Carta de Georgia [junio de 1732] - Historia

Carta de Georgia [junio de 1732] - Historia

GEORGE: el segundo, [& c]. .
Considerando que se nos informa de manera creíble, que muchos de nuestros pobres súbditos, por desgracias y falta de empleo, se ven reducidos a una gran necesidad, en la medida en que por su trabajo no son capaces de proveer un sustento para ellos y sus familias; y si tuvieran los medios para sufragar sus gastos de pasaje y otros gastos relacionados con los nuevos asentamientos, estarían encantados de establecerse en cualquiera de nuestras provincias de América, donde al cultivar las tierras, actualmente baldías y desoladas, podrían no solo ganar una cómoda subsistencia para ellos y sus familias, pero también fortalecer nuestras colonias y aumentar el comercio, la navegación y la riqueza de estos nuestros reinos. Y considerando que nuestras provincias de América del Norte han sido frecuentemente devastadas por enemigos indios; más especialmente el de Carolina del Sur, que a fines de la guerra, por los salvajes vecinos, fue arrasada por el fuego y la espada, y un gran número de habitantes ingleses, miserablemente masacrados, y nuestros amados súbditos que ahora los habitan, a causa de la la pequeñez de su número, en caso de una nueva guerra, estará expuesta a las calamidades tardías [¿como?]; en la medida en que toda su frontera sur continúa sin asentarse, y está abierta a dichos salvajes—. Por tanto, sabed que nosotros. por estos regalos. hacer . ordenar. que nuestro fiel y bien amado John, señor vizconde Purcival, de nuestro reino de Irlanda, nuestro fiel y querido Edward Digby, George Carpenter, James Oglethorpe, George Heathcote, Thomas Tower, Robert Moore, Robert Hucks, Roger Holland, William Sloper, Francis Eyles, John Laroche, James Vernon, Williarn Beletha, escuderos, AM John Burton, BD Richard Bundy, A. Arthur Bedford, A. Samuel Smith, A. Adam Anderson y Thomas Corane, caballero; y aquellas otras personas que serán elegidas de la manera que se menciona a continuación, y sus sucesores serán elegidos de la manera que se indica a continuación; ser y será un cuerpo político y corporativo, de hecho y de nombre, con el nombre de los Fideicomisarios para establecer la colonia de Georgia en América; . y que ellos y sus sucesores con ese nombre serán y podrán para siempre en lo sucesivo, personas capaces y capaces según la ley de comprar, tener, tomar, recibir y disfrutar, para ellos y sus sucesores, de cualquier señorío, mansión, tierra, predio, rentas, concesiones, libertades, privilegios, jurisdicciones, franquicias y otras herencias de cualquier tipo, mintiendo y estando en Gran Bretaña, o en cualquier parte de ella, de cualquier naturaleza, clase o calidad, o valor que sean, en honorarios y perpetuidad, sin exceder el valor anual de mil libras, más allá de las recompensas; también propiedades de por vida, y por años, y toda otra clase de bienes, enseres y cosas cualesquiera que sean; para el mejor asentamiento y soporte y mantenimiento de dicha colonia y otros usos antes mencionados; y ceder, conceder, arrendar y cesar dichos señoríos, tierras, predios, herencias, herencias, bienes, enseres y todo lo antes mencionado, mediante arrendamiento o arriendos, por plazo de años, en posesión al momento de la concesión de los mismos, y no en reversión, sin exceder el plazo de treinta y un años, desde el momento de su otorgamiento; . y que ellos. por el nombre antes mencionado, serán y podrán para siempre en el futuro, personas capaces, capaces según la ley, de comprar, tener, tomar, recibir y disfrutar, para ellos y sus sucesores, cualesquiera tierras, territorios, posesiones, viviendas, jurisdicciones, franquicias. y herencias de cualquier tipo, yaciendo y estando en América, de la cantidad, calidad o valor que sea, para el mejor asentamiento y sustento y mantenimiento de dicha colonia; . Y nuestra voluntad y placer es que el primer presidente de dicha corporación. será. el dicho Lord John Vizconde Percival; y que dicho presidente, dentro de los treinta días siguientes a la aprobación de esta carta constitutiva, hará que se emita una citación a los varios miembros de dicha corporación aquí particularmente nombrados, para que se reúnan en el momento y lugar que él designe, para consultar sobre y tramitar los negocios de dicha corporación. Y . nosotros . directo, que el consejo común de esta corporación estará integrado por quince en número; y lo hacemos. nombrar. John Lord Vizconde Percival,. Edward Digby, George Carpenter, James Oglethorpe, George Heathcote, Thomas Laroche, James Vernon, William Beletha, esqrs., Y Stephen Hales, Master of Arts, para ser el consejo común de dicha corporación, para continuar en dicha oficina durante su buen comportamiento. Y considerando que es nuestra real intención, que los miembros de dicha corporación se incrementen por elección, tan pronto como sea conveniente, a un número mayor que el aquí designado; . lo hacemos por la presente. directo, que desde el momento de tal aumento de los miembros de dicha corporación, el número del consejo común se incrementará a veinticuatro; y que en la misma asamblea en la que se elegirán los miembros adicionales de dicha corporación, se elegirán igualmente, en la forma aquí indicada para la elección de los miembros del consejo común, nueve personas para ser dichos miembros del consejo común, y para componer el número veinticuatro. Y nuestra voluntad y placer ulteriores es eso. Edward Digby, escudero, será el primer presidente del consejo común de dicha corporación; y que dicho señor vizconde Purcival será, y continuará, presidente de dicha corporación, y que dicho Edward Digby será y continuará presidente del consejo común de dicha corporación, respectivamente, hasta la reunión que se celebrará a continuación y inmediatamente después de la primera reunión de dicha corporación, o del consejo común de dicha corporación respectivamente, y no más; . Y lo hacemos por la presente. Directamente, que dicha corporación cada año presente un informe por escrito ante el canciller, orador o comisionados, para la custodia del gran sello de Gran Bretaña. .; el Presidente del Tribunal de Justicia del Tribunal de los Reyes, el Maestro de Rolls, el Presidente del Tribunal de Apelaciones Comunes, y el Jefe de Hacienda. ., o dos de ellos; de todos los dineros y efectos por ellos recibidos o gastados, para llevar a cabo los buenos fines antes mencionados. Dar y conceder a dicha corporación, y sus sucesores, pleno poder y autoridad para constituir, ordenar y hacer, tales y tantos estatutos, constituciones, órdenes y ordenanzas, como les corresponde. en su asamblea general a tal efecto, parecerá necesario y conveniente para el buen ordenamiento y gobierno de dicha corporación; . y en y por dichos estatutos, reglas, órdenes y ordenanzas, para vender, imponer e infligir dolores y sanciones razonables sobre cualquier ofensor o ofensores, quienes transgredirán, violarán o violarán dichos estatutos, constituciones, órdenes y ordenanzas; . así siempre, como dichos estatutos, constituciones, órdenes y ordenanzas, penas y penas. ., ser razonable y no contrario o repugnante a las leyes o estatutos de este nuestro reino; y que tales estatutos, constituciones y ordenanzas, dolores y penas. ., y cualquier derogación o alteración de las mismas, o de cualquiera de ellas, podrá igualmente acordarse que sea constituida y confirmada por la citada asamblea general de dicha corporación, para celebrarse y conservarse a continuación de que se efectúe la misma respectivamente. Y mientras que dicha corporación tiene la intención de establecer una colonia, y hacer una habitación y una plantación en esa parte de nuestra provincia de Carolina del Sur, en América, como se describe a continuación, sepan que nosotros. Dar y otorgar a dicha corporación y sus sucesores bajo la reserva, limitación y declaración, expresada en adelante, siete partes indivisas, el todo en ocho partes iguales a dividir, de todas aquellas tierras, países y territorios, situadas, mintiendo y siendo en esa parte de Carolina del Sur, en América, que se encuentra desde la parte más al norte de un arroyo o río, comúnmente llamado Savannah, a lo largo de la costa del mar hacia el sur, hasta el arroyo más al sur de cierta otra gran agua. o río llamado Alatamaha, y hacia el oeste desde las cabeceras de dichos ríos respectivamente, en líneas directas a los mares del sur; y todo lo que comparte, circuito y recinto de tierra, dentro de dichos límites, con las islas sobre el mar, situadas frente a la costa oriental de dichas tierras, dentro de veinte leguas de las mismas, que no estén habitadas ni pobladas por cualquier autoridad derivada de la corona de Gran Bretaña:. para ser retenidos por nosotros, nuestros herederos y sucesores como de nuestro honor de Hampton-Court, en nuestro condado de Middlesex en soccage libre y común, y no in capite, cediendo y pagándonos por ello. anualmente para siempre, la suma de cuatro chelines por cada cien acres de dichas tierras, que dicha corporación otorgará, destruirá, plantará o asentará; dicho pago no comenzará ni se realizará hasta diez años después de dicha concesión, desaparición, plantación o asentamiento; y ser respondido y pagado. de tal manera y en tal especie de dinero o billetes, que estén vigentes en pago, por proclamación de vez en cuando, en nuestra dicha provincia de Carolina del Sur. Todas las tierras, países, territorios y locales. hacemos