James, Thomas Maclauchlan y W. F. Skene. El decano de Lismore & rsquos Book Una selección de poesía gaélica antigua. Edimburgo: Edmonston & Douglas, 1862. p39. Impresión.
  11. 11. Bannerman, John. Estudios de Historia de Dálriada. Edimburgo: Scottish Academic, 1974. pág. 68. Imprimir.
  12. 12. Anderson, Alan Orr, ed. Fuentes tempranas de la historia de Escocia: a.d. 500 hasta 1286. 1922. p61-62.
  13. 13. White, Robert. Una historia de la batalla de Bannockburn librada en 1314 d.C.. Edimburgo Edmonston y Douglas, 1871. p160. Impresión.
  14. 14. & ldquoPágina de Persona - 5095. & rdquo Nuestros antepasados ​​y primos reales, titulados, nobles y plebeyos (más de 157.000 nombres). N.p., n.d. Web. 17 de abril de 2014.
  15. 15. Robertson, James A. Pruebas históricas concisas sobre el Gael de Alban. Edimburgo: W.P. Nimmo, 1866. Imprimir.
  16. 16. 'Regesta 256: 1366-1367', Calendario de registros papales relacionados con Gran Bretaña e Irlanda, volumen 4: 1362-1404. 1902, págs. 59-66. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=96373 Fecha de consulta: 21 de abril de 2014
  17. 17. White, Alasdair. & ldquoUn clan, dos familias & rdquo Clan MacLean. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 de abril de 2014.
  18. 18. Thomson, A.T. Memorias de los jacobitas de 1715 y 1745 Volumen 2. S & amp J Bently, Wilson y Fley, 1845. Print, 124-254.
  19. 19. Hoey, Brian. MacLean de Duart: la biografía de 'Chips' Maclean. Twickenham: Country Life, 1986. Print, 168-169.

Artículo de Kane McLean, 4 de febrero de 2016 publicado bajo Creative Commons (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0) Unported License.


Anne Neville fue reina de Inglaterra durante la mayor parte del reinado de su marido, pero murió en marzo de 1485, cinco meses antes de la muerte de Ricardo III.

Una vidriera que representa a Ricardo III y la Reina Ana en el Castillo de Cardiff. Crédito: VeteranMP / Commons.


Historia mundial épica

Fernando nació en Sos, Aragón, el 19 de marzo de 1452, como hijo de Juan II de Aragón y Navarra (1397 & # 82111479) y Juana Enríquez, su segunda esposa. Como heredero del trono de Aragón, Fernando se convirtió en rey de Sicilia en 1468. Era hábil, despiadado, ambicioso, egocéntrico y político en todos sus esfuerzos. Ferdinand era a menudo engañoso en sus acuerdos, repudiando los tratados y otros acuerdos poco después de su firma.

Fernando se casó con su igualmente ambiciosa, piadosa, pero más sabia prima Isabel de Castilla y León. Nació en Madrigal de las Torres en Castilla el 22 de abril de 1451, hija del deficiente rey Juan II de Castilla y León (1405 & # 821154) e Isabel de Portugal, su decidida segunda esposa.


Isabella tenía un carácter más ético que Ferdinand. Heredó un extenso linaje real de varias generaciones de dinastías europeas. La pareja mantuvo vínculos excepcionalmente estrechos con el papado.

El medio hermano imbécil de Isabel y Enrique IV (1425 y 821174), también conocido como el Impotente, ascendió al trono después de la muerte de su padre en 1454. Junto con su hermano menor, Alfonso, Isabella fue llevada a la corte de Enrique por protección y más estricta. supervisión. Isabella se convirtió en un peón en los planes de su hermano para hacer que su futuro matrimonio fuera económicamente beneficioso y políticamente ventajoso para Castilla.

Quería que se casara, entre otros, con el rey de Portugal, el delfín francés o un príncipe inglés, a quienes ella se negó firmemente. Después de la muerte de Alfonso en 1468, Enrique proclamó heredera a la prudente y amable Isabel el 19 de septiembre de 1468, cuando ambos firmaron el Acuerdo de Toros de Guisiando.

Isabella se casó en secreto con su primo Fernando en Ocaña, el 19 de octubre de 1469, sin el consentimiento de Henry. Él la repudió, revocó rápidamente el Acuerdo de Toros de Guisiando y nombró a su supuesta hija princesa Juana la Beltraneja (1462 & # 82111530) princesa de Castilla y en 1475 la esposa del rey Alfonso V de Portugal (1432 & # 821181), como su heredera. . Juana era hija ilegítima de la esposa de Henry y Beltrán de la Cueva.

Después de la muerte de Enrique el 10 de diciembre de 1474, Isabel ascendió al trono el 13 de diciembre en Segovia. Su afirmación fue inmediatamente refutada por Juana y Afonso, la lucha se convirtió en una guerra civil. Isabel tenía un fuerte apoyo de Aragón y sus compatriotas.

Muhammad XII (Boabdil) se rinde a Fernando e Isabel

Fernando derrotó a las fuerzas de Juana en la Batalla de Toro el 1 de marzo de 1476 y nuevamente el 25 de febrero de 1479. El Tratado de Alcaçova en septiembre de 1479 concluyó la guerra civil. Juana ingresó al convento de Santa Clara de Coimtra en 1480.

