2 de enero de 1941

2 de enero de 1941

2 de enero de 1941

Enero de 1941

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Mediterráneo

Royal Navy y Royal Air Force bombardean Bardia (a partir del 1 de enero)



La catedral de Llandaff sufre graves daños durante el peor bombardeo alemán del Cardiff Blitz & # 8211 2 de enero de 1941

Una fotografía de los graves daños sufridos por la nave de la catedral de Llandaff.

Durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, Cardiff Docks fue uno de los puertos de carbón más grandes del mundo. La ciudad resultó ser un objetivo tentador para la Luftwaffe alemana durante su bombardeo de Gran Bretaña. A partir de 1940 y hasta 1943, los alemanes bombardearon repetidamente Cardiff en lo que se recuerda como el Cardiff Blitz. Sin embargo, la peor noche de bombardeos ocurrió el 2 de enero de 1941.

Esa fatídica noche vio 165 personas muertas mientras que 427 más resultaron heridas. Cerca de 350 casas fueron destruidas o tuvieron que ser demolidas. Uno de los edificios más emblemáticos que sufrió daños esa noche fue la Catedral de Llandaff, una construcción del siglo XII. Durante el bombardeo, se lanzó una mina con paracaídas lo suficientemente cerca de la catedral como para arrancar el techo de la nave, el pasillo sur y la sala capitular. La aguja y el órgano de la catedral también sufrieron daños que necesitaban reparación.

Una imagen de la catedral de Llandaff tras su restauración.

Un testigo describió la explosión que dañó la catedral de Llandaff de esta manera: "Un enorme cráter estalló entre las antiguas tumbas en el cementerio y las lápidas fueron arrojadas como misiles antiguos a más de un kilómetro de distancia". Debido a la gravedad del bombardeo, la catedral de Llandaff sufrió la segunda mayor cantidad de daños entre las catedrales británicas, y solo la catedral de Coventry sufrió más daños.

La restauración completa de la catedral comenzó en 1949 bajo la dirección del arquitecto George Pace. La restauración no se completó hasta 1958, cuando la catedral se reabrió para su uso completo.


2 de enero de 1941 - Historia

BUQUES DE LA MARINA REAL, DOMINIO Y DE LA INDIA, ENERO DE 1941 (Parte 2 de 2)

(para obtener más información sobre el barco, vaya a la página de inicio de Historia Naval y escriba el nombre en la Búsqueda del sitio)

Algunos buques de guerra se enumeran con su propia unidad y nuevamente cuando se separan de otra.

MANDO DEL ATLÁNTICO NORTE

Vicealmirante Sir G Frederick B Edward-Collins KCB, KCVO

Barco base, Gibraltar - CORMORÁN

Acorazado - RESOLUCIÓN (Capt. A R Halfhide CBE) arr Gibraltar 16 de diciembre desde Freetown.

Crucero pesado - BERWICK (Capitán G L Warren) arr Gibraltar 31 de diciembre

13a Flotilla de Destructores

25a División - DUNCAN (Capitán A D B James Actg, Lt Cdr A N Rowell del 13 de febrero) dep Gibraltar 31 de diciembre, ENCUENTRO (Lt Cdr E V St J Morgan) arr Freetown 31 de diciembre, ISIS (Cdr C S B Swinley DSC) arr Freetown 31 de diciembre

26th Division - VIDETTE (Lt EN Walmsley) dep Gibraltar 31 de diciembre, VELOX (Lt Cdr EG Roper DSC) dep Gibraltar 31 de diciembre, WISHART (Cdr ET Cooper) arr Gibraltar 29 de diciembre, WRESTLER (Lt EL Jones DSC) en Portsmouth reparando a comp 30 de enero

Octava Flotilla Submarina - establecimiento en tierra PIGMY (Cdr G B H Fawkes) en Gibraltar, submarinos OLYMPUS (Lt Cdr H G Dymott) arr Gibraltar 29 dic, OTUS (Lt Cdr E C F Nicolay) arr Gibraltar 4 ene, PANDORA (Lt Cdr J W Linton) arr Gibraltar 14 ene.

7mo Grupo Antisubmarino - Arrastreros antisubmarinos ARCTIC RANGER (SO, Cdr JH Young Rtd), ERIN (Actg Cdr JO Davies RNR), HAARLEM (Ty Lt LB Merrick RNVR), KINGSTON CHRYSOLITE (Ty Lt RL Green, RVR) dep 29 de diciembre para Liverpool, LEYLAND (Lt Cdr A Wilkinson RNR), LORD HOTHAM (Sk JW Morris RNR), todos en o dep Gibraltar

92o Grupo de Barrido de Minas - arrastreros de barrido de minas CLYNE CASTLE (Lt T Fraser RNR), HONJU (Ch Sk J Bowie RNR), ambos en Gibraltar

Servicio de control de contrabando - Embarcaciones armadas ACHROITE (Sk GWH Mortlock RNR), ALOUETTE (Lt Lord Churston RNVR), ANGLIA (Lt R McCready RNR), CHARLES McIVER (Lt BTR Russell RNR), FACTIBLE (Sk CC Findlay RNR), IMPERIALIST (Pbty Ty Lt PE Kitto RNR), KINGSTON JACINTH (Lt Cdr A Ayre Rtd) dep 29 dic para Liverpool, KINGSTON TOPAZ (Cdr WL Smith RNR), KINGSTON TURQUOISE (Lt LA White RNR) dep 29 dic para Liverpool, LOCH OSKAIG (Lt Cdr S Darling RANR ), LORNA (Actg Lt R Atkinson RNR), ROSABELLE (Lt HH Brown RNR), SAYONARA (Cdr H Hamilton Rtd), ESCOCESA (Cdr SA Brooks OBE Rtd), TIERCEL (Lt RRL Rosoman RNR Rtd) en Greenock, de lo contrario todos en o dep Gibraltar

Remolcadores - ST DAY (Lt Cdr J Sharples RNR Rtd), ST OMAR (sin CO en la lista), ambos en Gibraltar

FUERZA H

Vicealmirante Sir James F Somerville KCB, DSO

Crucero de batalla - RENOWN (Bandera, Somerville, Capitán C E B Simeon, Capitán R R McGrigor desde el 23 de enero) hasta Gibraltar 30 de diciembre

Acorazado - MALAYA (Capt A F E Palliser DSC) arr Gibraltar 24 dic

Portaaviones - ARK ROYAL (Capitán C S Holland) en Gibraltar con ocho horas de anticipación.

Crucero ligero - SHEFFIELD (Capt C A A Larcom) arr Gibraltar 30 dic

Octava Flotilla de Destructores (Capitán AF de Salis) - FAULKNOR (de Salis) arr Gibraltar 30 de diciembre, FEARLESS (Cdr AF Pugsley) Troon, FIREDRAKE (Lt Cdr SH Norris DSO, DSC) dep Gibraltar 31 de diciembre, FORESIGHT (Lt Cdr GT Lambert, Cdr JSC Salter desde el 14 de enero) en Liverpool, FORESTER (Lt Cdr EB Tancock DSC) arr Gibraltar 31 de diciembre, FORTUNE (Lt Cdr EN Sinclair) arr Gibraltar 29 de diciembre, FOXHOUND (Lt Cdr GH Peters DSC) dep Gibraltar 31 de diciembre, FURY (Lt Cdr TC Robinson) arr Gibraltar 31 dic

FLOTA MEDITERRANEA

Vicealmirante Sir Andrew B Cunningham KCB, DSO en WARSPITE,

ascendido a almirante el 3 de enero de 1941

Nave base - NILE (Contralmirante F Elliott OBE Rtd, Contralmirante Actg G H Creswell DSO, DSC desde el 5 de febrero)

1er escuadrón de batalla (Contralmirante H B Rawlings OBE en BARHAM) - acorazados BARHAM (Capitán G C Cooke), VALIANT (Capitán C E Morgan DSO) arr 24 de diciembre, WARSPITE (Capitán D B Fisher CBE) arr 24 de diciembre, todos arr o en Alejandría

Portaaviones (Contralmirante A L St G Lyster CB, CVO, DSO en ILLUSTRIOUS) - EAGLE (Capt A R M Bridge CBE) en Alexandria, ILLUSTRIOUS (Capt D W Boyd CBE, DSC) arr Alexandria 24 de diciembre

3er escuadrón de cruceros (Contralmirante R de F Renouf DSO) - crucero pesado YORK (Capitán R H Portal DSC) dep Suda Bay 30 de diciembre, cruceros ligeros GLASGOW (Capitán J W Cuthbert Actg) en Alejandría sometidos a reparaciones temporales. GLOUCESTER (Bandera, Capitán H A Rowley) dep Suda Bay 30 de diciembre

7 ° escuadrón de cruceros (Contralmirante Light Forces, Contralmirante HD Pridham-Wippell CB, CVO, ascendido a Vicealmirante el 3 de enero de 1941) - cruceros ligeros AJAX (Capitán EDB McCarthy) arr Suda Bay 1 de enero, LIVERPOOL (Capitán AL Polonia DSO, DSC) en Alejandría en reparación temporal, ORION (Bandera, Capitán GRB Back) arr Alejandría 23 de diciembre, Australiano PERTH (Capitán Sir Philip W Bowyer-Smith Bt) arr Suda Bay 1 de enero, SYDNEY (Capitán JA Collins CB RAN) en Malta

Crucero adjunto - crucero ligero SOUTHAMPTON (Capt B C B Brooke) dep Aden el 25 de diciembre, arr Alexandria 30 de diciembre

Buques antiaéreos - crucero antiaéreo CALCUTTA (Capitán D M Lees DSO) dep Suda Bay 30 de diciembre, COVENTRY (Capitán D Gilmour) en Alejandría, dañado, reparaciones comp 20 de enero, destructor WRYNECK (Lt Cdr R H D Lane) arr Alejandría 23 de diciembre

2da flotilla destructora (Capitán H St L Nicolson DSO) - HASTY (Lt Cdr LRK Tyrwhitt) arr Gibraltar 24 de diciembre, HAVOCK (Cdr RE Courage DSO, DSC) en Malta, HEREWARD (Cdr CW Greening) dep Gibraltar 25 de diciembre, HERO (Cdr HW Biggs DSO ) dep Gibraltar 31 dic, HOTSPUR (Cdr HFH Layman DSO) en Malta, ILEX (Nicolson) arr Alexandria 24 dic, IMPERIAL (Lt Cdr CA De W Kitcat) en Malta

Décima flotilla destructora (Capitán H M L Waller DSO)

División 19 - Destructores australianos STUART (Capitán Waller RAN) en Malta para competir el 31 de diciembre, VAMPIRE (temporalmente Waller mientras STUART repara, Cdr JA Walsh RAN) arr Alejandría 20 de diciembre, VENDETTA (Lt Cdr R Rhoades RAN) desde Alejandría 23 de diciembre, VOYAGER (Cdr JC Morrow DSO RAN) arr Alexandria 22 de diciembre con WATERHEN, WATERHEN (Lt Cdr JH Swain) arr Alexandria 1 de enero dañado