con estos presentes, construimos, erigimos y creamos una provincia independiente y separada, con el nombre de Georgia ... Y que todas y cada una de las personas, que en cualquier momento habitarán o residirán en nuestra provincia, deberán Ser, y por la presente se declara libre, y no estará sujeto ni estará obligado a obedecer ninguna ley, orden, estatuto o constitución, que hasta ahora se haya hecho, ordenado o promulgado por, para o como, las leyes, órdenes. , estatutos o constituciones de nuestra dicha provincia de Carolina del Sur, (excepto y excepto sólo el [comandante] en jefe de la milicia, de nuestra dicha provincia de Georgia, a nuestro gobernador por el momento de Carolina del Sur, de la manera que se declara a continuación; ) pero estará sujeto y obligado a obedecer las leyes, órdenes, estatutos y constituciones que de vez en cuando se hagan, ordenen y promulguen para el mejor gobierno de dicha provincia de Georgia, de la manera que se declara más adelante. que durante y durante el término de veintiún años, a partir de la fecha de estas nuestras cartas patentes, dicha corporación reunida para ese propósito, deberá y podrá formar y preparar, leyes, estatutos y ordenanzas, adecuados y necesarios para y con respecto a la gobierno de dicha colonia, y no repugnante a las leyes y estatutos de Inglaterra; y los mismos nos presentarán y podrán presentarnos bajo su sello común. ., en nuestro consejo privado o en su consejo privado para nuestra o su aprobación o rechazo: y dichas leyes, estatutos y ordenanzas, siendo aprobadas por nosotros. ., en nuestro consejo privado o en el de ellos, a partir de ahí estará en pleno vigor y virtud dentro de nuestra provincia de Georgia. Y para mayor comodidad y aliento de nuestros súbditos amorosos y de aquellos otros que vendrán a habitar en nuestra colonia, lo hacemos. Ordenar, que para siempre en el futuro, habrá libertad de conciencia permitida en el culto de Dios, a todas las personas que habitan, o que habitarán o residirán dentro de nuestra provincia, y que todas esas personas, excepto los papistas, tendrán un libre ejercicio de la religión, para que se contenten con el goce tranquilo y pacífico de la misma, sin ofender ni escándalo al gobierno. Y nuestra voluntad y placer ulteriores es, y lo hacemos por la presente. declarar y conceder, que será y podrá ser lícito para dicho consejo común. distribuir, traspasar, ceder y poner sobre tales porciones particulares de tierras, inquilinatos y herencias por estos obsequios otorgados a dicha corporación, a tales nuestros amados súbditos, natos, habitantes u otros que estén dispuestos a convertirse en nuestros súbditos, y vivir bajo nuestra lealtad en dicha colonia, en tales términos, y para tales propiedades, y en tales rentas, reservas y condiciones que las mismas puedan ser legalmente otorgadas, y en cuanto a dicho concilio común ... parecerá apropiado y apropiado ... .. Previsto . que no se otorgue mayor cantidad de tierras, ya sea en pleno término y vencimiento de veintiún años. ., tienen pleno poder y autoridad para nominar, hacer, constituir y comisionar, ordenar y nombrar, por el nombre o nombres, estilo o estilos que les parezcan adecuados y adecuados, todos y en singular tales gobernadores, jueces, magistrados, ministros. y oficiales, civiles y militares, tanto por mar como por tierra, dentro de dichos distritos, que ellos consideren conveniente y necesario para ser hechos o usados ​​para dicho gobierno de dicha colonia; salvo siempre, y excepto en los cargos que realizamos nosotros. ser constituido y designado de vez en cuando, para la gestión de la recaudación y recepción de los ingresos, que de vez en cuando surjan dentro de dicha provincia de Georgia, y que nos correspondan. Siempre proporcionado. .. que todo gobernador de dicha provincia de Georgia, que será designado por el consejo común de dicha corporación, antes de que entre o ejecute dicho cargo de gobernador, será aprobado por nosotros. ., y prestará tales juramentos, y se calificará a sí mismo de tal manera, en todos los aspectos, como cualquier gobernador o comandante en jefe de cualquiera de nuestras colonias o plantaciones en América está obligado por ley a hacerlo; y dará seguridad buena y suficiente para observar las diversas leyes del parlamento relacionadas con el comercio y la navegación, y para observar y obedecer todas las instrucciones que le enviemos. ., o cualquiera que actúe bajo nuestra autoridad o la de ellos, de conformidad con dichos actos, o cualquiera de ellos. [La corporación puede establecer y entrenar una milicia, fortalecer y defender la colonia, ejercer la ley marcial en tiempo de guerra, etc.] Y. Eva lo hace. conceder, que el gobernador y comandante en jefe de la provincia de Carolina del Sur. por el momento, en lo sucesivo tendrá en todo momento el mando principal de la milicia de nuestra provincia. otorgue y otorgue, a dicha corporación y sus sucesores, ponver y autoridad plenas para importar y exportar sus mercancías, en y desde cualquier puerto o puertos que designemos. dentro de dicha provincia de Georgia, a tal efecto, sin estar obligado a tocar en ningún otro puerto de Carolina del Sur. Y lo hacemos. hará y declarará, que desde y después de la terminación de dicho término o [fuera de] veintiún años, tal forma de gobierno y método de hacer leyes, estatutos y ordenanzas, para el mejor gobierno y ordenamiento de dicha provincia de Georgia, y los habitantes de la misma, se establecerán y observarán dentro de ti o en parcelas, para o para el uso, o en fideicomiso para cualquier persona, de quinientos acres ... Y por la presente otorgamos y ordenamos, que dicha persona o personas , por el momento, lo será designado por dicha corporación. tener plenos poderes y autoridad para administrar y prestar los juramentos, designados por una ley del parlamento, hechos en el primer año del reinado de nuestro difunto padre real, para ser tomados en lugar de los juramentos de lealtad y supremacía; y también el juramento de abjuración, a todas y cada una de las personas que en cualquier momento habitarán o residirán en nuestra colonia; y en casos similares para administrar la solemne afirmación a cualquiera de las personas comúnmente llamadas cuáqueros, de tal manera que lo establezcan las leyes de nuestro reino de Gran Bretaña, se podrá administrar la misma. que dicha corporación y sus sucesores, tendrán plenos poderes y autoridad, por y durante los períodos de veintiún años. ., para erigir y constituir judicaturas y tribunales de registro, u otros tribunales, que se llevarán a cabo en nuestro nombre. para la audiencia y determinación de todo tipo de delitos, ofensas, alegatos, procesos, quejas, acciones, asuntos, causas y cosas de cualquier tipo, que surjan o sucedan, dentro de dicha provincia de Georgia, o entre personas de Georgia; si los mismos son penales o civiles, y si dichos delitos son capitales o no capitales, y si dichos alegatos son reales, personales o mixtos: y por el otorgamiento y dictamen de las ejecuciones. Y nuestra ganancia y placer adicional es que las rentas, emisiones y todas las demás ganancias, que en el futuro llegarán a dicha corporación, [se aplicarán de la manera que dicha corporación] o la mayor parte de ellos que Estará presente en cualquier reunión reunida con ese propósito, pensará que mejorará y ampliará al máximo dicha colonia, y responderá mejor a los buenos propósitos aquí mencionados anteriormente, y para sufragar todos los demás cargos sobre la misma. Y nuestra voluntad y placer es que dicha corporación y sus sucesores cedan de vez en cuando a uno de los principales secretarios de estado y a los comisionados de comercio y plantaciones, las cuentas de los progresos de dicha colonia. Y nuestra voluntad y placer es que el consejo común de dicha corporación por el momento. deberá . a la
fin total y vencimiento de veintiún años. ., tienen pleno poder y autoridad para nominar, hacer, constituir y comisionar, ordenar y nombrar, por el nombre o nombres, estilo o estilos que les parezcan adecuados y adecuados, todos y en singular tales gobernadores, jueces, magistrados, ministros. y oficiales, civiles y militares, tanto por mar como por tierra, dentro de dichos distritos, que ellos consideren conveniente y necesario para ser hechos o usados ​​para dicho gobierno de dicha colonia; salvo siempre, y excepto en los cargos que realizamos nosotros. que todo gobernador de dicha provincia de Georgia, que será designado por el consejo común de dicha corporación, antes de que entre o ejecute dicho cargo de gobernador, será aprobado por nosotros. hacemos . otorgue y otorgue, a dicha corporación y sus sucesores, pleno poder y autoridad para importar y exportar sus mercancías, en y desde cualquier puerto o puertos que designemos. hará y declarará, que desde y después de la terminación de dicho término o [de] veintiún años, tal forma de gobierno y método de hacer leyes, estatutos y ordenanzas, para el mejor gobierno y ordenamiento de dicha provincia de Georgia, y los habitantes de la misma, serán establecidos y observados dentro de la misma, como nosotros. en lo sucesivo ordenará y nombrará, y será conforme a la ley; y que desde y después de la determinación de dicho término de veintiún años, el gobernador de nuestra dicha provincia de Georgia, y todos los oficiales civiles y militares, dentro de la misma, serán de tiempo en tiempo nominados y constituidos, y nombrados por nosotros .