Para solidificar un control más firme sobre España una vez que se convirtieron en comonarcas, Fernando e Isabel sometieron a todos los grupos de resistencia, capturaron las ciudades y fortalezas insubordinadas y vencieron todas las rebeliones contra su gobierno.

Luego procedieron a reconstruir las Cortes (Parlamento), renovaron la administración del gobierno y crearon un marco legal para España que otorgó mayor poder a la monarquía a expensas de la nobleza, que se había vuelto peligrosamente poderosa bajo los monarcas anteriores.


Cuando el padre de Fernando murió en 1479, la unión de Fernando e Isabel fusionó los dos reinos más grandes de la Península Ibérica y creó el 90 por ciento de la España actual. La astuta Isabel insistió en que hubiera un gobierno conjunto y que ella misma gobernara Castilla.

El dicho & # 8220Tanto monta, monta tanto & # 8221 (Son uno y lo mismo), se convirtió en su lema. Isabella también insistió en que ambos nombres se colocaran en cada documento real y que ella presidiera cada transacción estatal. También permitió que se uniera su escudo de armas.

Coleccionó importantes obras de arte, fue muy leída, aprendió latín después de los 30 años, estableció escuelas y apoyó la orden franciscana de las Clarisas. Juntos reformaron la iglesia y los monasterios en España, ya que ambos se habían vuelto corruptos e ineficaces.

La pareja tuvo cinco hijos: Isabel de Aragón (1470 & # 821198), Juan de Aragón (1478 & # 821197), Juana de Castilla (1479 & # 82111551), María de Aragón (1482 & # 82111517) y Catalina de Aragón (1485 & # 82111536 ), a quien Isabella era devota. Todos recibieron la misma educación clásica y se les enseñó lo básico de las tareas del hogar, como coser, hacer camas y limpiar.

Los niños se casaron en dinastías reales europeas principalmente para flanquear las ambiciones territoriales francesas. Juan se casó con Margarita de Austria, pero murió a los seis meses y no dejó hijos. Juana se volvió loca después de la muerte de su esposo, el archiduque Felipe el Hermoso de los Habsburgo (1478 & # 82111506). Isabel se casó con el rey Afonso V de Portugal (1432 & # 821181) y luego con el rey Manuel I de Portugal (1469 & # 82111521).

Murió al dar a luz y su hijo Miguel murió a los dos años. María se casó con su cuñado Manuel I de Portugal después de la muerte de su hermana. Al final de al menos 13 años de negociaciones, Catherine se casó con Arthur Tudor, príncipe de Gales (1486 & # 82111502) el 14 de noviembre de 1501. Arthur murió seis meses después.

Después de la muerte de Arturo, debido a que su padre aún no había completado el pago de su dote, Catalina se casaría con el futuro rey Enrique VIII (1491 & # 82111547) el 11 de junio de 1509. Se divorció de ella el 30 de marzo de 1533. Fernando e Isabel & # 8217s nieto de Juana y Philip heredó a sus padres y Philip & # 8217s & # 8217 gran herencia territorial que se convertiría en emperador del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico Carlos V (1519 & # 821156).

Fernando e Isabel creían que la conformidad religiosa era de vital importancia para España. También se dieron cuenta de las ventajas políticas y económicas para su monarquía e instigaron celosamente la Inquisición española, considerando salvar almas y erradicar la herejía como su deber más sagrado.

Durante su reinado, la heterogénea España tenía la población judía más grande de Europa. Fernando e Isabel insistieron en que España se volviera blanca (no morisca) y de pura sangre cristiana, o sangre limpia. Ante la amenaza de retirar el apoyo militar al papa Sixto VI (1521 & # 821190), quien consideró sus acciones como un complot para obtener la propiedad judía, Fernando exigió que España iniciara la Inquisición.

Después de una serie de discusiones entre Fernando y Sixto, el Papa emitió la Bula Papal de 1478 que creó la Inquisición en Sevilla. Luego se expandió por toda España y comenzó un largo período de limpieza religiosa.

El Papa Inocencio VIII (1432 & # 821192) nombró al sacerdote dominico Tomás de Torquemada (1420 & # 821198), el confesor de Isabel & # 8217 y él mismo nieto de un converso, para encabezar la Inquisición española. Los judíos parcialmente convertidos, los marranos, mantuvieron en secreto sus culturas y costumbres judías.

Para obligarlos a confesar, Torquemada impuso métodos cada vez más miserables. Perdió la propiedad judía, que convenientemente financió una guerra contra otra minoría en España. Torquemada humilló a los marranos obligándolos a llevar un sambenito, una camiseta amarilla que contenía cruces que dejaban al descubierto sus genitales en público.

Unos 130.000 conversos fueron juzgados en tribunales entre 1480 y 1492. Algunos marranos fueron quemados en la hoguera. El despiadado Torquemada organizó el juicio espectáculo de LaGuardia en 1490, donde no se demostró culpabilidad, pero las víctimas fueron quemadas en la hoguera. Unos 30.000 judíos fueron asesinados ritualmente durante la Inquisición española.