División 20 - DAINTY (Cdr M S Thomas DSO) dep Alexandria 31 de diciembre, DECOY (Cdr E G McGregor DSO) en Malta, DEFENDER (Lt Cdr G L Farnfield) dep Suda Bay 24 de diciembre, DIAMOND (Lt Cdr P A Cartwright) arr Alexandria 31 de diciembre

Decimocuarta Flotilla de Destructores (Capitán P J Mack DSO)

División 27 - JANUS (Cdr JAW Tothill) arr Alejandría 24 de diciembre, JERVIS (Mack) arr Alejandría 30 de diciembre, JUNO (Cdr St JRJ Tyrwhitt) arr Alejandría 24 de diciembre, MOHAWK (Cdr JWM Eaton) arr Alejandría 1 de enero, acompañando a WATERHEN, NUBIAN (Cdr RW Ravenhill) arr Alejandría 30 de diciembre con MOHAWK

División 28 - GALLANT (Lt Cdr C P F Brown DSC) dep Port Said 31 de diciembre, GREYHOUND (Cdr W R Marshall A'Deane DSC) arr Alexandria 30 de diciembre, GRIFFIN (Lt Cdr J Lee-Barber DSO) dep Suda Bay 30 de diciembre

1a Flotilla Submarina (Capitán SM Raw) - buque depósito MEDWAY (Raw) en Alejandría, submarinos OSIRIS (Lt Cdr JRG Harvey) dep Alexandria 22 de diciembre para Gibraltar, arr Malta 29 de diciembre, OTUS (Lt Cdr ECF Nicolay) dep Alexandria 21 de diciembre para Gibraltar, arr Malta 29 de diciembre, PANDORA (Lt Cdr JW Linton) arr Alexandria 28 de diciembre, PARTHIAN (Cdr MG Rimington DSO) dep Malta 29 de diciembre, PERSEUS (Lt Cdr PJH Bartlett) en Malta reparando a comp 18 de marzo, REGENT (Lt Cdr HC Browne) arr Malta 25 dic, RORQUAL (Cdr RH Dewhurst DSO) arr Alejandría 17 dic, ROVER (Lt Cdr HAL Marsham) arr Alejandría 22 dic, TETRARCH (Lt Cdr RMT Peacock) dep Malta 28 dic, TRIUMPH (Lt Cdr WJW Woods) dep Gibraltar 27 dic, TRUANT (Lt Cdr HAV Haggard) dep Malta 28 dic, UNIQUE (Lt AF Collett) dep Gibraltar 27 dic en patrulla, UPHOLDER (Lt MD Wanklyn) dep Gibraltar 27 dic en patrulla, arr Malta 14 ene, UPRIGHT (Lt ED Norman) arr Malta 24 de diciembre, URSULA (Lt AJ MacKenzie) en Gibraltar reparando a comp 16 de enero, USK (Lt PR Ward) arr Gibraltar 23 de diciembre, UTMOST (Lt Cdr JH Eaden DSC, Lt R D Cayley el 31 de enero) en Malta reparando a la competición 2 de febrero

El 8 de enero, el Cdr G W G Simpson llegó a Malta para comandar los submarinos de clase U, designados como la décima flotilla de submarinos el 1 de septiembre y con base en Malta.

Corbetas - GLOXINIA (Lt Cdr A J C Pomeroy RNVR) en Malta reparación, HYACINTH (Actg Lt Cdr F C Hopkins RNR), PEONY (Lt Cdr M B Sherwood DSO Rtd), SALVIA (Lt Cdr J I Miller DSO RNR), todos menos uno arr Alejandría 31 de diciembre

4to Grupo Anti-Submarino - arrastreros antisubmarinos BERYL (Cdr J C Bird Rtd), CORAL (Mid F H Walton RNR), JADE (Btswn J Hughes), todos en Malta

5to Grupo Antisubmarino - Los arrastreros antisubmarinos BANDOLERO (SO, Lt Cdr FMW Harris RNR) perdieron el 30 de diciembre, LOCH MELFORT (Pbty Ty Lt F Graham-Browne RNR) dep Haifa 17 de diciembre, LYDIARD (Lt DM Gibb RNR) arr Alejandría 25 de diciembre, SINDONIS (Ch Sk G Rawding RNR) en Alexandria, VICTORIAN (Ch Sk MA Smith RNR) arr Suez 21 de diciembre

16 ° Grupo Antisubmarino - balleneros antisubmarinos KOS.19 (Lt IH Davis RNR), KOS.21 (Ty Lt Cdr IFH Wilson RNVR), KOS.22 (Lt HD Foxon RNR), KOS.23 (Lt Cdr JJ Reid RNVR), SYVERN (Lt Cdr RE Clarke RNR), todos en Durban con ASDIC

28 ° Grupo Antisubmarino - arrastreros antisubmarinos KINGSTON CORAL (Sk W Kirman RNR) arr Alejandría 27 de noviembre desde Suda Bay, KINGSTON CRYSTAL (Lt Cdr GHP James RNR) dep Alejandría 14 de diciembre, KINGSTON CYANITE (Sk FA Yeomans RNR) arr Alejandría 6 de noviembre, WOLBOROUGH (SO , Teniente FAW Ramsey Rtd) dep Alexandria el 20 de diciembre

Flotilla de barrido de minas - dragaminas ABINGDON (Lt GA Simmers RNR) en Malta, BAGSHOT (Lt Cdr JFB Cage RNVR) dep Alejandría 7 de diciembre, DERBY (Lt FCV Brightman) arr Alejandría 19 de diciembre, FAREHAM (SO, Lt WJP Church) en El Pireo, FERMOY (Lt Cdr JGD Wetherfield) en Malta, HUNTLEY (Lt Cdr HRA King RNR) arr Alexandria 27 de diciembre, STOKE (Cdr CJP Hill Rtd) en Alexandria.

91o Grupo de Barrido de Minas - arrastreros de barrido de minas ARTHUR CAVANAGH (Ty Sk T W Kirby RNR), MILFORD COUNTESS (Ty Sk E W Oxborough RNR), ambos en Alejandría, MUROTO (Ty Sk J Willis RNR), RAGLAN CASTLE (Sk G Buchan RNR) ambos en Port Said

109 ° Grupo de Barrido de Minas - cazadores de minas SKUDD III (Lt AF Harkness RNR), SKUDD IV (Ty Lt (E) T Holm RNR), SKUDD V (S / Lt RAN Cox RNR), SWONA (Lt WF Duffy RCNVR) todos los dep Freetown 21 de diciembre para Simonstown vía Santa elena

142o Grupo de Barrido de Minas - balleneros barreminas SARNA (Ty Sk W T Allen RNR), SOIKA (Ty Lt (E) L Olsen RNR), SOTRA (Actg Lt J M Davies RCNVR), SVANA (Ty Lt (E) T Olsen RNR) todos arr Durban 22 de diciembre

Arrastreros barreminas - EMPYREAN (Pbty Ty Sk W F Salenius RNR), RETURNO (Ty Lt E R Crane RNVR), ambos en Gibraltar

Vagabundos buscaminas - GIRL MARGARET, PLOW BOY (sin CO en la lista) ambos en Malta

Buscaminas auxiliares - BLUE DANUBE (Lt Cdr N D Watts-Russell Rtd) en Port Said, No 1 y No 2 (no hay CO en la lista), ambos en Haifa

Cañoneras (administrado por Captain Submarines, Med) - APHIS (Lt Cdr JO Campbell DSO Rtd) dep Alexandria 31 de diciembre para Sollum, CRICKET (Lt Cdr EB Carnduff desde el 11 de enero) en Bombay, LADYBIRD (Lt Cdr JF Blackburn Rtd) dep Alexandria 31 de diciembre para Sollum

Embarcaciones antisubmarinas a motor - MA / SB.2 (Lt Cdr R M Prior DSC Emgcy) en Alexandria, MA / SB.3 (Lt J C LaPage) en Alexandria

Barco de suministro - RELIANT (Master C H Noel) en Alejandría

Barco de reparación - RECURSO (Capt D B O'Connell Rtd) en Alexandria

Monitor - TERROR (Cdr H J Haynes DSC) dep Alejandría 22 de diciembre

Cazador de minas controlado - MEDUSA (Btswn F Farmer) en Malta

Netlayer - PROTECTOR (Cdr R J Gardner) arr Alejandría 20 de diciembre

Servicio Fleet Target - remolcadores MOY (Lt V G Palmer), OUSE (LR J E Grice), ST ISSEY (Lt J H W Howe RNR), todos en Alejandría

Vagabundos - CRESCENT MOON (sin CO en la lista) en Port Said, EDDY (Ch Sk J Carnie RNR) en Malta, FELLOWSHIP (Ty S / Lt S Barrie RNR) en Suda Bay, LANDFALL (Actg S / Lt MFB Williams RNVR) en Port Said, LANNER (Sk W Stewart RNR) en Suda Bay, SUNSET (Ch Sk R Cowie RNR) en Malta

Servicio de control de contrabando Embarcaciones armadas ARPHA (Cdr FM Smith RD RNR) en Port Said, CHAKLA (Cdr LC Bach RD RNR) dep Alejandría 21 de diciembre, FIONA (Lt JB Shillitoe RNR) arr Alejandría 24 de diciembre, ROSAURA (Capitán R Spencer RD RNR) arr Suda Bahía 16 de diciembre, SURF (Ty Lt DC Wilson RNVR) en Port Said

Remolcadores - EMILY, WEST COCKER (sin CO en la lista) ambos en Malta

Buques de defensa con auge - BARBETTE (Ty Lt EJP Webster RNR) dep Colombo 26 de diciembre para Port Said, BURGONET (Ty Lt CT Grantley RNR) arr Port Said 22 de diciembre, MAGNET (Ty Boom Sk JW Hogarth RNR) en Alexandria, WESTGATE (Ty Boom Sk A Stewart RNR ) en Malta

Barcos de suministro - BRECONSHIRE (Capt C A G Hutchenson Rtd) arr Alexandria 23 de diciembre, KNIGHT OF MALTA, arr Alexandria 22 de diciembre, ULSTER PRINCE (Cdr F A Bond RD RNR Rtd) dep Piraeus 24 de diciembre

Contralmirante A J L Murray DSO, OBE

Barco depósito - LUCIA (Bandera, Cdr C R de B L Townsend Actg, Rtd)

Cruceros ligeros - CALEDON (Capt C P Clarke) dep Aden 29 de diciembre, LEANDER (Capt R H Bevan) dep Bombay 27 de diciembre

Crucero antiaéreo - CARLISLE (Capitán G M B Langley OBE, Capitán T C Hampton en enero) arr Aden 29 de diciembre

Destructores (Cdr W G A Robson) - KANDAHAR (SO, Robson) arr Suez 28 de diciembre, KIMBERLEY (Lt Cdr J S M Richardson) arr Aden 29 de diciembre, KINGSTON (Lt Cdr P Somerville DSO) dep Aden 30 de diciembre para Bombay.