¿Qué era la Carta Orgánica de 1732 de Georgia?

La Carta de Georgia de 1732 fue un documento otorgado a 20 fideicomisarios para la fundación de lo que se convirtió en la última colonia de Inglaterra en Estados Unidos, la colonia de Georgia que lleva el nombre de George, el rey que emitió la carta. La colonia fue fundada por James Oglethorpe, quien quería que sirviera como colonia para deudores y pobres. Su otro propósito principal era actuar como un estado amortiguador para Carolina del Sur.

Los primeros colonos llegaron a Georgia en 1733 bajo las estipulaciones establecidas en la carta. La Carta de 1732 otorgó a los fideicomisarios de la colonia una gran cantidad de poder para establecer y administrar la colonia. Establecieron el gobierno de la colonia, cobraron impuestos a los habitantes y decidieron concesiones de tierras para quienes vinieran a establecerse. La intención original de James Oglethorpe y los fideicomisarios era prohibir que grandes extensiones de tierra fueran a parar a una sola persona y prohibir la esclavitud en la colonia. Oglethorpe quería que Georgia fuera una colonia de segundas oportunidades para los oprimidos. Debido a la forma en que se estableció Georgia, la colonia era bastante diferente a otras en Estados Unidos. No hubo representación de colonos en el establecimiento de leyes. Los colonos que alguna vez estuvieron tan emocionados de llegar a Estados Unidos finalmente llegaron a resentirse del control que sentían que los fideicomisarios tenían sobre cada aspecto de su nuevo hogar.


Una carta para Georgia

Al inspeccionar las ruinas humeantes de sus asentamientos y las tumbas recién excavadas de los miembros de la familia, la gente de Carolina del Sur suplicó a Inglaterra que los protegiera de los indios. Con la mirada fija en los muros de piedra de las cárceles de deudores, los ingleses suplicaron por una oportunidad para un nuevo comienzo.

Difícilmente parecería que un estatuto de corporación, lleno de términos legales, tuviera mucho que ver con la historia cristiana. Pero la carta firmada por el rey Jorge II de Inglaterra en este día, 9 de junio de 1732, sí lo hizo. Creó la colonia de Georgia.

Las razones religiosas para crear la colonia no encabezaban la carta. La principal preocupación del gobierno era quitarse de encima a los deudores y mostrar una presencia inglesa entre las Carolinas y Florida.

Pero las consideraciones religiosas ocupaban un lugar destacado en la mente del hombre que hizo más que nadie para promover el plan de Georgia. James Oglethorpe escribió: "En América hay tierras fértiles suficientes para sustentar a todos los pobres inútiles en Inglaterra, y protestantes angustiados en Europa, pero miles mueren de hambre por falta de mero sustento". [Nuestras citas están en inglés moderno.]

"El cristianismo se extenderá con la realización de este designio ya que, la buena disciplina establecida por la sociedad, reformará los modales de ese pueblo miserable, que será ayudado por él y el ejemplo de toda una colonia, que se comportará de manera justa, El modo moral y religioso contribuirá en gran medida a la conversión de los indios, y eliminará los prejuicios recibidos de la vida perversa de aquellos que apenas tienen otra cosa de cristianismo que el nombre ". Al escribir esto, Oglethorpe tenía en mente el noble experimento de William Penn, Pennsylvania.

Y así, Georgia comenzó como una empresa benéfica. Es una compañía extraña que prohíbe a la gerencia obtener ganancias personales, pero así es exactamente como se creó la corporación de Georgia. Al darse cuenta de que la gente pobre no tenía forma de pagar su pasaje, la compañía pagó sus pasajes por ellos. Además, les proporcionó herramientas y comida hasta que la colonia pudo ponerse en pie.

¿Se cumplieron los objetivos de la carta? Ninguno de los primeros pobladores procedía de la prisión de deudores. En su lugar, se envió a agricultores y comerciantes. Los deudores vinieron después. En sus primeros diez años de existencia, la empresa envió a más de 1.800 personas a Georgia. Más de un tercio de ellos eran europeos desplazados. Los objetivos militares de Georgia tuvieron un éxito más claro. Sus fuertes ayudaron a domesticar la región y Oglethorpe derrotó a una fuerza española de Florida que duplicaba el tamaño de la suya.

A diferencia de algunas colonias, Georgia no estableció una religión. Cualquier colono protestante podía adorar a su antojo. King George lo explicó en la carta. ". Todas esas personas, excepto los papistas [católicos], tendrán el libre ejercicio de su religión siempre que [siempre] estén contentos con el disfrute tranquilo y pacífico de la misma sin ofender ni escándalo al gobierno".

Oglethorpe se preocupaba tanto por la moral como por la libertad religiosa. Luchó duro para ilegalizar la esclavitud y mantener el ron fuera de la colonia. Los colonos lucharon con la misma fuerza para permitir ambos. El resultado fue que Oglethorpe fue llamado a Inglaterra y los colonos se salieron con la suya. En Inglaterra luchó por su rey. Permaneció interesado en Estados Unidos mientras vivió.


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La última colonia americana era Georgia, fundada 50 años después de los otros doce. Fue fundada por James Oglethorpe, un reformador de prisiones. Oglethorpe era un miembro del Parlamento preocupado por las atroces y abarrotadas condiciones de las cárceles de los deudores, cuando decidió enviar a los presos a Estados Unidos, donde había mucho espacio.

Rey Jorge II concedido una carta durante veintiún años a un consejo de administración de la tierra entre los ríos Savannah y Altamaha y hacia el oeste hasta el "Mar del Sur". Originalmente, había veintiún fideicomisarios nombrados en la carta de 1732 "Los fideicomisarios para el establecimiento de la colonia de Georgia". Durante el período de la administración fiduciaria (1732-1755), se agregaron cincuenta más. El nuevo país se llamó Georgia, de George II que había concedido la carta. Las libertades de los ingleses estaban garantizadas a las colonias y la libertad de religión a todos menos a los católicos.

El propósito de la colonia no era solo una oportunidad para que los presos comenzaran una nueva vida. Su propósito era también proporcionar un refugio para los protestantes perseguidos y una presencia militar entre las otras colonias y la Florida española.