Fernando e Isabel emitieron el Edicto de Expulsión el 31 de marzo de 1492. Se ordenó a los judíos que abandonaran España y nunca regresaran. Terminado su trabajo, Torquemada se retiró al monasterio de Santo Tomás de Ávila, donde murió en 1498. Persiste el debate histórico sobre el número de víctimas de la Inquisición en España.

Fernando e Isabel confiaron en gran medida en la experiencia de su próximo confesor, el cardenal Francisco Gonzalo Jiménez de Cisneros (1436 & # 82111517), quien ayudó a elevar a España a un predominio sin precedentes en el continente europeo. La pareja ganó el control de las órdenes militares de Calatrava, Alcántara y Santiago, lo que aumentó considerablemente su poder, riqueza y territorio.

Fernando e Isabel revivieron la Reconquista de siglos. Libraron una costosa guerra de diez años contra los moros y finalmente conquistaron Granada, el último bastión morisco, en 1491. Entraron triunfalmente en Granada el 2 de enero de 1492. Isabel, más que Fernando, fue la responsable de la espantosa matanza de los moros. que no se convertiría al cristianismo.

En 1501, Fernando e Isabel ofrecieron a los moros la alternativa del bautismo o el exilio a los que quedaban se les conoció como moriscos. En 1492, el Papa Inocencio VIII (1432 & # 821192) otorgó a Fernando e Isabel el título de & # 8220Mas Majestades Católicas & # 8221 por unificar espiritualmente a España. Se completó la Reconquista.

Isabella was largely responsible for initiating the golden age of exploration for Spain. She financially supported the voyage of Christopher Columbus to the New World. She had rejected his request numerous times, but when he threatened to petition funds from France she relented and Columbus sailed in August 1492.

When he brought 150 natives to Spain, she bought some and gave them their freedom. Ferdinand and Isabella were strongly involved with the establishment of the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494 that divided the non-Christian world overseas between Portugal and Spain.

Isabella died at Medina del Campo on November 26, 1504. Ferdinand married Germaine de Foix on October 19, 1505. Ferdinand served as regent of Castile after Juana died and later for his grandson Charles V. Ferdinand also fought in lengthy Italian Wars against France.

His generals conquered Naples in 1504, and in 1512 he annexed Navarre. He also joined the League of Cambrai in 1508 to thwart Venetian objectives and the Holy League in 1511 to counteract France. Ferdinand also founded universities.

Ferdinand died at Midrigalejo, Spain, on January 23, 1516. He is buried beside Isabella, at the Capilla Real in Granada alongside Juan, Philip, and a grandson.


The Battle of Layla-tul-Harir

Next morning, Ali and Malik mounted their horses, and rode in front of the Syrian army surveying its disposition. They made some minor changes in the plan of the battle, and then, upon a signal from Ali, Malik attacked the left wing of the enemy.

The Syrians enjoyed a numerical superiority over Malik, and their generals tried to make the best of it. Whenever he attacked, they gave in but somehow managed to regroup.

Malik fought all day long. Normally, the two armies stopped fighting after sunset, and returned to the camp for prayers and for rest but that day Malik refused to return. He also didn't let the Syrians return to their camp, and kept them in the battlefield.

After a brief pause for his prayers, Malik launched his blitz upon the Syrian army. This time his charge was so impetuous that the Syrians were driven before him like sheep. After the night prayer, Ali also returned to the battlefield, and attacked the right wing of the Syrians. Between them, they began to grind the Syrian army.

They killed hundreds of Syrian warriors and spread terror and dismay in their ranks. The groans and screams of the Syrian wounded and the dying, the clangor of arms, the clash of steel, Malik's double-edged sword ripping through the Syrian armor, and his battle-cry of Allah-o-Akbar, filled the night sky of the desert.

Malik was, beyond all measure daring and intrepid. He did indeed seem in the presence of the enemy to be the very Genius of Victory. He was a special and a fatal instrument in the hands of the Providence. Wherever he rode, victory charged with him.

Edward Gibbon

In this sanguinary contest the lawful caliph displayed a superior character of valor and humanity. His troops were strictly enjoined to await the first onset of the enemy, to spare their flying brethren, and to respect the bodies of the dead, and the chastity of the female captives. He generously proposed to save the blood of the Moslems by a single combat but his trembling rival declined the challenge as a sentence of inevitable death.

The ranks of the Syrians were broken by the charge of a hero who was mounted on a piebald horse, and wielded with irresistible force his ponderous and two-edged sword. As often as he smote a rebel, he shouted Allah Akbar, ‘God is Victorious!' and in the tumult of a nocturnal battle he was heard to repeat four hundred times that tremendous exclamation. (The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire)

The hero who broke the ranks of the Syrians, was Malik. But already he had killed so many of them – the rank-and-file Syrians – that he began to lose interest in them. He searched for quarry of a higher grade. In the battle of Basra, he had put an end to fighting by killing the camel which carried Ayesha on its back. His aim now was to kill or to capture Muawiya, and thus to put an end to the battle of Siffin. With the instinct of a hunter, therefore, he began to move toward his prey.

Malik rode through pools of blood and over high banks of the Syrian slain, irresistibly, inexorably and perhaps inevitably. Whoever challenged him or stood in his way, was cut into pieces.

Muawiya now could see with his own eyes that the crunch was coming. What he saw closing in on him, was not Malik, Ali's Chief of Staff, but the Angel of Death. The solid ground under his feet appeared to him to be turning into a quicksand.