Balandras - AUCKLAND (Cdr JG Hewitt DSO) dep Aden 29 de diciembre, FLAMINGO (Cdr JH Huntley) arr Aden 26 de diciembre, GRIMSBY (Cdr KJ D'Arcy) arr Suez 25 de diciembre, SHOREHAM (Cdr GP Claridge) dep Aden 29 de diciembre, PARRAMATTA de Australia ( Lt Cdr JH Walker MVO RAN) dep Aden 30 de diciembre, YARRA (Lt Cdr WH Harrington RAN) arr Port Sudan 27 de diciembre, Indian CLIVE (Cdr HR Inigo-Jones RIN) dep Port Sudan 27 de diciembre, Indian HINDUSTAN (Cdr IBW Heanly RIN) arr Aden 30 de diciembre, INDUS indio (Cdr EGG Hunt RIN) dep Aden 29 de diciembre

Buques antisubmarinos indios - NETRAVATI (Lt G P Ranson RIN) dep 20 de diciembre para Aden, PARVATI (Pbty S / Lt H A Romer RINVR) dep 31 de diciembre, RATNAGIRI (Lt H M Clark RIN) dep 24 de diciembre, todas las dep Bombay

MANDO DEL ATLÁNTICO SUR

Vicealmirante R H T Raikes CB, CVO, DSO

Barco Base y Alojamiento - CASTILLO DE EDIMBURGO (Capt E M Palmer OBE Rtd) en Freetown

Contralmirante W F Wake-Walker CB, OBE

Portaaviones - FORMIDABLE (Capt A W La T Bisset) dep Scapa Flow 18 dic

Cruceros pesados ​​- DORSETSHIRE (Capitán B C S Martin) dep Freetown 27 dic, NORFOLK (Flag, Wake-Walker, Capitán A J L Phillips) dep Scapa Flow 18 dic

Portaaviones - HERMES (Capt R F J Onslow MVO, DSC) dep Freetown de patrulla 3 de diciembre

Crucero ligero - DRAGON (Capitán R J Shaw MBE) dep Freetown 3 de diciembre de patrulla.

Porta hidroaviones - ALBATROSS (Actg Capt W G Britain) en Freetown

Cruceros adjuntos - cruceros pesados ​​CORNWALL (Capitán PCW Manwaring) arr Simonstown 28 dic para reacondicionamiento, comp 22 feb, dep 28 feb, CUMBERLAND (Capitán Honorable CHE Russell) dep Freetown 1 dic, DEVONSHIRE (Capitán RD Oliver DSC) arr Simonstown 26 dic, crucero HAWKINS (Capitán HPK Oram) arr Freetown 30 dic, cruceros ligeros DELHI (Capitán AS Russell) dep Lagos 23 dic para Manoca, DUNEDIN (Capitán RS Lovatt) dep Gibraltar 29 dic, ENTERPRISE (Capitán JC Annesley DSO) dep Montevideo 15 dic, NEPTUNO ( Capitán RC O'Conor) dep Freetown 28 de diciembre, NEWCASTLE (Capitán EA Aylmer DSC) dep Freetown 10 de diciembre

Balandras - BRIDGEWATER (Cdr H F C Leftwich Rtd) arr Freetown 28 dic, MILFORD (Capt S K Smyth Rtd) arr Freetown 20 dic, balandra francesa SAVORGNAN DE BRAZZA (CC Roux) en Durban reacondicionamiento a comp 17 de enero, lancha patrullera francesa PRESIDENT HOUDUCE en Duala

Corbetas - ASPHODEL (Lt Cdr KW Stewart Rtd) dep Freetown 29 de diciembre, CALENDULA (Lt Cdr AD Bruford RNVR) en Freetown reparación, CLEMATIS (Cdr YM Cleeves DSO, DSC, RD RNR), CYCLAMEN (Lt HN Lawson RNR), GERANIUM (Lt Cdr A Foxall RNR Actg), JONQUIL (Lt Cdr REH Partington RNR), últimas cuatro dep Ponta Delgada 29 de diciembre

Cruceros mercantes armados - ALCANTARA (Capitán J G P Ingham DSO Rtd) en reparación de Southampton, ASTURIAS (Capitán H Ardill Rtd) dep Capetown 13 de diciembre, QUEEN OF BERMUDA (Capitán G A B Hawkins MVO, DSC, Capitán A T G C Peachey desde el 1 de febrero) arr Montevideo 18 de diciembre

Fuerza de escolta de convoyes de Freetown Cruceros mercantes armados ARAWA (Actg Capt GR Deverell Rtd) en Belfast reparando a comp 3 de enero, BULOLO (Capt RL Hamer DSO Rtd) arr Freetown 28 de diciembre, CANTON (Capt CP Frend) en Freetown, CARNARVON CASTLE (Capt HNM Hardy DSO Rtd) arr Capetown 20 de diciembre, CATHAY (Capitán C McC Merewether Rtd) dep Freetown 16 de diciembre para Clyde, CORFU (Capitán JP Landon Rtd) en Freetown en estado dañado, ESPERANCE BAY (Capitán GS Holder Rtd) dep Freetown 22 de diciembre, MOOLtAN (Capitán CG Sutclif Rtd) en Tyne reparando, MORETON BAY (Capitán Actg EM Haes, Capitán CC Bell Rtd desde el 5 de enero) en Tyne reparando a fines de febrero, PRETORIA CASTLE (Capitán EJ Shelley Rtd) dep Simonstown 14 de diciembre

Patrulleros franceses libres - VIKINGS dep Freetown 29 de diciembre para Duala, VAILLANT arr Clyde 29 de noviembre (tripulaciones francesas)

6to Grupo Anti-Submarino - arrastreros antisubmarinos BENGALI (Ty Sk EE Barnes RNVR) reparación, KELT (Sk W Mc K Smith RNR), PICT (Lt Cdr WNM Faichney RNR), SPANIARD (Lt Cdr FJ Webster RNR), TURCOMAN (Ty S / Lt WT Hodson RNVR) todo en Freetown

Balleneros antisubmarinos noruegos - FALK, HEKTOR VI, KLO, THORBRYN, THORGRIM, TORDONN (sin CO en la lista), todos en Ciudad del Cabo

93 ° Grupo de Barrido de Minas - balandras de barrido de minas COMMMANDANT DUBOC (tripulación francesa) en Duala, COMMANDANT DOMINE (tripulación francesa) en Lagos, arrastreros de barrido de minas GENERAL BIRDWOOD (Sk WJ Taylor RNR) en Freetown, MAPLE (Ty Lt ES Phillips RNR) en Freetown reparación, REDWOOD (Sk TH Kay RNR) en Freetown, ST MINVER (Ch Sk J Duthie RNR) en Freetown

154o Grupo de Barrido de Minas - arrastrero de barrido de minas POLAR V (Ty Lt K Hendriksen RNR), SKUDD VI (Ty Lt (E) O M Amundsen RNR), ambos arr Ponta Delgada 31 de diciembre

Cazador de minas controlado - SERPIENTE (Lt O H Pullman RNR) en Freetown

Arrastrero dragaminas - WILLIAM SCORESBY (Cdr H Petit-Dann Rtd) en Port Stanley

Vagabundo de barrido de minas (licitación a HAWKINS) - ROYDUR (Ty F R Jakeman RNVR) en Port Stanley

Barcos auxiliares de limpieza de minas - ARUM, NERINE, remolcador NGUVU, todo en Ciudad del Cabo

Barco de reparación base - VINDICTIVE (Actg Capt J B Heath) arr Freetown 31 de diciembre

Buques de defensa con auge - BARBROOK (Ty Lt S Wardell RNR), BARCASTLE (Actg Ty Warrant Mech A Burchell RNR), QUANNET (Ty Lt W P Jones RNR), todos en Freetown

ESTACIÓN DE AMÉRICA Y LAS ANTILLAS

Naves base - BUZZARD (Cdr (A) J F W C Hawkins) en Jamaica, GOSHAWK (Capt (A) R de H Burton) en Trinidad, MALABAR (Vicealmirante Charles E Kennedy-Purvis KCB) en Bermuda, PURSUIVANT (Cdr R B Martin Rtd) en Port Stanley

8 ° escuadrón de cruceros - cruceros ligeros CARADOC (Capitán JS Bethell) arr Bermuda 27 de diciembre, DESPATCH (Capitán CE Douglas-Pennant DSC, Cdre 2 / c) arr Nassau 30 de diciembre, DIOMEDE (Capitán JW Farquhar) dep Kingston 20 de diciembre, DUNEDIN (Capitán RS Lovatt) det al Comando del Atlántico Sur (qv)

Submarino - PORPOISE (Lt Cdr J G Hopkins) dep Halifax 26 de diciembre

Balandra holandesa adjunta - VAN KINSBERGEN (equipo holandés) dep Nassau 9 de diciembre

Buque de embarque oceánico - LADY SOMERS (Cdr G L Dunbar RNR) acondicionando Quebec

Barco depósito - arrastrero SEABORN (Rear Adm S S Bonham-Carter CB, CVO, DSO) en Halifax

Buque de guerra - REVENGE (Capitán E R Archer) arr 26 de diciembre, ROYAL SOVEREIGN (Capitán H B Jacomb) arr 28 de diciembre, ambos arr Halifax

Destructores canadienses - ASSINIBOINE (Capitán G C Jones, Cdre 2 / c RCN), RESTIGOUCHE (Cdr H N Lay RCN), ambos arr Halifax 26 de diciembre

Submarino holandés O.15 (Lt H M L F E van Oostrom Soede) en Halifax

Cruceros mercantes armados - ALAUNIA (Capt HJ Woodward DSO Rtd) dep Halifax 26 de diciembre, ASCANIA (Capt CH Ringrose-Wharton Rtd) arr Halifax 12 de diciembre, AURANIA (Actg Capt LW Whiteborn) arr Bermuda 21 de diciembre, AUSONIA (Capt GH Freyberg CBE Rtd) dep Halifax 10 Dic, CORMORIN (Capitán JL Hallett Rtd) arr Halifax 24 dic, LACONIA (Capitán GGP Hewett Rtd) dep Halifax 1 de enero, MALOJA (Actg Capt V Hammersley-Heenan Rtd) dep Halifax 23 de diciembre, MONTCLARE (Capitán HM Spreckley Rtd) dep Bermuda 31 de diciembre, RAJPUTANA (capitán FH Taylor DSC Rtd) dep Halifax 30 de diciembre RANPURA (Actg Capt HTW Pawsey) arr Halifax 31 de diciembre, VOLtAIRE (Actg Capt JAP Blackburn Rtd) dep Bermuda 21 de diciembre

Nave base, Ceilán - LANKA

Crucero pesado - SHROPSHIRE (Capitán J H Edelsten) arr Mombasa 31 de diciembre

Cruceros ligeros - CAPETOWN (Capitán P H G James) dep Colombo 29 de diciembre, CERES (Capitán E G Abbott AM, Capitán D M L Neame DSO desde febrero) dep Mombasa 2 de enero, COLOMBO (Capitán C A E Stanfield) dep Mombasa 2 de enero.