Oglethorpe fue elegido gobernador. Viajó a América con treinta y cinco familias, y llegó en la primavera de 1733. La tierra estaba habitada por nativos americanos, principalmente Creek y Cherokee. En un acantilado con vistas al río Savannah y al mar, fundó la primera ciudad y le puso el nombre del río.

Georgia era un refugio para los protestantes que huían de la persecución religiosa en Europa. En 1734 llegaron los primeros inmigrantes religiosos a Savannah. Los salzburgers, un pueblo devoto protestante, fueron conducidos por Oglethorpe hasta la desembocadura de la Sabana, donde fundaron la ciudad de Ebenezer. Otros vinieron poco después: John Wesley, el fundador del metodismo, vino como misionero, y un gran grupo de montañeses escoceses.

Georgia era diferente de las otras doce colonias. Recibió dinero del Parlamento para comenzar, y solo de las 12 colonias, prohibió la esclavitud y la importación de alcohol. En general, se cree que no se permitía la entrada de abogados en la colonia, pero no se ha encontrado ninguna legislación que lo pruebe. Los colonos no tenían control sobre su propio gobierno, estaba completamente gobernado por los fideicomisarios.

La colonia luchó contra los españoles. Georgia era la colonia más meridional y limitaba con la Florida española. Savannah fue fortificada para defenderse de los ataques de los españoles y los nativos americanos. En 1739, cuando Inglaterra y España estaban en guerra (Guerra del Rey Jorge o Guerra de Sucesión de Austria), Oglethorpe dirigió una expedición contra San Agustín. Aunque no lograron capturar la ciudad, lograron rechazar un ataque de represalia español contra la colonia.

Los colonos no estaban contentos con las restricciones impuestas a la colonia. Después de 12 años como gobernador, Oglethorpe regresó a Inglaterra con sus demandas. Querían poder tener alcohol y esclavos, participar en su propio gobierno y exigieron una reforma agraria. Tuvieron éxito. Se permitió la entrada de alcohol a la colonia porque se pensó que la importación de alcohol mejoraría el comercio. Hubo una fuerte oposición a la esclavitud, particularmente por parte de los inmigrantes religiosos, estaban en minoría y en 1749 Georgia se convirtió en una colonia de esclavos.

Georgia se convirtió en colonia real en 1752. Los fideicomisarios no pudieron establecer el autogobierno y se rindieron antes de que expirara la carta de 21 años. A los hombres libres se les dio el derecho a votar (a menos que fueran católicos romanos) y la gente eligió una asamblea. El gobernador fue designado por el rey.

Georgia creció para parecerse más a las otras colonias. Había crecido rápidamente después de la liberación de las restricciones, aunque en el momento de la Revolución Americana todavía era el menos poblado. Georgia seguía siendo en su mayor parte un desierto, pero Savannah, aunque todavía era una pequeña ciudad boscosa, era importante. Los esclavos constituían la mitad de la población de 40.000 a 50.000 habitantes, y había unos pocos hacendados ricos. La mayoría de la gente, sin embargo, eran pequeños agricultores. La iglesia inglesa fue la iglesia estatal después de que Georgia se convirtió en una colonia real, pero se otorgó libertad religiosa a todos los protestantes. Al principio, los colonos creían que la seda sería un producto importante de Georgia, ya que la morera, que proporciona el alimento natural del gusano de seda, crecía de forma silvestre en Georgia. Sin embargo, nadie pudo tener éxito en el negocio. Los principales productos fueron el arroz, el índigo, la madera y el comercio de pieles con los nativos americanos. .


Fuente principal

La Carta Real de 1732 (Archivos de Georgia)

& quotOglethorpe and the Indians & quot del Friso de la Historia Estadounidense, Edificio del Capitolio de la Rotonda


Historia de Georgia

1) Según la Carta de 1732, había tres razones principales para colonizar Georgia. Con base en su conocimiento de la historia colonial de Georgia, evalúe el éxito de cada uno de los factores motivadores para la colonización de Georgia que se enumeran en la Carta de 1772.

2) Identificar los bienes producidos en la Georgia colonial y explicar cómo estos bienes contribuyeron al mercantilismo.

3) En 3-5 oraciones, describa los acontecimientos que ocurrieron en Georgia después de que se convirtió en una colonia real.

4) En 3-5 oraciones, explique los impactos que el contacto y el asentamiento europeos tuvieron en los nativos americanos.
Esto es de una guía de estudio y no puedo encontrar las respuestas en ninguna parte de mis notas o en mi libro.

Nadie aquí escribirá sus tareas por usted, pero alguien puede criticar su pensamiento y escritura si publica sus respuestas.

¿Me explicará las preguntas porque no las entiendo?

1) ¿Cuáles fueron las tres razones principales para colonizar Georgia? ¿Qué tan exitoso fue cada uno de esos motivos? Es decir, ¿por qué la gente colonizó Georgia? ¿Estaban escapando de algo? ¿Querían una vida mejor? ¿Se les prometió algo (incluso si es posible que no lo hayan recibido)?

2) ¿Qué cosas se produjeron en la Georgia colonial? ¿Cómo contribuyeron estas cosas a que Georgia prosperara, tanto en el comercio con otras colonias y países, como entre otros georgianos?

3) En 3-5 oraciones, cuente cómo cambió Georgia después de que se convirtió en una colonia real.

4) En 3-5 oraciones, cuente cómo el contacto con los colonos europeos afectó a los nativos americanos.

¡Y & # 039todos necesitan simplemente parar! Anónimo, tengo dos respuestas para ti Respuesta n. ° 1 Los europeos destruyeron por completo su forma de vida. Les dieron enfermedad y muerte. Luego construyeron un imperio sobre sus cadáveres. Respuesta # 2 Muchos acontecimientos ocurrieron en Georgia después de que se convirtió en una colonia real. Uno de los principales es que se importaron esclavos. Las plantaciones de algodón y arroz se establecieron y crecieron rápidamente. La tierra de Georgia se compraba con más frecuencia y las mujeres podían heredar tierras. En general, Georgia tiene un enorme aumento en su desarrollo.
ESPERO ESO AYUDE :)


Carta de Georgia [junio de 1732] - Historia


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La última colonia americana era Georgia, fundada 50 años después de los otros doce. Fue fundada por James Oglethorpe, un reformador de prisiones. Oglethorpe era un miembro del Parlamento preocupado por las atroces y abarrotadas condiciones de las cárceles de los deudores, cuando decidió enviar a los presos a Estados Unidos, donde había mucho espacio.

Rey Jorge II concedido una carta durante veintiún años a un consejo de administración de la tierra entre los ríos Savannah y Altamaha y hacia el oeste hasta el "Mar del Sur". Originalmente, había veintiún fideicomisarios nombrados en la carta de 1732 "Los fideicomisarios para el establecimiento de la colonia de Georgia". Durante el período de la administración fiduciaria (1732-1755), se agregaron cincuenta más. El nuevo país se llamó Georgia, de George II que había concedido la carta. Las libertades de los ingleses estaban garantizadas a las colonias y la libertad de religión a todos menos a los católicos.

El propósito de la colonia no era solo una oportunidad para que los presos comenzaran una nueva vida. Su propósito era también proporcionar un refugio para los protestantes perseguidos y una presencia militar entre las otras colonias y la Florida española.

Oglethorpe fue elegido gobernador. He traveled to America with thirty-five families, arriving in the spring of 1733. The land was inhabited by Native Americans, primarily the Creek and Cherokee. On a bluff overlooking the Savannah River and the sea he founded the first city and named it after the river.

Georgia was a haven for those protestants fleeing religious persecution in Europe. In 1734 the first religious immigrants arrived in Savannah. The Salzburgers, a devout protestant people, were led by Oglethorpe up the mouth of the Savannah, where they founded the town of Ebenezer. Others came soon after: John Wesley, the founder of methodism came as a missionary, and a large group of Scottish highlanders.

Georgia was different from the other twelve colonies. It received money from Parliament to get it started, and alone of the 12 colonies, prohibited slavery and the import of alcohol. It is generally believed that lawyers were not allowed in the colony, but no legislation has been found to prove it. The settlers had no control of their own government - it was entirely ruled by the trustees.