His bodyguards, though hand-picked for their bravery, strength and devotion to him and to his house, were powerless before Malik. They could not stop him from advancing toward his prey but they did the second best thing – they got fresh horses ready for him (for Muawiya) to mount and to escape from the battlefield under the cover of darkness.

In this dire distress, Muawiya turned to Amr bin Aas, and said:

“Is there any hope that we can still save our lives or this desolate plain is destined to become our graveyard? And incidentally, do you still want Egypt? If you do, then think at once of some stratagem to check Malik or else all of us including you, will be killed in the next few moments.”

The instinct for survival was very strong in Amr bin Aas. He could rise equal to almost any occasion, and was, in fact, ready with a stratagem for this very moment. Amr's stratagem was going to wrest not only the prey but victory itself out of Malik's hand!

The battle that Malik was fighting, is famous in history as the “Battle of Layla-tul-Harir.” It was the climax of the grim contest in the plain of Siffin on the bank of the Euphrates. It was also the high point of the political and military careers of both Ali and Malik, as events were very soon to show.

Ever since Ali had demanded the pledge of loyalty from Muawiya, he (Muawiya) had opened a psychological war against him. One of the weapons, he had used in his psychological warfare against Ali, was gold or the lure of gold. His mother, Hinda, had used sex as a weapon in her warfare against Islam in the battle of Uhud.

With the weapon of gold, Muawiya had success – fully seduced many of the senior officers in the Iraqi army, and had dented their will-to-fight. He had not only loaded them with gold and silver but had also promised to appoint them as governors of the provinces and commanders in his army if they betrayed Ali at the critical moment in the battle.

The critical moment had arrived. Malik's immense strokes had thrown the Syrians into hopeless disorder. Their only hope for their safety was in the darkness of the night which would or might conceal them from the sight of Malik.

Malik who figured that he was on the point of killing or capturing Muawiya and Amr bin Aas, did not know that both of them were in possession of a secret weapon which would save their lives and would baffle him. The secret weapon of Muawiya was already working silently and insidiously but effectively. It was the seed of treason that he had planted in the Iraqi army. The seed suddenly burgeoned in the battle of Layla-tul-Harir!

Malik was still clobbering the Syrian army savagely when Amr bin Aas ordered his soldiers to hoist copies of Qur’an on the points of their lances as a gesture of their wish to refer the dispute to the Judgment of God to be found in it.

Those officers in the Iraqi army who had been bought by Muawiya, and were ready to act their part, were awaiting a signal. As soon as they saw copies of Qur’an on the lances, they put their swords in the scabbards and stopped fighting, to the great surprise and consternation of Ali, Abdullah ibn Abbas, and the handful of their faithful officers. Just then, Abdullah ibn Abbas also caught sight of the spiked copies of Qur’an, and he understood what was afoot. His terse comment was:

“The battle is over treachery has begun.”

And so it was. Muawiya and Amr bin Aas had appealed to the arbitration of arms, and they had failed. They now appealed to treachery, and as events were soon to show, they were going to succeed! The first man in the Iraqi army who stopped fighting, was Ash'ath bin Qays, the same whose daughter, Jo’dah, was to kill Hasan ibn Ali with poison some years later. He was the ringleader of the traitors in the Iraqi army. He came to see Ali and said to him:

“The Syrians do not want to see any more bloodshed among the Muslims. They want the Book of God to be a judge between them and us. We, therefore, cannot fight against them any more.”

The leaders of other tribes who were also in league with Muawiya, stopped fighting in imitation of Ash'ath bin Qays. The tribesmen followed the example of their leaders, and they too stopped fighting. Thus fighting came to a virtual halt over most of the front. Only one squadron - the one led by Malik – was left in the field fighting and battering the Syrians.

It did not occur to the traitors in the Iraqi army that if Muawiya and Amr bin Aas had any respect for Qur’an, they would have invited it (the Iraqi army) to make the Word of God the Arbiter in their dispute before or even during the battle but they did not. They remembered Qur’an only when the defeat and the destruction of the Syrian army suddenly loomed before them over the horizon.

Ash'ath bin Qays was suddenly gripped with love for the lives of the Muslims. He seized a copy of Qur’an, stood facing his army, and shouted:

“O Muslims! Compel Ali to accept arbitration of the Book of God, and thereby put an end to this bloodshed.”

The bloodshed of the Muslims alarmed Ash'ath only when he saw that Ali was on the point of winning the battle. Ali's victory, he knew, would not change anything for him. But in the event of Ali's failure, he was assured of rich rewards from Muawiya. His “anxiety” to save the lives of the Muslims, therefore, was understandable.

Presently, Ali was surrounded by the leaders of the tribes in his army, and they began to urge him to stop fighting against the Syrians, who, they said, at that very moment, were appealing to him, in the name of the Book of God, to stop killing the Muslims. Ali warned them that they were being duped by the enemy, and exhorted them to press their advantage to victory. He also told them that the appeal in the name of the Book of God was nothing but a ruse to deprive them of the fruits of their victory, and to escape defeat and death.