Cruceros mercantes armados - ANTENOR (Capitán DI McGillewie Rtd) arr Colombo el 29 de diciembre, CARTHAGE (Capitán HLI Kirkpatrick OBE Rtd) arr Colombo 2 de enero y Bombay el 6 de enero, HECTOR (Capitán F Howard DSC Rtd) en Colombo reacondicionamiento a comp 6 de enero, KANIMBLA (Capt FE Getting) dep Mauricio 26 de diciembre, RANCHI (Capitán CTA Bunbury OBE Rtd) dep Durban 31 de diciembre

Balandras - FALMOUTH (Cdr C C Hardy, Cdr U H R James desde el 15 de enero) de patrulla en el Estrecho de Ormuz, balandras indias CORNWALLIS (Cdr H C Beauchamp RIN) en Khor Kuwai, Omán, LAWRENCE (Lt A T J Cole RIN) dep Karachi 21 de diciembre

Submarino - X.2 (capturado el italiano GALILEO GALILEI, Lt Cdr P E H Heathfield Rtd) en Suez

Cañoneras - COCKCHAFER (Lt Cdr A F Roberton-Aikman) en Basra, GNAT (Lt Cdr S R H Davenport) arr Alexandria 28 de diciembre, TARANTULA (Cdr R C Creer RAN Rtd en Colombo

Arrastreros antisubmarinos - AMBER (Actg S / Lt P Le M Andrews RNR) en Aden, MOONSTONE (Lt Cdr P G Britten RNR Rtd) en Bombay reacondicionamiento para comp 10 de enero.

Buscaminas dragaminas WIDNES (Lt Cdr R B Chandler), arrastrero barrendero OVERDALE WYKE (Ty Lt N M Waldman RNR), ambos en Colombo

Buques del Servicio de Control de Contrabando - CHAKDINA (Lt Cdr W R Hickey RNR) arr Aden 24 dic, CHANTALA (Lt Cdr C E I Gibbs Rtd) dep Aden 18 dic, PERRONELLE (no CO en la lista) en Aden, SAGITTA (Cdr J O Dunn RD RNR) arr Aden 24 dic

Buques de defensa de auge - BARNET (Sk W Thompson RNR) dep Colombo 30 de diciembre, PLANET (Ty Boom Sk D Cowie RNR) en Aden, SANDGATE, SOUTHGATE (no hay CO en la lista), ambos en Trincomalee

Licitación de defensa de auge - MAJESTIC (sin CO listado) en Trincomalee

Portador de pluma - LAOMEDON (Cdr J J E Barclay RD RNR) en Aden

Vicealmirante Sir Geoffrey Layton

Naves base - SULTAN (Contralmirante T B Drew OBE), TAMAR (Cdre A C Collinson)

5to escuadrón de cruceros - cruceros ligeros DANAE (Capitán F J Butler MBE Actg) en reparación de Hong Kong, DAUNTLESS (Capitán G D Moore RAN) arr Penang 21 de diciembre, DURBAN (Capitán J A S Eccles) en Singapur

Destructores - SCOUT (Lt Cdr DH Harper Rtd, Lt Cdr H Lambton desde febrero) en Hong Kong, STRONGHOLD (Lt Cdr R Alexander, Lt Cdr GR Pretor-Pinney Rtd desde el 18 de marzo), TENEDOS (Lt Cdr J O'B Milner Barry), ambos en Singapur, THANET (Lt Cdr J Mowlam), THRACIAN (Cdr AL Pears Rtd), ambos en Hong Kong

Cañoneras Yangzte (Administrado por Commodore Hong Kong) - GANNET (Cdr AF St. G Orphen) en Chungking posado, FALCON (Lt Cdr RS Abram) en Wushan, MANTIS, en Shanghai en espera de desguace, PETEREL (SNO Shanghai, Actg Cdr HV Creer RAN Rtd ) en Shanghai, SANDPIPER (Pbty Ty S / Lt JH Taylor RNVR) en Changsha posado, SCARAB (Lt Cdr JA Agnew) en Singapur, SCORPION (Ty Lt Cdr LJ Hegarty DSC RNR) en Singapur, TERN (Lt Cdr MHR Crichton) en Hong Kong

Cañoneras de West River (bajo las órdenes de Commodore Hong Kong) - CICALA (Lt Cdr G H Gandy Rtd), MOTH (Ty Lt J Douglas RNR), ambos en Hong Kong, SEAMEW (Lt Cdr N R Murch) en Canton

Cañoneras - DRAGONFLY (Lt A H Diack), GRASSHOPPER (Cdr J S Hoffman Rtd), ambos en Singapur

Buques auxiliares antisubmarinos - KEDAH (Lt Cdr E Neville) en Singapur, SHU KWANG (Cdr A D Thomson DSC RNR Rtd), TIEN KWANG (Ty Lt W G Briggs RNR), ambos en Trengganu

Flotilla de Torpederos de 2o Motor - MTB.7 (Lt RRW Ashby HgKgNVF), MTB.8 (Lt LD Kilbee HgKgNVF), MTB.9 (Actg S / Lt A Kennedy RNVR), MTB.10 (SO, Lt Cdr JC Boldero DSC Rtd), MTB.11 (Lt CJ Collingwood), MTB.12 (S / Lt WE Richards RNVR), MTB.26 (Lt MJ de C Carey), MTB.27 (S / Lt TM Parsons HgKgNVF), todos en Hong Kong

Buscaminas - Reacondicionamiento de ABERDARE (Lt Cdr G Nelson Rtd), HARROW (Lt G C Hocart Rtd), ambos en Singapur

Barcos de reconocimiento - ENDEAVOUR (sin CO en la lista), HERALD (Pbty Ty E R Maples RNR), ambos en Singapur

Cazador de minas controlado - REDSTART (Lt Cdr H C S C Selby Rtd) en Hong Kong

Buques de defensa con auge - ALDGATE (Ch Sk JH Cowling DSM RNR), BARLANE (Ch Sk F Bremner RNR) BARLIGHT (Ty Lt A w. Skelly RNR), todos en Hong Kong, BARRICADE (Ty Lt HW Clouston RNR), BARRIER (Ch Sk RE Souter RNR ), DOWGATE (Ty Boom Eng RPW Tonkin RNR), FASTNET (Ch Sk R Thompson RNR), LUDGATE (sin CO listado), todos en Singapur, WATERGATE (Ch Sk JW Cowling RNR) en Hong Kong

3. DOMINIO Y NAVES INDIAS

MARINA REAL AUSTRALIANA

Aquí solo se enumeran las unidades australianas desplegadas en Australian Home Waters,

Las implementaciones en el extranjero se muestran en sus respectivos comandos

Crucero pesado - CANBERRA (Bandera, Capitán H B Farncomb MVO RAN) dep Sydney 30 de diciembre

Cruceros ligeros - ADELAIDE (Capitán H A Showers RAN) arr Noumea 29 de diciembre, HOBART (Capitán H L Howden OBE RAN) dep Fremantle 29 de diciembre para Sydney.

Cruceros mercantes armados - MANOORA (Actg Capt A H Spurgeon RAN) dep Samarai 29 de diciembre para Ocean Island, WESTRALIA (Capt H V Hudson OBE Emgcy RAN) dep Colombo 23 de diciembre

20a Flotilla de Barrido de Minas - balandro SWAN (Lt Cdr A J Travis RAN), buque barredor de minas ORARA (Lt J G S Fyfe RANR), ambos arriban a la bahía de Port Phillip 26 de diciembre

Sloop - WARREGO (Cdr R V Wheatley RAN) arr Port Phillip Bay 26 de diciembre

Buques patrulleros antisubmarinos - BINGERA (Lt Cdr E W Livingstone RANR (S) en Fremantle, BONTHORPE (Lt Cdr F W Blaydon, RANR) ubicación no indicada, MORESBY (Cdr W H Martin RAN) arr Cairns 22 de diciembre

Buques auxiliares antisubmarinos - BATHURST (Lt Cdr AV Bunyan RANR (S) en Port Phillip Bay, BERYL II (Ty WO JD Lawrie RANR (S) en Victoria, COOLEBAR (Lt Cdr RA Nettlefold RANR) en Sydney, GOOLGWAI (Lt Cdr JP Tonkin Emgcy RAN) en Sydney, GUNBAR (Lt NH Muzzell RANR (S) en West Australia, HEROS (Ty Lt CH Brown RANR (S) en Sydney, KOROWA (Ty Comm Officer de WO rango JH Reynolds DSC RANR (S) en West Australia, KYBRA (Lt Cdr GL Cant) en Sydney, OLIVE CAM (Ty Comm Officer de WO rango S Armstrong RANR (S) en West Australia, ST GILES (Ty Lt HA Litchfiled RANR (S) en Sydney, TAMBAR (Lt JHP Dixon RANR) en West Australia , TOLGA (Lt Cdr JH Malley Emgcy RAN) en Sydney, TONGKOL (Ty WO WJ Edmonds RANR (S) en Sydney, WYRALLAH (Lt Cdr GD Tancred RAN) en Fremantle, YANDRA (Lt JA Tapin RANR (S) en Fremantle

Arrastreros auxiliares de arrastre de minas - ALFIE CAM (Lt Cdr N J Trace RANR), DURAWEEN (Lt Cdr C W J Patterson RANR), GOONAMBEE (Lt Cdr E W Andrewartha RANR), SAMUEL BENBOW (Lt Cdr K M Levy RANR), no se proporcionan ubicaciones

Buques de defensa con auge - KANGAROO (Pbty Ty Lt L C Parnell RANR (S), KOALA (Btswn E D Wilder RAN), ambos en Sydney, KOOKABURRA (Lt H R Gaskill RANVR) en Darwin

Naves base - NADEN (Capitán V G Brodeur RCN) en Esquimalt, STADACONA (Capitán H E Reid RCN) en Halifax

Cruceros mercantes armados - PRINCE DAVID (Ty Cdr W B Armit RD RCNR) en Halifax reacondicionamiento, PRINCE HENRY (Capt J C I Edwards RCN) acondicionamiento, PRINCE ROBERT (Ty Cdr F G Hart RCN) dep Callao 15 de diciembre

Destructores - ANNAPOLIS (Cdr C D Donald RCN), COLUMBIA (Lt Cdr S W Davis Rtd) dep 26 de diciembre, ST CROIX (Cdr H Kingsley RCN), ST FRANCIS (A / Cdr H F Pullen RCN) arr 25 de diciembre, todos arr, en o dep Halifax

Buques auxiliares antisubmarinos - ACADIA (Lt Cdr H G Shadforth RCNR), FRANCÉS (Lt J W Bonner RCNR), SANS PEUR (Actg Lt Cdr W C Halliday RCNR), todos en Halifax, WOLF (Lt G A Gow RCNR) en Esquimalt

Arrastreros barreminas - ARMENTIERES (Lt T MacDuff RCNR) en Esquimalt, COMOX (Lt RR Kenney RCNR), FUNDY (Actg Lt Cdr AG Stanley RCNR), GASPE (Actg Lt Cdr HD Mackay RCNR), NOOTKA (Lt Cdr WJ Fricker RCN), todos menos uno en Halifax

Yates armados - ELK (Lt Cdr N V Clark RCNR), HUSKY (Lt H Freeland RCNR), ambos arr Bermuda 23 de diciembre, REINDEER (Lt Cdr E G Skinner RCNR), SKY (no CO en la lista), ambos en Halifax

Buque patrullero - LAURIER (Lt R A S MacNeil RCNR) en Halifax

Buques de defensa con auge - FESTUBERT en Halifax

Véase también la Fuerza del Mar Rojo y el Comando de las Indias Orientales para los buques de guerra operativos.