The colony fought the Spanish . Georgia was the southernmost colony and bordered Spanish Florida. Savannah was fortified to defend from attacks by the Spanish and Native Americans. In 1739, when England and Spain were at war (King George's War or The War of the Austrian Succession), Oglethorpe led an expedition against St. Augustine. Although they failed to capture the city, they were successful in beating back a Spanish retaliation attack on the colony.

The colonists were not happy with the restrictions placed on the colony. After 12 years as governor, Oglethorpe returned to England bearing their demands. They wanted to be able to have alcohol and slaves, to participate in their own government, and demanded land reform. Tuvieron éxito. Alcohol was allowed into the colony because it was thought that the importation of alcohol would improve trade. There was strong opposition to slavery, particularly from the religious immigrants, they were in the minority and in 1749 Georgia became a slave colony.

Georgia became a royal colony in 1752. The trustees were unable to establish self-government and gave up before the 21 year charter had expired. Freemen were given the right to vote (unless they were Roman Catholics) and the people elected an assembly. The governor was appointed by the king.

Georgia grew to be more like the other colonies . It had grown quickly after the release of restrictions, though by the time of the American Revolution it was still the least populated. Georgia was still mostly wilderness, but Savannah, though still a small town of wood, was important. Slaves constituted half of the 40,000-50,000 population, and there were a few rich planters. Most of the people, however were small farmers. The English church was the state church after Georgia became a royal colony, but religious freedom was granted to all protestants. At first colonists believed that silk would be an important product of Georgia, since the mulberry tree, which furnishes the natural food of the silkworm, grew wild in Georgia. However, no one was able to succeed at the business. The chief products were rice, indigo, lumber, and Fur Trade with the Native Americans .


Primary Source

The Royal Charter of 1732 (Georgia Archives)

"Oglethorpe and the Indians" from the Frieze of American History, Rotunda Capitol Building


Georgia's History

The Charter of 1732 was the beginning of the original Georgia colony, the last of the 13 original colonies to be established. Still under British rule, for it was only a colony and the United States of America did not exist at the time, was set up for debtors in order to give them a fresh start at their lives. However, four groups of people were not allowed to come to the colony: Catholics, so as not to break their bond with the Church of England African Americans, in order to keep slavery out of the colony drug dealers, for alcohol was prohibited and lawyers, for Oglethorpe felt the people should solve their problems out of court and did not think lawyers would let them do this.

For those who could move to the colony, they were promised 50 acres of land, tools, and enough food for an entire year. Regulations included: 1) the men had to defend the colonies from enemies, 2) land could not be sold and no money could be borrowed on it, but it could be passed down to a male heir, 3) the given seeds and tools had to be used cultivate land for new settlement, 4) the settlers had to grow mulberry trees to attract silk worms (the cocoons were used to make silk), and 5) all the regulations established by the trustees were to be obeyed.

Advertisement for the New World was all over England. People came in order to gain religious freedoms, adventure, and a new start for a better life.


Charter Of Georgia [June 1732] - History

Unit 2 Vocabulary - Georgia’s Colonization

1. Oglethorpe, James (1696-1785) - one of the 21 members of the trustees who established Georgia only trustee to come to the colony and served as the de facto military and governmental leader of the colony.

2. Salzburgers - a group of Protestants from Austria who were invited to settle in Georgia due to religious persecution they were experiencing in Europe established the towns of Ebenezer and New Ebenezer were some of the most successful colonists.

3. Tomochichi - was the Chief of the Yamacraw Indians. Tomochichi befriended James Oglethorpe and allowed him to establish the colony of Georgia on Yamacraw territory.

4. Trustee period (1732-1751) - the time period when Georgia was governed by the trustees. The trustees created many regulations during the time period, including a ban on slavery, liquor and liquor dealers, lawyers, and Catholics.

5. Musgrove, Mary (1700-1763) - Creek Indian woman who served as the translator for James Oglethorpe and Yamacraw Chief Tomochichi.

6. Malcontent - a group of colonists who complained about the trustee regulations for the Georgia colony primary complaint was the ban on slavery and rum. Eventually the malcontents got their way as liquor and slavery were allowed in Georgia in the 1750s.

7. Highland Scots - from the Highlands of Scotland and known as some of the best fighters in Europe in the 1700’s. James Oglethorpe brought a group to Georgia to serve as soldiers for the colony. The Highland Scots founded the town of Darien.

8. Charter of 1732 - the document that formally established the colony of Georgia outlines the reasons for Georgia’s founding and the regulations set up by the trustees.

9. Buffer Colony - one of three reasons for Georgia’s founding colony was to serve as a defensive buffer between Spanish Florida and the successful English colony of South Carolina.

10. Charity - one of the three reasons for Georgia’s founding. James Oglethorpe and the trustees hoped to bring debtors and England’s “worthy poor” to the colony to begin new lives. However, no debtor was ever released from debtors’ prison to come to Georgia.

11. Mulberry Trees - used in the production of silk. The silk worms were placed on the trees and used the leaves as food. The Georgia colonists were required to set aside a portion of their land to grow the trees.

12. Savannah - The first capital of Georgia founded in 1733 by James Oglethorpe.


Mrs. Streeter's 8th Grade Georgia Studies Class

SS8H1.b Explain reasons for European exploration and settlement of North America, with emphasis on the interests of the Spanish and British in the Southeastern area.

European nations had different reasons for exploring North America, specifically the Southeast. Economic competition between the French, the Dutch, the Spanish, and the English was a primary cause for the exploration of North America. Each desired to build a large empire that would create political and economic dominance in the world.

France, interested in developing a serious fur trade in North America, was primarily interested in Louisiana, the Ohio Valley, and Canada. However, in 1562, Jean Ribault explored Georgia&rsquos coastline in search of the ideal location on which to establish a French colony. He chose a South Carolina location instead. francés
Protestants eventually moved from South Carolina into Georgia as they sought religious freedom in the 1730&rsquos.

Spain was interested in North America (particularly the Southeast) for the three G&rsquos: God, Gold and Glory. Converting the American Indians to Christianity, filling the Spanish monarch&rsquos treasury with gold, and seeking personal fortune and fame were the goals of Spanish conquistadores. The Spanish never realized the need for self-sustaining colonies as they were preoccupied with their search for gold.

England desired to create permanent colonies in North America to support the economic policy of mercantilism (the economic policy in which a country seeks to export more than it imports). The &ldquomother country&rdquo developed colonies that produced raw materials that would be shipped &ldquohome&rdquo for production into finished products. These products would be shipped back to the colony for purchase by the colonists. Other reasons for creating colonies included a desire for &ldquoreligious freedom&rdquo and a place to begin a &ldquonew life&rdquo.

SS8H1.c Evaluate the impact of Spanish contact on American Indians, including the explorations of Hernando DeSoto and the establishment of Spanish missions along the barrier islands.

Spanish contact had a dramatic impact on the American Indian culture in Georgia. Hernando DeSoto, the first known European explorer in Georgia, was directly responsible for starving and killing a large number of American Indians in his quest for God, gold and glory. Without an established plan for exploration, DeSoto and his men moved from Florida into southwest Georgia in their search for gold. The American Indians often provided DeSoto false information regarding vast stores of gold further north in an attempt to protect their own villages/towns. Though DeSoto never found the gold he desired, he did introduce Europe to southeastern North America. The journals maintained by DeSoto&rsquos men are the first to give insight into the Mississippian chiefdom culture. DeSoto&rsquos journey is credited with introducing pigs to North America and devastating diseases to the American Indian culture. Smallpox was spread by the extensive trade network utilized by the Mississippians. Measles and influenza also attacked the Mississippians at alarming rates. DeSoto&rsquos failed expedition (his men never found gold and he died near the Mississippi River and was buried in the river) led to increased efforts by the French and Spanish to explore the southeast coastline and to establish colonies. Colonization efforts were not met with great success. However, the most successful Spanish colonization attempt was during the &ldquoMission Period&rdquo from 1568 &ndash 1684. It was during this period that Spain built several missions (churches) on the barrier islands as well as on the mainland. These sites included missions on Cumberland Island, St. Catherine&rsquos Island, and near the Okefenokee Swamp. Missions built on the mainland were located as far inland as the current cities of Valdosta and Lumber City.