But Muawiya's gold and silver proved to be much more powerful argument than anything Ali could say. The traitors soon became insolent they asked Ali to recall Malik from the battlefield, and to declare a cease-fire immediately. Ali hesitated but realized that he did not have much of a choice in the face of an impending mutiny in his own army, and sent a messenger to Malik calling him from the front-line.

Malik had been so engrossed in grinding the remnants of the Syrian army that he had not even noticed that his own army was not fighting any more. He, therefore, told the messenger that it was no time for him to leave the battlefield, and to leave his job unfinished.

Malik was very soon going to find out that his ponderous and double-edged sword which had decimated the Syrian army, would become powerless against a new weapon forged by Muawiya and Amr bin Aas – the weapon of the double-cross!

When Muawiya's agents and hirelings in Ali's camp heard Malik's reply, they told him that if he (Malik) did not return from the battle immediately, they would seize him (Ali), and would deliver him into his (Muawiya's) hands. This time Ali had to send a signal of distress to Malik who was told that if he did not return to the camp at that very moment, he would not see his master any more.

Malik ground his teeth in anger as he could now see his quarry slip from his grasp. He came into the camp in a towering rage, raring to kill the traitors but sensed the danger to his master who was in their midst, and all of them had their hands at the hilts of their swords. When he sharply reproved them for their stupidity and treachery, they moved menacingly toward him with their drawn swords. But Ali interposed between them, and said to the traitors:

“You may not fight against your enemy but at least do not kill your own greatest friend.”

Ali did not want Muawiya to see the in-fighting in his own camp.

The battle of Siffin was over. Where Muawiya's power had failed, his craft and guile had succeeded. Victory eluded Ali's grasp, and thenceforth he was to be on the defensive in a losing war against Muawiya. The cease-fire marked the beginning of his political decline.

After the cessation of hostilities, it was agreed that the civil war of the Muslims should be referred to arbitration, and the decision of the arbitrators should be accepted by all parties. It was clearly stipulated in these early negotiations that the arbitrators would make their decision only “in the light of the Book of God.” Muawiya designated Amr bin Aas as the arbitrator representing his side and the rebels in Ali's army proposed the name of Abu Musa al-Ash’ary to represent Iraq.

Abu Musa was a man who combined stupidity with questionable loyalty to Ali. He was soon to demonstrate both qualities, one of his head, and the other of his heart, in his encounter with Amr bin Aas for whom he was no match in anything, least of all in the subtleties of diplomacy and negotiation.

Ali instinctively rejected Abu Musa whom he had always found repulsive. His own choice was Abdullah ibn Abbas or Malik ibn Ashter. But both of them were acceptable neither to Muawiya nor to his agents in the Iraqi army like Ash'ath bin Qays and others. They said that they wanted an “impartial” and a “non-partisan” man such as Abu Musa was but Abdullah ibn Abbas and Malik ibn Ashter were not. Ali asked them: “If that is so, then why don't you raise objection to the designation of Amr bin Aas who is neither impartial nor non-partisan?” They replied that they were responsible only for their own affairs, and not for the affairs of others.

Ali resisted the pressures of the traitors but they were all fattening on Muawiya's gold which they were not ready to forfeit at any price. It was, in fact, arranged beforehand that Abu Musa would represent Iraq. Eventually, the traitors succeeded in foisting the dim-wit Abu Musa upon their master as his “representative.”

When the cease-fire agreement was being drafted, an incident occurred which harked back to Hudaybiyya. The secretary wrote the words: “This is an agreement between Ali ibn Abi Talib, the Chief of the Believers, and Muawiya bin Abu Sufyan. ” Amr bin Aas, the representative of Muawiya, raised objection, and said: “Delete the words, ‘the Chief of the Believers.' If we had acknowledged Ali as the Chief of the Believers, we would not be fighting against him.”

Thereupon, Ali remarked: “How true was the Apostle of God when he foretold this very incident. When the Treaty of Hudaybiyya was being drafted, and I had written the words, ‘This is a Treaty between Muhammad, the Messenger of God, and . ' the idolaters interrupted me, and said that if they had acknowledged Muhammad as the Messenger of God, then they would not be fighting against him, and they insisted upon the deletion of the words, ‘Messenger of God,' from the text of the Treaty.”

At Hudaybiyya, Muhammad had deleted the words “Messenger of God” from the draft treaty at Siffin, Ali, walking in his (Muhammad's) footsteps, allowed the words “the Chief of the Believers” to be deleted from the draft treaty. The cease-fire agreement was duly signed and witnessed by both sides, and copies were exchanged for preservation in the archives.

The terms of the cease-fire agreement were:

1. Both arbitrators would be subject to the rule that their decisions would be taken in the light of the Book of God. If they are unable to decide anything on this basis, then they would take their decision in the light of the precedents and traditions of the Messenger of God.

2. The decision of the arbitrators, if based upon the Book of God, would be binding on both sides.

3. The arbitrators would investigate the causes that led to the murder of Uthman, and the civil war of the Muslims (to suggest remedial action for future).

4. The arbitrators would publish their decisions within six months from the date of the cease-fire.

5. The belligerents would observe a truce. They would protect the arbitrators who would have complete freedom of movement in the country.

6. The arbitrators would meet at a place on the frontier between Iraq and Syria.

The most important clause in this agreement was that the arbitrators would make the Book of God their guide, and that they would not be governed by their own lusts and desires.