Barco depósito - DALHOUSIE (Cdr A R Rattray RIN) en Bombay

Nave de entrenamiento - DUFFERIN (sin CO listado) en Bombay

Nave de inspección - INVESTIGADOR (Teniente Cdr W J C Hughes RIN, Cdr H C Beauchamp RIN desde el 11 de enero) en Bombay

Arrastrero - MADRAS (S / Lt R Williams RIN)

MARINA REAL DE NUEVA ZELANDA
Aquí solo se enumeran las unidades de Nueva Zelanda desplegadas en New Zealand Home Waters,

Las implementaciones en el extranjero se muestran en sus respectivos comandos

Depósito y buque escuela - PHILOMEL (Capitán E Rotherham) en Auckland

Crucero ligero - ACHILLES (Capitán H M Barnes) dep Sydney 29 de diciembre para Auckland.

Crucero mercante armado - MONOWAI (Actg Capt H V P McClintock) dep Auckland 31 dic

25a Flotilla de Barrido de Minas - arrastreros de barrido de minas GALE, MATAI (SO), MURITAI (Ty S / Lt R Matheson NZRNVR), PURIRI, RATA (solo una CO en la lista), todos en Auckland

Buscaminas auxiliares

Grupo I - DUQUESA (no CO en la lista), HUMPHREY (Ty Lt J Holt NZRNVR), WAKAKURA (Actg Cdr A D Holden NZRNVR) todos en Auckland

Grupo II - FUTURISTA, MAR DEL SUR (sin CO en la lista), ambos en Wellington

Grupo III - JAMES COSGROVE (Lt Cdr H H Jones NZRNR), THOMAS CURREL (Ty Lt A G Nilsson NZRNVR), ambos en Lyttelton

GOBIERNO DE LA UNIÓN DE SUDÁFRICA

Arrastreros auxiliares antisubmarinos - BLOOMVLEI (Sk S B Petzer SARNVR), MOOIVLEI (Sk H A Crons SARNVR), RONDEVLEI (Lt R P Dryden Dymond RNVR (SA), SMALVLEI (Lt J Leask SDF) todos en Simonstown

Arrastreros antisubmarinos - FLOTA SUR (Ty Lt JEJ Lewis SARNVR), SOUTHERN ISLE (Ty Lt AC Matson SARNVR), SOUTHERN MAID (SO, Ty Lt Cdr AF Trew SARNVR), SOUTHERN SEA (Ty Lt A Thomas SARNVR), todos desde Durban el 15 de diciembre para Alejandría .


2 de enero de 1941 - Historia

El año nuevo se abrió con una incursión en Cardiff por 100 bombarderos alemanes en la noche del 2 de enero, esto fue seguido la noche siguiente por una incursión en Bristol con 170 aviones. La semana siguiente, el 10 de enero, Portsmouth fue bombardeado y bombas perdidas cayeron sobre Surrey, Berkshire y partes de Buckinghamshire.

Eton College, habiendo adquirido Manor Farm, ofreció el alquiler a James Kinross Snr., Quien, habiendo sido un granjero arrendatario del College durante mucho tiempo sin granja, tomó posesión de la granja. Hasta entonces, la base de la granja había sido un granero rojo holandés doble en Slough - Eton Road. Este establo también era conocido como & # 8216Tramps Hotel & # 8217 y tenía el establo para toda la fuerza motriz de la granja, que en ese momento era de doce caballos. La parte cerrada del granero fue confiscada por un Departamento de Gobierno para el almacenamiento de suministros que en varias ocasiones incluían artículos como cebollas y confitería, lo que no era una buena idea dada la población de roedores. Las tiendas militares consistían en cosas como camisas azules de la Fuerza Aérea y talco para los pies, un talco medicinal para los pies, soldados para el uso.

Clothes rationing made the shirts a desirable item on the Black Market and a temptation to thieves. One night, shortly after the end of the war in Europe, using a lorry, thieves smashed through the barn doors and made off with a quantity of shirts. The shirts, all one size, bore the size mark 22. German P.O.W.'s arriving for work the following morning at Manor farm espied the shirts lying around and proceeded to kit themselves out. Although Manor Farm must be over a mile from one end to the other, the news that Police CID and Military SIB had arrived at the scene of the crime spread like a forest fire. The P.O.W.'s aware of the consequences if caught in possession of stolen property, immediately set about disposing of their loot putting shirts down the toilet, into buckets and in any other suitable place. One German prisoner working out in the field had no alternative but to bury his shirt and carry on working stripped to the waist on a very chilly day. When questioned by the investigating officers, everyone swore that Willie never wore a shirt or coat when working.

Having learnt to drive one of the new-fangled Fordson tractors, James Kinross Jnr. set about ploughing up the hallowed turf of Agars Plough, Eton. Other recreational areas were ploughed and prepared for cereals including the recreation ground at Eton Wick. By September 1943 the Bucks War Agriculture Executive had designated many acres of grass land around the district including 150 acres of the Dorney common for cereal and vegetable cultivation.

Doris Bentley, Barbara Trimmings and Margaret McIntosh, to name three capable members of the Womens Land Army, worked at Manor Farm and Barbara became very skilled at driving the Fordson tractor. On cold mornings the tractor could be difficult to start, the engine needing to be cranked overusing a starting handle this operation require a certain amount of strength and knack, both of which Barbara had acquired. Petrol used for starting was contained in a small section of the fuel tank, the larger section containing the vaporising oil on which the engine ran when suitably warmed up. Once her precaution of covering the engine with sacking against frost and damp almost ended in disaster a leak having developed in the petrol section of the tank dripped onto the sacking during the night. When endeavouring to start the beast the sacking ignited, and a jet of flame shot up those around beating a hasty retreat whilst Barbara coolly extinguished the fire.

Many P.O.W,s were sent to work on local farms and were available on a daily basis from the prisoner of war camp at Maidenhead, being generally allocated at the farmers request in gangs of eight. Max Schattke, a German prisoner of war came to the Manor farm during the summer of 1946. He was an aerial photographer in the Luftwaffe who had been shot down over Caen in 1945 and captured by the Americans. Having been in captivity for some time on the continent Max arrived in England in late January 1946, going into the large POW camp at Reading from whence he transferred to the camp at Ascot commencing work at Manor farm. Upon being discharged from his POW status in January 1948 he voluntarily stayed and worked on the farm for another year as a free man. During his stay Max was encouraged to converse in English with help from Mrs Kinross Senior and after having spent some time exploring England Max returned to Germany in 1951.

“My daughter and I visited Mr and Mrs Kinross at Manor Farm in 1998 and have memories of Doris Bentley who left in late 1945 to marry a Canadian Police Officer, Barbara who left the farm in 1946, and Margaret McIntosh who married Peter French”.

For the first weeks of January there was no enemy activity in the sky over Slough - Windsor to disturb local residents but the Cities of Cardiff, Bristol and Portsmouth suffered from attacks by the Luftwaffe. This respite did not last, for on the morning of February 3rd., a dismal morning with snow falling, a German aircraft dropped bombs on Upton and Ditton Park, Slough. The sound of machine gun fire sent Eton Wick village school children to seek shelter under their desks and although the. damage was slight but the blast from the exploding bombs caused two panes of glass to crack at the school.


2 January 1941 - History

British and Other Navies in World War 2 Day-by-Day
by Don Kindell

GERMAN NAVY SHIPS, JANUARY 1941 (Part 1 of 2)

(for more ship information, go to Naval History Homepage and type name in Site Search)

GERMAN SURFACE SHIPS and U-BOATS to U.150 (all built or building)

Includes destroyers, torpedo boats and submarines completed by the end of war even if construction did not begin in 1941.


The commanding officer shown for units under construction is the CO on completion

BATTLESHIPS

BISMARCK (KptzS Ernst Lindemann) at Hamburg completing

TIRPITZ (KptzS Karl Topp from Feb 41) at Wilhelmshaven bldg to comp 25 Feb 41

BATTLECRUISERS

GNEISENAU (KptzS Otto Fein) dep Kiel 28 Dec for operations, damaged by weather, ret to Kiel 2 Jan

SCHARNHORST (KptzS Curt Caesar Hoffman) dep Kiel 28 Dec for operations, ret to Kiel with damaged GNEISENAU

ARMOURED SHIPS/POCKET BATTLESHIPS

ADMIRAL SCHEER (KptzS Theodor Krancke), operating in South Atlantic

L TZOW (KptzS Leo Kreish from Mar 41, no Captain attached from late Apr 40 to Mar 41) at Kiel repairing to comp Jun 41

HEAVY CRUISERS

ADMIRAL HIPPER (KptzS Wilhelm Meisel) arr at Brest on 27 Dec from operations

PRINZ EUGEN (KptzS Helmuth Brinkman) at Kiel completing

LIGHT CRUISERS

EMDEN (KptzS Hans Mirow) refitting

K LN (KptzS Ernst Kratzenberg, KptzS Freidrich Huffmeier from May 41) operational

LEIPZIG (KptzS Werner Stichling) at Danzig working up after repairs

N RNBERG (KptzS Leo Kreisch, KptzS Ernst v Studnitz from 20 Mar 41) operational

DESTROYERS

BRUNO HEINEMANN (Z.8, KKpt Hermann Alberts) 6th Fl

ERICH STEINBRINCK (Z.15, KKpt Rolf Johannesson) 5th Fl

FRIEDRICH ECKHOLDT (Z.16, KKpt Alfred Schemmel) 5th Fl

FRIEDRICH IHN (Z.14, KKpt Gunther Wachmuth) 5th Fl

HANS LODY (Z.10, KKpt Werner Pfeiffer) 6th Fl

HERMANN SCHOEMANN (Z.7, KKpt Heinrich Wittig) 6th Fl

KARL GALSTER (Z.20, KKpt Theodor Freiherr von Bechtolsheim) 6th Fl

PAUL JACOBI (Z.5, KKpt Hans G. Zimmer, FKpt Hermann Schlieper from Apr 41) 6th Fl