​Spanish missions were located near Mississippian towns so the priests and friars could achieve their primary goal: the conversion of the American Indians to Christianity (Catholicism). Consequently, the missions encouraged the American Indians to embrace Spanish political and economic systems. As an example, to show allegiance to the Spanish, unmarried American Indian males were required to work in Saint Augustine for several months out of the year, causing considerable change to the American Indian society. The close contact with the Spanish brought disease and death to the American Indians, who were increasingly disturbed by the changes to their own culture. By the mid-1600&rsquos, the Spanish mission system was crumbling. British influence (based in the South Carolina colony) often stirred American Indians to raid the missions and, by 1680&rsquos, coastal missions were abandoned by the Spanish. A pirate raid in 1684 pushed the remainder of the mission American Indians into Florida, ending the Spanish mission period in Georgia.

****SS8H2 a. Explain the importance of the Charter of 1732, including the reasons for settlement (philanthropy, economics, and defense).

The colony of Georgia was officially founded on February 12, 1733. Historical research has concluded that, contrary to popular belief, Georgia was not a debtor&rsquos colony and not a single debtor was released from prison to settle the 13th colony. In addition, James Oglethorpe was not the primary &ldquofounder&rdquo of Georgia nor was he the colony&rsquos official &ldquogovernor.&rdquo He was one of 21 trustees who was responsible for governing the colony.

Nevertheless, the story of Georgia&rsquos founding is still unique in comparison to the establishment of the other 12 colonies. The intent of this standard is to gain a better understanding of the events that led to the founding of Georgia and the people and circumstances that created Georgia&rsquos colonial history. Additionally, understanding the differences between the Trustee and the Royal Periods of the colony will help identify how these changes shaped the future state of Georgia economically, politically, and socially.

Georgia&rsquos Charter of 1732 outlined in detail the reasons for Georgia&rsquos settlement and is a remarkable document based on its provisions for the colonists. Georgia was founded for three primary reasons: philanthropy, economics, and defense. Of the three, the only true success the colony had under the Trustees was Georgia&rsquos defense of South Carolina against Spanish invasion.

Philanthropy . Moved to action by his concern for the treatment of prison conditions for indebted people, James Oglethorpe was hopeful to create a colony for debtors and the &ldquoworthy poor.&rdquo His dream, however, never became a reality as no debtor was ever released from prison to live in the colony. Philanthropic work in the colony was guided by the details of the Charter of 1732. The charter provided the guidelines for the colonists of the new colony. While most of Georgia&rsquos first settlers were not wealthy, many were skilled craftsmen who were looking for a &ldquonew start&rdquo in the new colony. Incentives, including 50 acres of land (500 acres if the colonists paid their own passage), one year&rsquos supply of food, and free seed and agricultural supplies for a year, were too enticing for many people to disregard and was more than they could expect to have if they remained in England. This philanthropic gesture caused many to try their luck in the new colony.

Economics . Mercantilism was a guiding factor in the establishment of the colony of Georgia. The Trustees hoped that the colonists of Georgia would be able to produce four agricultural products that could not be grown successfully in England. Rice, indigo, wine, and, most importantly, silk were the crops that were desired in England. In fact, silk was so important to the trustees that all colonists were required to set aside land on which to grow mulberry trees. The mulberry leaves were the food of choice for silkworms. Tobacco, as in other southern colonies, was grown by some Georgia colonists but this crop was not an important crop until the late colonial period and early statehood period.

None of these products reached the level of success desired by the Trustees. During the colonial period, Georgia&rsquos wine industry never produced sufficient quantities for successful export and the silk industry did not return the profits that were desired. Rice, indigo, and tobacco were more successful during the Royal period and early statehood period. A helpful mnemonic for these crops is the W.R.I.S.T. crops (wine, rice, indigo, silk, and tobacco).

Defense . The most important reason for Georgia&rsquos founding was defense, primarily against the Spanish in Florida. In the 1730&rsquos, South Carolina was a profitable British colony that was threatened by Spanish military outposts in Florida. The Georgia colony&rsquos role was to serve as a military &ldquobuffer&rdquo between the two. Evidence of the buffer zone includes the forts that Oglethorpe constructed between Spanish Florida and Georgia and his bringing the highly-skilled Highland Scots to reoccupy the abandoned Fort King George (near modern-day Darien) in 1736.

The War of Jenkins&rsquo Ear was important to the survival of the colony of Georgia and helped Georgia serve its function as a buffer for South Carolina from the Spanish in Florida. The war was named after a British captain, Robert Jenkins, whose ear was cut off by the Spanish after he attempted to raid one of their ships. Jenkins, who survived the attack, brought his ear to the English Parliament which in turn caused the English public to demand retribution against the Spanish.

Once war was declared, James Oglethorpe made a failed attempt to capture St. Augustine. After the British retreated, Spain decided to attack and destroy the young Georgia colony. The Spanish attacked St. Simon&rsquos Island but were soundly defeated by the colonists and their Indian allies during the Battle of Bloody Marsh. After this battle, the Spanish never overtly threatened the colony again. In 1748 both sides agreed that the border between English Georgia and Spanish Florida would be the St. Johns River.

The Charter of 1732 created strict guidelines for Georgia colonists. To ensure an unbiased role in the colony, Trustees were not paid, could not own land, or hold office in the colony. The Trustees genuinely believed the guidelines of the charter to be beneficial to the colonists. Because the colony was to support the &ldquoworthy poor,&rdquo the Trustees initially forbade rum (hard alcohol) as they feared hard liquor would cause the colonists to become idle and avoid hard work. Slavery was also forbidden as the Trustees hoped to avoid what had happened in South Carolina: the creation of large plantations versus the small farmers who struggled (the wealthy v. the poor). The Trustees also barred liquor dealers and Catholics from the colony. Some historians indicate that lawyers may have been banned as well. Defending the colony against Spanish, French or American Indian attack was a requirement of the colonists, a major provision of the Charter of 1732. The production of silk forced the colonists to grow mulberry trees. Colonists could not sell their land and their land must be passed down to male heirs, and they had to obey all Trustee rules. The original Charter also included a prohibition of Jews settling in the colony. However, when the colonists were besieged with medical concerns, a group of Portuguese Jews arrived with a doctor. Oglethorpe, violating Trustee rules, allowed the Jews to settle in Savannah and Dr. Samuel Nunes was credited with &ldquosaving the colony.&rdquo

The provisions detailed in the Charter of 1732 eventually caused discontent among the colonists. Believing that the provisions were causing few opportunities for economic success, some colonists petitioned for changes in the charter.

****SS8H2 b. Analyze the relationship between James Oglethorpe, Tomochichi, and Mary Musgrove in establishing the city of Savannah at Yamacraw Bluff.

The positive relationship between Oglethorpe, Tomochichi and Musgrove was essential to the development of the city of Savannah at Yamacraw Bluff. Without Tomochichi&rsquos generous gift of land to Oglethorpe, the colony&rsquos initial location would have been elsewhere. The relationship was mutually beneficial to all three. Oglethorpe provided protection to the Yamacraw and trade opportunities to both Tomochichi and Musgrove. Musgrove used her language skills to bring the British Oglethorpe and Yamacraw Tomochichi to a land agreement as well as a lifelong friendship. Musgrove benefitted by expanding her trade opportunities with both the British colonists and the Yamacraw. Her assistance was rewarded with land grants from Oglethorpe and Tomochichi. The establishment of Savannah at Yamacraw Bluff was dependent on the genuine friendship forged between Oglethorpe, Tomochichi and Musgrove.

James Edward Oglethorpe (1696-1785) is often credited as the &ldquofounder&rdquo and &ldquofirst governor&rdquo of Georgia. He is portrayed as a man who was so upset about the treatment of Britain&rsquos debtors that he established a colony for the &ldquoworthy poor&rdquo helping those released from debtors&rsquo prison start a new life in Georgia. While this myth is historically inaccurate, it should be understood that Oglethorpe did play an important role in the establishment of Georgia and served as its unofficial leader during the colony&rsquos early years.

Oglethorpe, a member of the British Parliament, was instrumental in the push for British prison reform after his friend, Robert Castell, died from small pox. Castell was sent to prison due to his inability to pay his debts and ultimately suffered from a disease acquired from his cellmate. Oglethorpe campaigned to reform Britain&rsquos prisons and considered the possibility of creating a colony for those in debtor&rsquos prison as well as Britain&rsquos &ldquoworthy poor.&rdquo Unfortunately, Oglethorpe&rsquos dreams of a colony created to help debtors pay off their debts never came to pass.