The Battle of Siffin was officially over but Malik ibn Ashter, now “the chained dragon of the Arabs,” resolutely refused to witness the document of agreement. He considered it a document of infamy and iniquity.

R. A. Nicholson

A great battle was fought at Siffin, a village on the Euphrates. Ali had well-nigh gained the day when Muawiya bethought him of a stratagem. He ordered his troops to fix Korans on the points of their lances and to shout, “Here is the Book of God: Let it decide between us!” The miserable trick succeeded.

In Ali's army there were many pious fanatics to whom the proposed arbitration by the Koran appealed with irresistible force. They now sprang forward clamorously, threatening to betray their leader unless he would submit his cause to the Book. Vainly did Ali remonstrate with the mutineers, and warn them of the trap into which they were driving him, and this too at the moment when victory was within their grasp.

He had no choice but to yield and name as his umpire a man of doubtful loyalty, Abu Musa as-Ashari, one of the oldest surviving companions of the Prophet. Muawiya on his part named Amr bin al-Aas, whose cunning had prompted the decisive maneuver. (A Literary History of the Arabs, p. 192, 1969)

The two arbitrators, Abu Musa Ashari and Amr bin Aas, announced that they would meet, six months later, in Adhruh, to give their verdict in the dispute between the two parties. Ali and Muawiya then retired from Siffin to await the decision of the arbitrators.

When Ali returned to Kufa, he set to work to reorganize the government, but unfortunately, he was compelled to defer his plans because of the outbreak of a new rebellion in his army.

During the battle of Siffin, Muawiya had planted seeds of treason in the army of Iraq, as noted before. This he had done by making presents of gold and silver, and by making promises to grant lands, estates, and high civil and military ranks, to the key figures in Ali's army, in exchange for their support to him.

His “investments” had paid off rich dividends to him. The recipients of his gifts had forced Ali to stop fighting and to accept arbitration, and in this manner, he (Muawiya) had succeeded in dodging disaster and death at Siffin. They now sat expectantly, awaiting fulfillment, by Muawiya, of his promises.

But when Muawiya returned to Damascus, he felt that he could now afford to dispense with the services of most of his clients in Ali's army. He, therefore, told them that he did not promise them anything.

The clients realized that they had been tricked by Muawiya. In sheer chagrin and frustration, they turned to Ali, and asked him to repudiate the cease-fire agreement, and to resume fighting against Muawiya. But Ali refused to do this, and said that he had to wait and see if the decision of the arbitrators would be in conformity with the commandments in Qur’an or not before making any other move.

But the ex-clients of Muawiya did not want to wait. They pressed Ali to fight, and when he did not agree, they and their supporters left his army en masse, and broke their pledge of allegiance to him. There were 12,000 of these men who repudiated their oath of loyalty to Ali after the battle of Siffin. They are called Kharjis (Khawarij), and they gathered in a place called Harura from where they began to plunder the surrounding country, and to kill the innocent people, and in fact, everyone who disagreed with their views on government and politics.

Ali tried to persuade the Khawarij to return to Kufa, and to put before him the points of their disagreement with him. He answered all their questions and objections most satisfactorily, and some of them, being convinced that he was right, renewed their pledge of loyalty to him but many others did not. They now claimed that by agreeing to submit his dispute with Muawiya for arbitration by fallible human beings, instead of the Book of God, Ali had become an “apostate,” and that his “repentance” along could bring salvation to him.

Ali tolerated the insolence and the impudence of the Khawarij in the hope that they would realize their error but this only made them more insolent and more impudent. Presently, their leaders decided to leave Kufa, and to set up their headquarters in some other place. They selected a village called Nehrwan for this purpose, and ordered all Kharjis to assemble there. From Nehrwan, the Khawarij spread terror in the country. They committed new excesses to cover their guilt, shame and remorse. They went around killing people indiscriminately, not sparing even women and children. Then news came that they were planning to attack Kufa itself.

Ali had to act immediately to check Kharji lawlessness and anarchy, and he went in person to Nehrwan to meet their leaders. He told them that there was safe-conduct for all those among them who would leave their camp, return to their homes, and live in peace with their neighbors. Many of them realized that they had no reason to fight against Ali, and they left Nehrwan to go back to their homes. But a core of 4000 die-hards remained adamant in their demand that Ali had to “repent” before they would acknowledge him the leader of the Muslims.

They, then raised their battle-cry “No one to govern except Allah,” and attacked Ali's troops. Though they had attacked with reckless abandon, they didn't do much harm to Ali's troops. When the latter counter-attacked, the Khawarij were defeated most of them were killed, and only a few escaped from the battlefield.

Though the Khawarij had adopted as their slogan the Qur’anic verse No one is to govern except Allah, they had neither the intention nor the ability to set up the Kingdom of Heaven on earth. They only wanted power for themselves They were an explosive mixture of terrorism, politics and religious fanaticism.

In the event of their success, they would only have revived the tribal particularism of the pre-Islamic Arabs. To this day, they remain peculiarly unassimilated in the history of the Muslim people.

Dr. Hamid-ud-Din

The Kharjis prevented people from enlisting in Ali's army. And if anyone disagreed with their beliefs, they killed him on the spot. In this way, many Muslims were killed. Ali sent an emissary to dissuade them from committing crimes against innocent people but they killed him also.