RICHARD BEITZEN (Z.4, KKpt Hans von Davidson) 5th Fl

THEODOR RIEDEL (Z.6, KKpt Walter Riede) 6th Fl

Z.23 (KKpt Friedrich Bohme) 8th Fl

Z.24 (KKpt Martin Saltzwedel) 8th Fl

Z.25 (KKpt Heinrich Gerlach) 8th Fl

building at Bremen

Z.26 (KKpt Georg Ritter von Berger) to comp 11 Jan 41, to join 8th Fl

Z.27 (KKpt Karl Smidt) to comp 26 Feb 41, to join 8th Fl

Z.28 (FKpt Hans Erdmenger) to comp 9 Aug 41, to join 8th Fl

Z.29 (FKpt Kurt Rechel) to comp 9 Jul 41, to join 8th Fl

Z.30 (KKpt Heinrich Kaiser) to comp 15 Nov 41, to join 8th Fl

Z.31 (FKpt Hermann Alberts) to comp 11 Apr 42, to join 4th Fl

Z.32 (FKpt Georg Ritter und Elder Herr von Berger) to comp 15 Sep 42, to join 4th Fl

Z.33 (KptzS Erich Holtorf) to comp 28 Jan 43, to join 4th Fl

Z.34 (FKpt Karl Hetz) to comp 5 Jun 43, to join 4th Fl

Z.35 (KKpt Niels Batge) to comp 22 Sep 43, to join 4th Fl

Z.36 (KKpt Lothar Frhr von Hausen) to comp 19 Feb 44, to join 4th Fl

building at Kiel

Z.37 (FKpt Georg Langheld) to comp 5 May 42, to join 4th Fl

Z.38 (KKpt Gerfried Brutzer) to comp 29 Mar 43, to join 4th Fl

Z.39 (KKpt Konrad Loerke) to comp 21 Aug 43, to join 4th Fl

Z.40-Z.42 work suspended 1942, broken up 1943

building at Bremen

Z.43 (KptzS Arthur Wenninger) to comp 24 Mar 44, to join 6th Fl

TORPEDO BOATS

FALKE (Kptlt Jan Heinrich Hansen-Nootbar) 5th TBF

GREIF (Kptlt Heinrich Hoffman) 5th TBF

ILTIS (Kptlt Walter Jacobsen) 6th TBF

JAGUAR (Kptlt Werner Hartenstein, Kptlt Friedrich Karl Paul from Mar 41) 6th TBF

KONDOR (Kptlt Freiherr Wilhelm Nickolaus von Lyncker) 5th TBF

M WE, damaged, assigned to Torpedo School, to comp repairs 1 Oct 40, but did not rejoin 5th TBF until Apr 1942

SEEADLER (Kptlt Franz Kohlauf) 6th TBF

WOLF (OzS Broder Peters) 6th TBF

T.1 (Kptlt Carl Aug Richter-Oldekop) 1st TBF

T.2 (Kptlt Heinrich Godecke) 1st TBF

T.3 (Kptlt Heinrich Bruns) 1st TBF

T.4 (Kptlt Erwin Hesse, OzS Konrad Sommerlatt from Oct 41) 1st TBF

T.5 (Kptlt Rudolf Koppenhagen) 2nd TBF

T.7 (Kptlt Wolfgang Erhardt, Kptlt Hans Quaet-Faslem from Apr 41) 2nd TBF

T.8 (Kptlt Heinrich Erdmann, Kptlt Thilo-Leberecht v Trotha from Apr 41) 2nd TBF

T.9 (Kptlt Hans Blose) 1st TBF

T.10 (Kptlt Aug Hoepner) 1st TBF

T.11 (Kptlt Heinrich Hoffman, Kptlt Georg Grund from Jun 41) 2nd TBF

T.12 (Kptlt Viktor Mellin) 2nd TBF

building at Elbing

T.13 (Kptlt Werner Gotzmann) to comp 31 May 41, to join 3rd TBF

T.14 (Kptlt Herbert Juttner) to comp 14 Jun 41, to join 3rd TBF

T.15 (Kptlt Helmuth Duvelius, Kptlt Joachim Quedenfeldt from Jul 41) to comp 26 Jun 41, to join 3rd TBF

T.16 (Kptlt Helmuth Duvelius) to comp 24 Jul 41, to join 3rd TBF

T.17 (Kptlt Hans Blose) to comp 28 Aug 41, to join 3rd TBF

T.18 (Kptlt Aug Hoepner) to comp 22 Nov 41, to join 3rd TBF

T.19 (Kptlt Carl Aug Richter-Oldekop) to comp 18 Dec 41, to join 3rd TBF

T.20 (Kptlt Carl-Aug Richter-Oldekop) to comp 5 Jun 42, to join 3rd TBF

T.21 (Kptlt Hans Temming) to comp 11 Jul 42, to join 3rd TBF

T.22 (Kptlt Jan Heinrich Hansen-Nootbaar) to comp 28 Feb 42, to join 5th TBF

T.23 (Kptlt Friedrich-Karl Paul) to comp 14 Jun 42, to join 4th TBF

T.24 (KKpt Heinrich Hoffmann) to comp 17 Oct 42, to join 4th TBF

T.25 (Kptlt Rudolf Koppenhagen) to comp 12 Nov 42, to join 4th TBF

T.26 (Kptlt Wilhelm-Nikolaus Frhr von Lyncker) to comp 27 Feb 43, to join 4th TBF

T.27 (KKpt Wilhelm Verlohr) to comp 17 Apr 43, to join 4th TBF

T.28 (KKpt Carl-Aug Richter-Oldekop) to comp 19 Jun 43, to join 5th TBF

T.29 (Kptlt Georg Grund) to comp 21 Aug 43, to join 5th TBF

T.30 (Kptlt Hans-Walter Buch) to comp 24 Oct 43, to join 6th TBF

T.31 (Kptlt Heinrich Peter-Pirkham) to comp 5 Feb 44, to join 6th TBF

T.32 (Kptlt Hans Dehnert) to comp 8 May 44, to join 6th TBF

T.33 (Kptlt Bogislav Priebe) to comp 16 Jun 44, to join 6th TBF

T.34 (Kptlt Horst Frhr von Luttitz) to comp 12 Aug 44, to join 5th TBF

T.35 (Kptlt Hans-Walter Buch) to comp 7 Oct 44, to join 5th TBF

T.36 (Kptlt Robert Hering) to comp 9 Dec 44, to join 5th TBF

ex-Norwegian

LEOPARD (ex-BALDER, Kptlt Konrad Sommerlatt, Kptlt Bethge from Oct) 7th TBF

L WE (ex-GYLLER, Kptlt Georg Grund, OzS Gerhard Kellerstrass from May) 7th TBF

PANTHER (ex-ODIN, OzS Walther Jahrmarker, Kptlt Friedrich Meier from Jun) 7th TBF

TIGER (ex-TOR, Kptlt Herbert Juttner, Ozs. Friedrich Nose from Jun) 7th TBF

SUBMARINES

completed

U.2 (Kptlt George v Wilmowitz-Moellendorf, LzS Karl Kolzer from Oct 41) 21st Fl

U.3 (Kptlt Otto Bulow, OzS Hans Trojer from Jul 41) 21st Fl

U.4 (OzS Hansjurgen Zetzsche, OzS Hinrich-Oscar Bernbeck from Feb 41, OzS Wolfgang Leimkuhler from Dec 41) 21st Fl

U.5 (OzS Friedrich Bothe) 21st Fl

U.6 (OzS Johannes Liebe, Kptlt Eberhard Bopst from Mar 41, LzS Herbert Bruninghaus from Oct 41) 21st Fl

U.7 (OzS Gunther Reeder, OzS Ernst-Ulrich Bruller from Jan 41, OzS Gunther Reeder from Feb 41, OzS Hans-Gunther Kuhlmann from Mar 41, OzS Heinrich Schmid from May 41) 21st Fl

U.8 (Kptlt Heinrich Heinsohn, Kptlt Ulrich Borcherdt in May 41, OzS Rolf Steinhaus from Jun 41, OzS Horst Deckert from Aug 41) 22nd Fl

U.9 (Kptlt Joachim Deecke, Kptlt Hans-Joachim Schmidt-Weichert from Jul 41) 21st Fl

U.10 (Kptlt Wolf Rudiger von Rabenau, OzS Kurt Ruwiedel from Jun 41, OzS Hans Karpf from Nov 41) 21st Fl

U.11 (Kptlt Georg Peters) 21st Fl

U.14 (Kptlt Jurgen Konenkamp, OzS Hubertus Przikling from May 41) 22nd Fl

U.17 (Kptlt Wolfgang Schultze, OzS Ernst Heydemann from Oct 41), U-boat Training School

U.18 (Kptlt Ernst Vogelsang, OzS Hans-Achim von Rosenberg-Gruszcynski from May 41) 22nd Fl

U.19 (Kptlt Rudolf Schendel, OzS Gerhard Litterscheid from Jun 41) 22nd Fl

U.20 (Kptlt Herbert Schauenburg, OzS Wolfgang Strater from May 41, OzS Kurt Nolke from Dec 41) 21st Fl

U.21 (Kptlt Bernhard Lohse, OzS Karl-Heinz Herbschleb from May 41) 21st Fl

U.23 (OzS Karl Reichenbach-Klinke, OzS Ernst-Ulrich Bruller from Mar 41, OzS Ulrich Graf from Sep 41) 21st Fl

U.24 (OzS Dietrich Borchert, OzS Helmut Henning from Mar 41, OzS Hardo Rodler von Roithberg from Aug 41) 21st Fl

U.28 (OzS Friedrich Guggenberger, OzS Heinrich Ratsch from Feb 41, OzS Hermann Eckhardt from Jun 41) 24th Fl

U.29 (Kptlt Otto Schuhart, OzS Georg Lassen from Jan 41, OzS Heinrich Hasenschar from Sep 41) 24th Fl

U.30 (KKpt Robert Prutzmann, OzS Paul-Karl Loeser in Apr 41, OzS Kurt Baberg from Apr 41) 24th Fl

U.34 (Ozs Fritz Meyer, OzS Karl-Otto Schultz from May 41, OzS Gerhard Remus from Dec 41) 24th Fl

U.37 (Kptlt Nicolai Clausen, OzS Ulrich Folkers from Apr 41, OzS Gustav-Adolf Janssen from Nov 41) 2nd Fl, transferred to 26th Fl in Apr 41

U.38 (Kptlt Heinrich Liebe, KKpt Heinrich Schuch from Jul 41) 2nd Fl, transferred to 24th Fl in Dec 41

U.43 (Kptlt Wolfgang Luth) 2nd Fl

U.46 (Kptlt Engelbert Endrass, OzS Peter Ottmar Grau from Sep 41, OzS Konstantin von Puttkamer in Nov 41) 7th Fl, transferred to 26th Flot in Apr 41

U.47 (KKpt Gunther Prien) 7th Fl

U.48 (Kptlt Herbert Schultze, OzS Siegfried Atzinger from Aug 41) 7th Fl, transferred to 26th Flot in Jul 41