Still, Oglethorpe lobbied to create a new colony and eventually he, along with 20 other Trustees, was granted a charter to establish Georgia. Oglethorpe&rsquos role in the creation of Georgia is heightened due to the fact that he was the only trustee to travel to the new colony. Oglethorpe took on the roles of both military and de facto civilian leader of the colony, and in many cases acted against the policies of the trustees. During his time in Georgia, Oglethorpe befriended Tomochichi, Mary Musgrove, and American Indians, allowed groups of Jewish, Scottish, and German immigrants to settle in the colony, created the towns of Savannah and Fredericka (on St. Simons Island), and fought the Spanish on three separate occasions. Oglethorpe left Georgia in 1743, never to return. Nonetheless, Oglethorpe was alive to witness the colony he helped realize break away from England and become part of the United States of America.

Tomochichi was the chief the Yamacraw Indians. Having created this tribe in 1728 with members of the Creek and Yamasee Indians, Tomochichi&rsquos people (around 200) believed that future opportunities would come from an alliance with the British instead of the Spanish. Tomochichi allowed Oglethorpe to settle on Yamacraw Bluff (the future home of Savannah) in hopes that the British would serve as allies and trading partners.

Oglethorpe and Tomochichi developed a strong and long lasting friendship. Through the help of Mary Musgrove, who served as a translator, Tomochichi advised Oglethorpe on matters of Indian affairs and relations with the Spanish. He traveled with Oglethorpe to England and helped establish English speaking schools for American Indians in Georgia. When Tomochichi died in 1739, he was said to be in his 90&rsquos. Based on his achievements and service to the colony, he was buried in Savannah with full British military honors.

Mary Musgrove is best known for her service as the translator for James Oglethorpe and Tomochichi. Born to a Creek Indian mother and British father, Musgrove spoke both languages and understood the norms of both cultures. In 1717, Mary married fur trader John Musgrove, and they set up a trading post near the Savannah River. Mary&rsquos fluency in both Creek and English served her well in her role as a trader and business woman.

Musgrove became involved in the affairs of the colony of Georgia after her husband accompanied Oglethorpe on a trip to England. After this voyage, the Trustees gave John land near Yamacraw Bluff. The Musgroves moved their trading post to this area and Mary continued to manage the successful business after John died in 1735. In addition to her business, Musgrove served as Oglethorpe&rsquos personal interpreter from 1733-1743.

Musgrove continued to move up the ranks of colonial society, especially after her third and final marriage to the Reverend Thomas Bosomworth. She offered many years of service as the colony&rsquos primary Indian liaison. However, she became a thorn in the side of the colony&rsquos leadership after the Trustee period. Throughout her life, she received land grants from Tomochichi and other Creek chiefs. Nonetheless, British and Georgia officials refused to recognize her claims. Taking matters into her own hands, Musgrove lead a group of 200 Creek Indians to Savannah to argue for her land rights. She also took her land claim fight to the British courts.

In 1760, after several years of struggle, Musgrove and Georgia Royal Governor Henry Ellis compromised, and Musgrove received St. Catherine&rsquos Island and a large sum of money. In turn, Musgrove gave up her other land claims. Musgrove died on St. Catherine&rsquos Island sometime after 1763.

The city of Savannah was the first step in realizing the colony of Georgia. Due to the cordial relationship between Oglethorpe and Tomochichi, aided by the translating skills of Musgrove, the city began its life on February 12, 1733 when the settlers arrived at Yamacraw Bluff. Chief Tomochichi agreed to move his people upstream from the bluff so that Oglethorpe could establish his inaugural town at that location. Located on the Savannah River about 15 miles inland, the forty-foot-high bluff was the last colonial capital to be developed by the British in America. Construction of the city was based on European design influences of the day with which Oglethorpe was well acquainted. The city, designed by Oglethorpe, was laid out in a series of grids that allowed for wide streets intertwined with tree-covered squares and parks. Colonists located businesses on the squares and built places for public town meetings. As the city grew, the design was repeated. Of the original 24 squares, 22 still exist today. Savannah is recognized as one of the most outstanding examples of eighteenth century town planning.

*SS8H2c. Evaluate the role of diverse groups (Jews, Salzburgers, Highland Scots, and Malcontents) in settling Georgia during the Trustee Period.

The Trustee Period in Georgia&rsquos history was a unique though unsuccessful social and economic experiment. The Trustees, who were for the most part religious men and social reformers, wanted to start a colony of selfsufficient yeomen farmers who were not influenced by alcohol and not dependent on slavery. In turn, the British government hoped that the colony that would produce agricultural products that Britain had been forced to import from other countries. These goods, including silk and wine, proved to be lackluster in terms of generating profit. Nonetheless, as a buffer colony, Georgia did prove its worth by successfully defending both South Carolina and itself from the Spanish threat in Florida. In the end, due to the permanent departure of James Oglethorpe in 1743 and the complaints made by the Malcontents concerning the selling of rum and their desire to institute slavery in Georgia, the Trustee period ended one year before the Charter of 1732 was set to expire. The lofty goals of the Trustees never came to pass.

Jews first arrived in the Georgia colony five months after Oglethorpe landed at Yamacraw Bluff. Though originally banned from the colony by the Charter of 1732, Oglethorpe made an exception to the Trustee&rsquos provisions because one of the 42 Jews was a doctor. Having lost the colony&rsquos only doctor and at least 20 colonists to fever, Oglethorpe was pleased to have medical assistance to slow the yellow fever from spreading. Dr. Samuel Nunes offered his services to the colonists and those who followed his prescription of cold baths and cool drinks survived. Another Jew, Abraham de Lyon, was experienced in viticulture (wine making). Oglethorpe hoped he would be able to assist the colonists in wine production. Fourteen of the Jews were offered land by Oglethorpe and the group remained in the colony, even though they suffered from language, cultural, and religious differences. The Jews eventually established Congregation Mickve Israel, which is the oldest Jewish congregation in the South and the third oldest in the United States.

The Salzburgers were a group of peaceful, hard-working German-speaking Protestant refugees from present day Austria. Persecuted by the Catholic monarch of their province who had issued the Edict of Expulsion, giving the Salzburgers three months to leave their native land, King George II, who was himself a German Protestant, offered the Salzburgers the opportunity to settle in the colony of Georgia.

Upon arriving in Georgia, the Salzburgers settled a town they named Ebenezer, meaning &ldquoStone of Help.&rdquo However, this settlement was too far inland and located in an area that was too swampy with poor water. Many Salzburgers died during their first two years in Georgia. Eventually, the Salzburgers were given permission to relocate to a better location which they named &ldquoNew Ebenezer.&rdquo Once they settled in this new town, they became some of the most successful and industrious colonists in Georgia. They are given credit for being the first group of Georgians to develop a water powered grist mill, a Sunday school, and an orphanage. They were also the only group to have any large-scale success with silk production.

The Salzburgers remained strictly anti-slavery during the later colonial years and were extremely loyal to the Trustees. This was due to the help the Trustees gave the Salzburgers during their immigration to the colony. It should also be noted that Georgia&rsquos first Patriot governor, John Adam Treutlen, was a Salzburger.

The town of New Ebenezer was damaged during the Revolutionary and Civil Wars. However, the church they built in 1763 still stands today. It&rsquos home to the longest existing Lutheran Congregation in the United States. Many of the Salzburgers&rsquo descendants still live in the area in which they settled over 250 years ago.

Though the Highland Scots (Scottish Highlanders) shared the Salzburgers&rsquo anti-slavery beliefs and valued the importance of hard work and religion, they were quite different in many aspects. The Highland Scots were brought to Georgia by James Oglethorpe based on their reputation for being some of the best soldiers in the world. The group was given land near the abandoned Fort King George, which they named Darien. With the promise of owning their own land, the Highland Scots fought in the Battle of Bloody Marsh and in two failed campaigns to capture St. Augustine, Florida. Many of the Highland Scots&rsquo ancestors played important roles in Georgia&rsquos history. Today, McIntosh County is named in honor of one of these important families.