The Kharji camp was at Nehrwan. Ali also led his army to Nehrwan. He asked the Khawarij to give up those men for trial and justice who had killed innocent Muslims. But they shouted with one voice that all of them had killed them, and that they considered the killing of such people (those Muslims who did not share their beliefs) a sacred duty. Ali once again pointed out their errors to them, and appealed to them to return to their homes but their response was negative.

At last, Ali sent Abu Ayub Ansari with the banner of Islam in the middle of the two opposing forces. Abu Ayub unfurled the banner, and announced that whoever from the Kharji camp would come beneath it, would be safe.

Many Kharjis realizing their error, came under the banner planted by Abu Ayub. But 4000 of their warriors still refused to leave their camp. They were determined to fight against Ali. They shouted, “No one to command except Allah,” and then they attacked Ali's army. They fought with the courage of fanatics but were surrounded and defeated, and nearly all of them perished. (History of Islam, Lahore, Pakistan, p. 202, 1971)

The battle-cry of the Kharjis, “No one to command except Allah,” was only a gimmick, designed to take political power into their own hands, and to deny it to everyone else.

In the meantime, Amr bin Aas and Abu Musa al-Ashari, the two arbitrators, had completed their secret negotiations, and were ready to make an announcement. Both of them had agreed that it was in the interests of the Dar-ul-Islam that Ali and Muawiya both should abdicate or should be deposed, and the Muslim umma should select a new ruler for itself.

The arbitrators and their staff met in Adhruh. Four hundred men of each side also arrived at the scene, as per the terms of the cease-fire agreement. The Syrian delegation was led by Abul Awar Salmi, and the Iraqi delegation was led by Abdullah ibn Abbas and Shurayh ibn Hani.

Many other people also came to Adhruh to hear the verdict of the arbitrators on the fate of the Dar-ul-Islam. Among them were Abdullah bin Umar, Abdullah by Zubayr, Abdur Rahman bin Abu Bakr, Saad bin Abi Waqqas, and Mughira bin Shaaba.

Amr bin Aas told Abu Musa that he held him in very high esteem since he (Abu Musa) was not only a companion of the Apostle of God but also was a great scholar, and for this reason, he deferred to him in everything, and also for this reason, he (Abu Musa) ought to be the first to make the announcement of their joint decision, which he (Amr) would confirm later.

Abdullah ibn Abbas warned Abu Musa that Amr might try to outwit and outmaneuver him, and suggested that he should let him (Amr) be the first to make the announcement. But Abu Musa did not pay heed to this advice of sagacity, and said:

“The case is airtight and there is no room in it for Amr bin Aas to maneuver or to score.”

Abu Musa had been utterly carried away by the show of “deference” made by Amr bin Aas to him. He then went into the pulpit to make the historic announcement, and said:

“O Muslims! Much sorrow and travail have been visited upon the umma of Muhammad by the wars of Ali and Muawiya. Therefore, both of us have decided to depose both of them, and we have agreed that the right of choosing a new khalifa should be given to the Muslim umma itself - to all of you.”

The Iraqi delegation was mortified to hear this announcement but decided, nevertheless, to hear what the other arbitrator had to say.

Abu Musa sat down after making his announcement, and then Amr bin Aas rose to make his announcement. He said:

“O Muslims! All of you have just heard what Abu Musa said regarding the deposition of Ali. He has deposed Ali as khalifa. I uphold his decision, and declare that Ali is desposed as khalifa. And in Ali's place, I appoint Muawiya as your new khalifa. "

Amr bin Aas had not concluded his remarks yet when there was an uproar of outrage. Abu Musa screamed in confusion and fury: “Liar! I never said this. You are the most brazen liar. You are a dog which is loaded with books and which pants and puts out its tongue when under the load.” Amr rose equal to the occasion, and returned the compliments by saying: “You are a donkey which is loaded with books, and which brays aloud when under a heavy load.”

The “dog” and the “donkey” snapped, snarled and glowered for a few moments, and then attacked each other fiercely. They bit and kicked each other, and they “barked” and “brayed” in the midst of pandemonium until they were hoarse. There was laughter too, though at the expense of Abu Musa alone.

After six months of in camera deliberations, the only “fare” that the arbitrators – Amr bin Aas and Abu Musa had prepared for the “edification” of the hundreds of Muslims who had flocked to Adhruh for the “feast,” was “music” which was provided by the first of them by “barking,” and by the second, by “braying.”

The “concert” was, at last, over, and the Muslims who had come from distant places, left Adhruh to return to their homes.

Abu Musa realized that he had become the laughing stock of all Arabs, and he fled to Yemen to hide his shame. He was a man of rather modest abilities but a coincidence of events had put him in a position where he perhaps assumed that he was in control of the destiny of the Muslim umma. His conceit was in conflict with prudence, and conceit won.

The job he was called upon to handle, was just too big for someone so handicapped by lack of ability as he was, and he botched it. He was one of the confidantes of Umar bin al-Khattab who had appointed him governor, first of Basra and then of Kufa.

The threat to Muawiya had passed forever, and in his struggle to seize the khilafat, the initiative had now passed to him. His claim to khilafat rested upon the judgment that Amr bin Aas, the “king-maker,” gave in Adhruh.