U.52 (Kptlt Otto Salman, Kptlt Wolf Rudiger von Rabenau from Jun 41, OzS Walter Frhr von Freyberg-Eisenberg-Allmendingen from Jul 41) 7th Fl, transferred to 26th Flot in Jun 41

U.56 (Kptlt Werner Pfeifer, OzS Wolfgang Romer from Apr 41) 24th Fl

U.57 (OzS Wilhelm Eisele) 22nd Fl

U.58 (Kptlt Hans-Jaochim Rahmlow, OzS Horst Hamm from Apr 41, OzS Bruno Barber from Oct 41) 22nd Fl

U.59 (Kptlt Siegfried Frhr von Forstner to Apr 41, OzS Gunter Gretschel from Nov 41) 22nd Fl

U.60 (OzS Georg Wallas, OzS Kurt Pressel from Sep 41) 21st Fl

U.61 (OzS Willy Mattke, OzS Hans Lange from May 41) 21st Fl

U.62 (OzS Ludwig Forster, OzS Max Wintermeyer from Sep 41, Kptlt Waldemar Mehl in Nov 41, OzS Horst Schunemann from Nov 41) 21st Fl

U.65 (KKpt Hans Gerrit von Stockhausen, Kptlt Joachim Hoppe from Mar 41) 2nd Fl

U.66 (KKpt Richard Zapp) to comp 2 Jan 41, to join 2nd Fl

U.67 (Kptlt Heinrich Bleichrodt, OzS Gunther Pfeffer in Jun 41, Kptlt Gunther Muller- Stockheim from Jun 41) to comp 22 Jan 41, to join 2nd Fl

U.68 (KKpt Karl Friedrich Merten) to comp 11 Feb 41, to join 2nd Fl

U.69 (Kptlt Jost Metzler, Kptlt Wilhelm Zahn from Aug 41) working up after comp 2 Nov 40, to join 7th Fl

U.70 (Kptlt Joachim Matz) working up after comp 23 Nov 40, to join 7th Fl

U.71 (Kptlt Walter Flachsenberg) working up after comp 14 Dec 40, to join 7th Fl

U.72 (KKpt Hans Werner Newmann, Ozs. Helmut Koster from Aug 41, OzS Waldemar Mehl from Dec 41) to comp 4 Jan 41, to join 21st Fl

U.73 (Kptlt Helmut Rosenbaum) working up after comp 30 Sep 40, to join 7th Fl

U.74 (Kptlt Eitel Friedrich Kentrat) working up after comp 31 Oct 40, to join 7th Fl

U.75 (Kptlt Helmuth Ringelmann) working up after comp 19 Dec 40, to join 7th Fl

U.76 (Kptlt Friedrich von Hippel) working up after comp 3 Dec 40, to join 7th Fl

building at Vegesack

U.77 (Kptlt Heinrich Schonder) to comp 18 Jan 41, to join 7th Fl

U.78 (Kptlt Adolf Dumrese, OzS Kurt Makowski from Jul 41) to comp 15 Feb 41, to join 22nd Fl

U.79 (Kptlt Wolfgang Kaufmann) to comp 13 Mar 41, to join 1st Fl

U.80 (OzS Georg Staats, OzS Hans Benker from Oct 41) to comp 8 Apr 41, to join 1st Fl, transferred to 26th Flot in May 41

U.81 (Kptlt Friedrich Guggenberger) to comp 26 Apr 41, to join 1st Fl

U.82 (Kptlt Siegfried Rollman) to comp 14 May 41, to join 3rd Fl

building at L beck

U.83 (Kptlt Hans Werner Kraus) to comp 8 Feb 41, to join 1st Fl

U.84 (Kptlt Horst Uphoff) to comp 29 Apr 41, to join 1st Fl

U.85 (OzS Eberhard Greger) to comp 7 Jun 41, to join 3rd Fl

U.86 (Kptlt Walter Schug) to comp 8 Jul 41, to join 5th Fl

U.87 (Kptlt Joachim Berger) to comp 19 Aug 41, to join 6th Fl

U.88 (Kptlt Heino Bohmann) to comp 15 Oct 41, to join 8th Fl

U.89 (KKpt Dietrich Lohmann) to comp 19 Nov 41, to join 8th Fl

U.90 (Kptlt Hans-Jurgen Oldorp) to comp 20 Dec 41, to join 8th Fl

U.91 (Kptlt Heinz Walkerling) to comp 28 Jan 42, to join 5th Fl

U.92 (Kptlt Adolf Oelrich) to comp 3 Mar 42, to join 5th Fl

completed

U.93 (Kptlt Claus Korth, Kptlt Ralph Kaptizky from Aug 41, OzS Horst Elfe from Sep 41) 7th Fl

U.94 (Kptlt Herbert Kuppisch, OzS Otto Ites from Sep 41) 7th Fl

U.95 (Kptlt Gerd Schreiber) 7th Fl

U.96 (Kptlt Heinrich Lehmann-Willenbrock) 7th Fl

U.97 (Kptlt Udo Heilmann) working up after comp 28 Sep 40, to join 7th Fl

U.98 (Kptlt Robert Gysae) working up after comp 12 Oct 40, to join 7th Fl

U.99 (KKpt Otto Kreschmer) 7th Fl

U.100 (Kptlt Joachim Schepke) 7th Fl

U.101 (Kptlt Ernst Mergersen) 7th Fl

U.103 (KKpt Victor Schutze, Kptlt Werner Winter from Aug 41) 2nd Fl

U.105 (Kptlt Georg Schewe) 2nd Fl

U.106 (Kptlt Jurgen Oesten, Kptlt Herman Rasch from Oct 41) working up after comp 24 Sep 40, to join 2nd Fl

U.107 (KKpt Gunter Hessler, Kptlt Harald Gelhaus from Nov 41) working up after comp 8 Oct 40, to join 2nd Fl

U.108 (KKpt Klaus Scholtz) working up after comp 22 Oct 40, to join 2nd Fl

U.109 (KKpt Hans Georg Fischer, Kptlt Heinrich Bleichrodt from Jun 41) working up after comp 5 Dec 40, to join 2nd Fl

U.110 (Kptlt Fritz Julius Lemp) working up after comp 21 Nov 40, to join 2nd Fl

U.111 (Kptlt Wilhelm Kleinschmidt) working up after comp 19 Dec 40, to join 2nd Fl

not built

U.112 - U.115 projected only

building at Keil

U.116 (KKpt Werner von Schmidt) to comp 26 Jul 41, to join 2nd Fl

U.117 (KKpt Hans-Werner Neumann) to comp 25 Oct 41, to join 2nd Fl

U.118 (KKpt Werner Czygan) to comp 6 Dec 41, to join 4th Fl

U.119 (Kptlt Alois Zech) to comp 2 Apr 42, to join 4th Fl

completed

U.120 (OzS Wolfgang Heyda, OzS Willy-Roderich Korner from May 41) 21st Fl

U.121 (Kptlt Karl Ernst Schroeter, Kptlt Egon Reiner Frhr v Schlippenbach from Mar 41, Kptlt Gert Hetschko from Jul 41) 21st Fl

U.123 (Kptlt Karl Heinz Moehle, Kptlt Reinhard Hardegan from May 41) 2nd Fl

U.124 (Kptlt Wilhelm Schulz, Kptlt Johann Mohr from Sep 41)

U.125 (Kptlt Gunter Kuhnke), to join 2nd Fl

U.126 (Kptlt Ernst Bauer) working up after comp 22 Mar 41, to join 2nd Fl

building at Bremen

U.127 (Kptlt Bruno Hansman) to comp 24 Apr 41, to join 2nd Fl

U.128 (Kptlt Ulrich Heyse) to comp 12 May 41, to join 2nd Fl

U.129 (Kptlt Nicolai Clausen) to comp 21 May 41, to join 4th Fl

U.130 (KKpt Ernst Kals) to comp 11 Jun 41, to join 4th Fl

U.131 (KKpt Arend Baumann) to comp 1 Jul 41, to join 4th Fl

U.132 (Kptlt Ernst Vogelsang) to comp 29 May 41, to join 3rd Fl

U.133 (Kptlt Hermann Hesse) to comp 5 Jul 41, to join 7th Fl

U.134 (Kptlt Rudolf Schendel) to comp 26 Jul 41, to join 5th Fl

U.135 (Kptlt Friedrich Hermann Praetorius) to comp 16 Aug 41, to join 5th Fl

U.136 (Kptlt Heinrich Zimmermann) to comp 30 Aug 41, to join 6th Fl

completed

U.137 (OzS Hanns-Ferdinand Massmann) 22nd Fl

U.138 (Kptlt Franz Gramitsky) 22nd Fl

building at Kiel

U.139 (OzS Horst Elfe, OzS Heiko Fenn from Oct 41) to comp 24 Jul 40, to join 21st Fl

completed

U.140 (OzS Hans Peter Hinsch, OzS Hans-Jurgen Hellriegel from Apr 41) 22nd Fl

U.141 (OzS Heinz Otto Schultze, OzS Philipp Schuler from Mar 41, OzS Kruger from Nov 41) 21st Fl

U.142 (Kptlt Paul-Hugo Kettern, OzS Siegfried Lindke from Oct 41) 24th Fl

U.143 (OzS Helmut Mohlmann, OzS Jurgen Rosenstiel from Mar 41, OzS Harald Gelhaus from May 41, OzS Helmut Manseck from Nov 41) 22nd Fl

U.144 (Kptlt Gert von Mittelstaedt) 22nd Fl

U.145 (Kptlt Rudolf Franzius, OzS Heinz Schomburg from Oct 41) 22nd Fl

U.146 (Kptlt Eberhard Hoffman, OzS Rudolf Ites from Apr 41, Kptlt Ewald Hulsenbeck from Aug 41, LzS Wilhelm Grimme from Oct 41) 22nd Fl

U.147 (Kptlt Reinhard Hardegen, OzS Eberhard Wetjen from May 41) working up after comp 11 Dec 40) 22nd Fl

U.148 (OzS Hans Jurgen Radke, OzS Eberhard Mohr from Sep 41) working up after comp 28 Dec 40, to join 24th Fl

U.149 (Kptlt Horst Holtring, Kptlt Rolf Borchers from Nov 41) working up after comp 13 Nov 40, to join 22nd Fl

U.150 (OzS Hinrich Kelling) working up after comp 27 Nov 40, to join 22nd Fl

For remaining U-boats, go to Part 2 of 2 , U-boats from U.151 (all building or to be built)

one was building for foreign Navy, the rest captured

U.A (KKpt Hans Eckermann) 7th Fl, on patrol in the Atlantic

U.B (ex-British SEAL, FKpt Bruno Mahn)1st Fl

UC.1 (ex-Norwegian B.5, Kptlt Wilhelm Kiesewetter, Kptlt Georg Lange from Jun) U-boat Training School

UC.2 (ex-Norwegian B.6, no commanding officer assigned until Nov 41, OzS Otto Wollschlager from Nov) U-Boat Training School

UD.1 (ex-Dutch O.8, KKpt Hermann Rigele, Kptlt Freidrich Schafer from May, Kptlt Franz Venier from Nov) U-Boat Training School

UD.3 (ex-Dutch O.25, KKpt Hermann Rigele from Jun, KKpt Walther Kolle from Jul) to join 3rd Fl

UD.4 (ex-Dutch O.26, KKpt Helmut Brummer-Patzig, KKpt Rudolf Singule from Nov) repairing to comp 28 Jan 41, to join U-boat Command


The Axis Conquers the Philippines: January 1942-July 1942

The Axis­­ continued to smash forward in World War II during the first half of 1942. On February 15, 1942, the British Empire suffered one of its most humiliating defeats. At 6:15 p.m., in a makeshift conference room in the Ford Motor Company factory in Singapore, General Arthur Percival surrendered the island to Lieutenant General Yamashita Tomoyuki.