The provisions created by the Charter of 1732 eventually caused discontent among the colonists. Dissenters, known as the Malcontents, argued that they were not financially obligated to Oglethorpe and the Trustees as they had paid their own way to the colony. They complained that the limitations placed on land ownership and the ban on slavery stifled their economic opportunities. They resented the restriction on purchasing rum. The ban on rum was lifted in 1732. Having petitioned the Trustees to allow slavery and being declined on multiple occasions, many Malcontent leaders moved from the Georgia colony. However, through written pamphlets demanding change, the Malcontents eventually made their voices known in Georgia and Great Britain. In response to these vocal and written demands, by 1750, the Trustees had passed a law that allowed slavery. The Trustee period would end by 1751, one year before the end of the Charter of 1732 was designed to end.

****SS8H2d. Explain the transition of Georgia into a royal colony with regard to land ownership, slavery, alcohol, and government.

Rules concerning land ownership, the sale of rum, and slavery were relaxed or ended during the twilight of the Trustee period and the colony of Georgia profoundly changed during the Royal period. The Trustees, frustrated with the lack of economic and social success of the colony, officially surrendered Georgia&rsquos charter to the British government, one year before the expiration of the Charter of 1732.

Land ownership rules were relaxed in the royal colony. More land could be purchased as slavery was creating the need for more fertile land. Women were allowed to own land. Georgia&rsquos population grew due to improved land policies, land gains from American Indians and the Spanish, and the surge of settlers and slaves that land availability brought to the colony. Some new settlers were considered undesirable by established Georgia colonists and were given the derogatory name &ldquocrackers.&rdquo This group laid claims to the western frontier of the colony. More settlers improved Georgia&rsquos economy and this eventually led to increases in the colony&rsquos borders.

Slavery was desired by many of the Georgia colonists as they believed that they would more effectively compete with other colonies, specifically South Carolina. In 1749, just prior to the royal period, slavery was allowed in Georgia. Between 1750 and 1775, the number of slaves increased from 500 to 18,000. Slaves had no rights, were not allowed to marry, and were not allowed to live where they wanted. Slaves who broke these rules were punished. Slavery was a boom to the colony&rsquos economy as agricultural production began to explode, particularly on rice plantations.
*** Slavery ship animation map (click the link)

*** Slave voyages database (click the link) Alcohol was transported into the Georgia colony by way of South Carolina, causing disputes between the colonies. By 1742, the prohibition against rum was no longer enforced in the Georgia colony, and by 1749, the Rum Act was repealed by Parliament. During the Royal Period, rum production increased in the colony.

***Tip***: Information about the royal governors is provided as background for understanding the difference between the Trustee Colony and Royal Colony. It is not necessary to know the details of the royal governors but, instead, should know of the changes that occurred as the Trustee Colony transitioned to the Royal Colony.

As a royal colony, governance of the colony was returned to the king. He utilized royal governors to administer the colony. Trustee laws were repealed. In 1754, John Reynolds was appointed to be Georgia&rsquos first royal governor . During his tenure, Georgia&rsquos bi-cameral General Assembly, comprised of an elected Commons House of Assembly and an appointed Upper House of Assembly, met to determine laws for the colony . A first act was to require all males between 16 and 60 to be organized into militias another act required all males to work on building roads at least 12 days per year. White males who owned property could vote and a court system was established to settle disputes . Reynolds often found himself at odds with the General Assembly and many colonists were not fond of him. Complaints about him found their way to the British government and, in 1756, he was recalled to Britain to address the complaints but he did not relinquish his position.

Appointed to govern in Reynolds&rsquos place was Henry Ellis, who would become a more popular governor than Reynolds. It was under his leadership that eight parishes were established along Georgia&rsquos coast and a workable friendship was established with the leaders of the Creek nation, who were long irritated by the land claims of Mary Musgrove. His ability to manage trade agreements between the Creek and local traders encouraged stability in the colony. His poor health, due to Georgia&rsquos heat, forced him to take on other responsibilities, including a governorship in Nova Scotia, though he never fulfilled the appointment. He was, instead, called to Britain, where he influenced American colonial affairs as an advisor to the Prime Minister.

The most able of the royal governors was James Wright, a practicing attorney and plantation owner in South Carolina (his father was South Carolina&rsquos chief justice). His appointment as Ellis&rsquos replacement happened as Georgia was experiencing westward growth. He encouraged neighboring American Indians to cede land to the colony. As revolutionary feelings ignited, Wright was determined to maintain his loyalties to Britain and he enforced the Stamp Act. In fact, Georgia was the only colony in which stamps were actually sold. Though he was popular and thought to be an efficient leader, Wright was powerless to stop the advancing revolutionary spirit in the Georgia colony. Placed under house arrest in 1776, he fled captivity and made his way to London where he encouraged a full-scale British attack on the Georgia colony in 1778. Under British control again, Wright&rsquos return to Georgia did not generate the support he once enjoyed in the colony. Revolutionary radicals were increasing in numbers and they did not support Wright&rsquos efforts to govern. Wright sailed for London when the British evacuated Savannah in July 1782. He never returned to the Georgia colony and died in England in 1785.

****SS8H2 e. Give examples of the kinds of goods and services produced and traded in colonial Georgia.

Colonial Georgia had the shortest colonial experience when compared to other British colonies. It had the smallest population and was the least developed. With the removal of economic restrictions, Georgia&rsquos economy was almost immediately improved. During Georgia&rsquos colonial period, colonists were determined to find economic success through agriculture.

Silk production , encouraged by the Trustees, was an effort to compete with the successful silk industries of France and Italy. Colonists planted mulberry trees in an effort to provide sustenance for silk worms. As many Georgia colonists were untrained in silk production, skilled Italian silk makers were brought to the colony, and within a year, silk was exported to Britain. The Salzburgers attempted to establish a silk industry, but seasonal temperatures were harmful to the sensitive silkworms. Georgia&rsquos silk industry, though hopeful at first, never became the lucrative industry the colonists desired. Eventually, the hardier crop of cotton replaced the silk industry.

Rice, Georgia&rsquos first staple crop , became a profitable agricultural commodity along the coast and encouraged the rise in great wealth for producers of the grain. As Georgia&rsquos ban on slavery ended in 1750, conditions became favorable for the establishment of large rice plantations to be harvested by slave labor. Rice was initially grown in inland freshwater swamps in coastal Georgia and along Georgia&rsquos principal tidal rivers. The rice rivers (the Savannah, the Ogeechee, the Altamaha, and the Satilla) eventually saw the rise of production increase to 40,000 acres.

Indigo , the plant that produced a bluish-purple dye, was highly desired by British textile producers. The British government offered a bounty (a bonus) of six pence per pound to ensure the production of large quantities of indigo. By 1755, Georgia was in the very early stages of indigo production, exporting 4,500 pounds that year. The exportation of indigo peaked in 1770, with more than 22,000 pounds. It&rsquos interesting to note that long-term exposure to noxious vapors produced by indigo production and the disease-carrying insects the plants gave support to may have reduced the length of the lives of slaves involved in indigo processing by five to seven years.
Other products produced in colonial Georgia included timber products, tobacco, and furs. Trades included blacksmiths, silversmiths, tailors, and potters, but most were involved in small scale farming.

Trade partners included American Indians (furs), nearby South Carolina, and Britain and other European nations. ​​


Organization

In 1998, Georgia FBLA, Inc., was formed and established a Board of Directors to serve as the governing body of Georgia FBLA. The Board of Directors consists of twelve voting members including two business representatives (appointed), five elected advisers representing the five areas, four elected at-large advisers, and an adviser representing the Middle Level.

Effective March 2018, Georgia FBLA is now organized on four levels:

Local – consisting of the local chapters and members
Region – a grouping of chapters within a limited geographic territory for the purposes of region leadership and competitive events (15 regions)
Area – a grouping of two or three regions for representation on the State Executive Council (state officers) and the Board of Directors (5 areas)
State – all of the local chapters and regions throughout the state

Over the years, the number of Georgia FBLA regions varied due to population and active participation statistics. In July 2008, the Board of Directors realigned the regions from 11 to 15 regions and organized the state into 5 areas.


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