Amr's judgment was a piece of political legerdemain that would have thrilled Machiavelli but for the Syrians, it had the authority of a fiat from heaven itself, and was, therefore, irreversible.

R. A. Nicholson

It is characteristic of Arabian notions of morality that this impudent fraud was hailed by Muawiya's adherents as a diplomatic triumph which gave him a colorable pretext for assuming the title of caliph. (A Literary History of the Arabs, p.192-193, 1969)

The arbitration turned out to be a farce and a fiasco. Its decision, at any rate, had been ultra vires. No one had given the arbitrators a mandate to pronounce judgment upon the caliphate or to depose or to appoint a caliph. Muawiya's supporters were seeking vengeance for the murder of Uthman. Muawiya had convinced them that Ali was responsible for the death of Uthman, and it was for this reason that they had fought at Siffin. They did not wage a war against Ali to enthrone Muawiya.

But the arbitrators did not investigate the origins of the civil war. They talked only about the caliphate even though it was not the matter in dispute. Their only duty was to find out who had killed Uthman, and if Muawiya had the right to seek vengeance for the crime.

Abu Musa gave his “Jovian” verdict by “deposing” Muawiya. What did the “deposition” of Muawiya mean anyway? And what did he (Abu Musa) depose him (Muawiya) from? Muawiya was not the khalifa, nor had anyone proposed his name for khilafat.

On the other hand, Ali was the lawful khalifa of the Muslims. He was elected by consensus of the Muhajireen and the Ansar, and all parts of the empire, with the solitary exception of Syria, had acknowledged him their sovereign.

As arbitrators, or rather, as king-makers, Amr bin Aas and Abu Musa had engaged in long discussions on politics and war, and perhaps on the future of the Muslim umma but one thing they had not done was to consult Al-Qur’an al-Majid. They had kept Qur’an out of their deliberations in Adhruh just as, many years earlier, their forerunners in king-making, had kept Qur’an out of their deliberations in the outhouse of Saqifa in Medina.

By a strange “coincidence,” all the king-makers of the Arabs, whether in Saqifa, or in the Electoral Committee of Abdur Rahman bin Auf, or in Adhruh, showed themselves “allergic” to Al-Qur’an al-Majid. Or, was it the other way round – Al-Qur’an al-Majid showing itself “allergic” to the king-makers?

The king-makers kept Qur’an out of their deliberations or Qur’an itself stayed out of them – either way, it was truly one of the most fantastic “coincidences” in the history of the Muslims. For some mysterious reason, all the king-makers on the one hand, and Al-Qur’an al-Majid on the other, remained apart and distant from each other.

Amr bin Aas and Abu Musa had to make Qur’an their guide in arbitration. They had a commitment to formulate their decisions in the light of the commandments of the Book of God. The commandment of God in this regard is clear-cut.

O you who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Apostle, and those charged with authority among you. If you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Apostle, if you do believe in Allah and the last day: that is best, and most suitable for final determination. (Chapter 4 verse 59)

The arbitrators, it appears, forgot both the commandment of God quoted in the foregoing verse, and their own commitment. But Qur’an did not forget them, and pointed out what they had done or what they had failed to do, in the following verse:

They are invited to the Book of God, to settle their disputes, but a party of them turns back and declines. (Chapter 3 verse 23)

Amr bin Aas and Abu Musa – the arbitrators made themselves a party of those who turn back from the Book of God. They had preferred to be guided by their own lusts, and for this reason, they invited the judgment of Qur’an upon themselves:

And if any do fail to judge by (the light of) what God hath revealed, they are (no better than) unbelievers. (Chapter 5 verse 47)

In the battle of Siffin, the armies of Iraq and Syria faced each other for 110 days. There were 90 engagements between them in which 25,000 Iraqis and 45,000 Syrians were killed.

This ghastly battle was the product of the ambition and the lust for power of Muawiya and Amr bin Aas. Muawiya was the governor of Syria, and was averse to nothing so much as to losing that position. Amr bin Aas was governor of Egypt but had been sacked by Uthman, and was dying to regain his old position. To retain or to regain their positions, both of them were willing to do anything and to pay any price Truth and Justice did not mean anything to them. They could deluge the Dar-ul-Islam with falsehood, and with the blood of the Muslims to realize their own wishes and ambitions.

The “triumvirs” of Basra (the Companions of the Camel), and Muawiya and Amr bin Aas recognized their great opportunity in the murder of Uthman, and they seized it. Vengeance for his blood was the thin veneer which imparted respectability to their naked lust for power. Uthman – dead was far more valuable to them than Uthman – alive.

Therefore, they gave him all the assistance they could – to be dead. But once he was dead, it became lawful, in fact, it became a duty, for them to commit mass murder in the name of seeking vengeance for his assassination.

The battles of Basra and Siffin were the mass murder of the Muslims dictated by the logic of “Realpolitik.”

Toynbee says that Muhammad and Ali were no match for the merchant princes of Makkah (the Umayyads) in realpolitik. In a sense, he may be right. Muhammad and Ali hesitated to kill even an idolater, not to speak of killing a Muslim. They could not kill anyone for the sake of material power. They were, therefore, handicapped in their “competition” with the Umayyads.


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