The Japanese made the island the headquarters of the Southern Army, which conquered Southeast Asia, and renamed Singapore "Shonan," meaning "Light of the South." Of the 50,000 white troops captured, 18,000 would die of disease and/or mistreatment before war's end.

The Japanese armed forces aimed to capture a broad area in the south. They would defend the perimeter while the rich resources of the region were incorporated into the Japanese war effort.

Resistance was limited. In the Dutch East Indies, the 140,000-man colonial army was overwhelmed. The northern Philippines, with a mixed native and American fo­rce, was quickly overrun except for the Bataan Peninsula, where 100,000 soldiers and refugees were bottled up. The Japanese captured the peninsula in April.

The American headquarters in the fortress of Corregidor, in Manila Bay, fell on May 6, 1942, after a fierce defense. By early June, nearly all American forces in the Philippines had surrendered.­

Further west, a Japanese force overran Burma and entered the capital, Rangoon, on March 8. A Japanese aircraft carrier raided the northern Australian port of Darwin on February 19, and in April Japanese aircraft sank British shipping on the Indian coast.

This was the limit of Japanese expansion, though the assault had been so successful and rapid that senior commanders sought to capitalize on their advantage with further advances. In early May, a naval force sailed south to seize the southern peninsula of New Guinea while Admiral Yamamoto planned a mid-Pacific offensive. This was designed to destroy what was left of U.S. naval power in the ocean and cut off American aid to the South Pacific.

The prelude to the final Japanese assault was the seizure of Port Moresby in southern New Guinea. The task force that was dispatched south in early May was attacked by a small Allied force in the Coral Sea. The battle was a strategic setback for Yamamoto, who was obliged to abandon his plan to seize Port Moresby and isolate Australia. This was the first hint that Japanese expansion was nearing its limit.­

A month later, Yamamoto dispatched a huge task force to Midway Island, hoping to lure what was left of the U.S. Pacific Fleet to battle and then annihilate it. With a small force of carriers and sufficient secret intelligence on Japanese intentions, the Pacific Fleet commander, Admiral Chester Nimitz, planned a daring interception.

As the Japanese carrier fleet neared Midway, it was attacked by American dive-bombers. Only a few of their bombs struck, but they sank all four fleet carriers. Yamamoto ordered a return to Japan. His plans had been frustrated by America's intelligence successes, astute leadership, combat skills, and luck.

Elsewhere, the global war remained balanced on a knife edge. China's long, drawn-out conflict with Japan had become a formal state of war on December 9, 1941, following Pearl Harbor. Although the Japanese army controlled much of eastern and northern China, Chinese hit-and-run tactics made it difficult for Japan to pacify and control even those areas under occupation.

In May 1942, Japanese commanders embarked on a ruthless policy of pacification -- "kill all, steal all, burn all" -- to try to deter further Chinese resistance. Roughly 250,000 Chinese were killed in 1942.

In North Africa, British Empire forces based in Egypt had moved forward successfully across Libya against weak Italian resistance. But in January 1942, against an Axis force strengthened by a Nazi German corps under General Erwin Rommel, the British Empire Forces began a long retreat back to Egypt. Tobruk fell to the Axis on June 21, and by the end of June Axis forces were a few miles from El Alamein, Egypt, within striking distance of the Suez Canal.

The British position at sea -- in the Mediterranean and the Atlantic -- remained precarious. In 1942 they lost 7.8 million tons of shipping. Britain was able to import only one-third of what it took in before the war. The Allies' persistent bombing of Nazi German naval installations and submarine building sites achieved almost nothing.

The most dangerous situation lay in the Soviet theater. With the successful defense of Moscow in December 1941, the Soviets launched further offensives, trying to find weak spots in the Nazi German line. In the south, the Red Army created a large salient in Nazi German defensive lines south of Kharkov.

But when Joseph Stalin ordered the Red Army to capture the city in May 1942, the Nazi German front absorbed the attack and then encircled and annihilated the attackers. In the Crimea, the Nazi Germans repulsed a Soviet counteroffensive on the Kerch Peninsula. In July, they captured Sevastopol after an assault with the world's largest artillery piece: "Big Dora."

Nazi Germany's central ambition was the final defeat of the Soviet Union in 1942. Adolf Hitler planned to attack the less well-defended southern front toward the Volga River and the Caucasus oil fields. Their capture would give his forces huge new oil supplies and deny them to the enemy.

On June 28, Nazi Germany launched "Operation Blue" with substantial success. The Soviet southern front retreated. So successful was the assault that Adolf Hitler divided the force in two. He sent the Sixth Army, under General Friedrich Paulus, to seize Stalingrad and cut the Soviet Union off from the resources of the south. By August, Nazi German forces had reached the oil city of Maikop and were advancing toward the rich oil fields around Grozny.

In midsummer 1942, the war was poised in the balance. The strategic dream of the Axis powers was to link up in the Middle East. They would seize the Suez Canal and the oil that lay beyond it from one side, and they would sweep down from the Caucasus on the other side.

With Japan threatening India and the United States not yet fully armed, the ambition seemed less fantastic at the time than it now appears. Yet the summer of 1942 saw the high watermark of Axis aggrandizement. Over the next year, the Allies would find not just greater resources but also more effective ways of fighting. They were poised to reverse the long series of defeats that had until then littered their war effort.

Let's take a closer look at these events, beginning with a timeline of early January 1942 on the next page.


1941 scenario (world) (january)

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Today in World War II History—January 14, 1941

80 Years Ago—Jan. 14, 1941: Off Antarctica, German auxiliary cruiser Pinguin captures 14 Norwegian whaling ships without firing a single shot or causing a single casualty.

Los "V for Victory” is suggested by former Belgian Minister of Justice Victor de Lavelaye, in a BBC broadcast from London to Nazi-occupied Belgium, Holland, and France.

Norwegian whaling factory ship Pelagos, 1931, captured by Pinguin 14 January 1941 (public domain via Vestfold Fylkesmuseum Digitalt bildearkiv and Wikipedia)


The Lend-Lease Act

In 1941 Congress passed a bill allowing the president to provide assistance to nations whose defense was considered vital to the security of the United States. Known as the Lend-Lease Act, it became the principal means for providing U.S. aid to key Americans allies, especially Great Britain, during World War II. The act permitted the president to “loan” war materiel such as ammunition, tanks, and airplanes to allies without expectation of repayment. Though the United States would not declare war until December 8, 1941, the Lend-Lease Act effectively ended U.S. neutrality.

[This bill] will make Uncle Sam the best and biggest Santa Claus the world has ever seen. . . . [it is] the worst kind of blank-check appropriation.

Senator Robert A. Taft of Ohio, The New York Times, January 26, 1941


Our West Coast Correspondent

De Acción Laboral, Vol. 5 No. 3, 20 January 1941, p.ك.
Transcrito y marcado por Einde O & # 8217 Callaghan para el Enciclopedia del trotskismo en línea (ETOL).

Speaking before an audience of 100 Negroes recently on the burning issue of Negroes in aircraft, we summed up the whole situation in one phrase: jim-crowism.

And that’s about the size of it. A royal run-around, a kicking around, and an endless merry-go-round is all that Negroes have been getting when seeking employment in the aircraft industry.

There are a total of 8 Negroes employed in production, out of over 60.000 workers in this area. They work at Douglas. The company put them on after a pressure campaign by Negro organizations. This bread crumb is supposed to prove that Douglas doesn’t discriminate. But everyone is wise to that one.

Before we discuss what has happened to Negroes seeking work in aircraft, let us point out that they expect to get jobs just like anyone else for the very good reason that they have the same rights to work and live as anyone else. Besides, they know they’ll be called on to die during war, and they feel a country isn’t worth dying for unless they can live like men in it beforehand. The large Negro population in Los Angeles, numbering over 75,000, is very bitter about jim-crowism in general and even more so about the exclusion of Negroes from war industries. And they are most bitter about aircraft because of the lousy deal they get.
 

When They Go For A Job

When young Negroes go to an aircraft plant, the management tells them that they would be very glad to hire them but they are inexperienced. “We don’t discriminate, but of course we must have trained men,” is the story.

So the Negroes go to the trade schools and apply for training in various aircraft jobs. At the schools they are told,

“We’d be very glad to teach you, but the aircraft companies don’t hire any Negroes so it would be a waste of time. We feel that under the circumstances we should not admit you to school.”

That’s what the more astute and polite bosses stooges tell the Negroes. Others tell them point blank, “You got to be a white man to handle that kind of work. You’re not smart enough.” And similar insults.

The Negroes have experienced so much of this that they had a hard time believing that a white man, myself, was willing to aid them in a campaign to place Negroes in aircraft. The chairman of the meeting carefully explained that I was not running for office or getting paid, but that I was just as hot and bothered about the injustice as they, because I believed in class solidarity as a step towards building socialism.
 

Union Takes Courageous Stand

Not the least ticklish problem in connection with this situation is the attitude of the union movement.

Only one aircraft union has dared to face the issue, has had the courage lo lake a stand on it. This is the Vultee CIO union.

The Vultee union took a stand on the question of Negroes in aircraft, after a disgraceful incident at the Vultee strike victory dance. Some Negro unionists came to attend the dance and were asked to leave. Tuvieron que irse.

A resolution was introduced at the next union meeting at which speeches were given by militants and Stalinists explaining the disgrace this was to the best traditions of the CIO and showing the need for class solidarity.

The resolution, which called for an apology, passed. It also put the union on record against racial discrimination, affirmed the Negro’s right to work in aircraft, and pledged the union to assist in this struggle. The resolution passed by a substantial majority, not unanimously. As a matter of fact, its passage, to put the truth bluntly, hurt the CIO temporarily in the drive to organize aircraft, because so many of the aircraft workers are while chauvinists at present.

The white workers are easily duped by the bosses and their stooges who tell them that if Negroes are hired, white men will lose their jobs. The CIO is doing a good job of exposing this lie. Aircraft industry is still hiring hundreds of men weekly. New jobs are always being created. And Negroes should have their share of them.

One of the Negro organizations here which has taken up the struggle is the militant American Advancement League. The National Negro Congress, a CP controlled outfit, has also raised the issue.

Groups of Negroes are demanding training at least at their own trade school, which the NYC has set up. And they intend to go to the plants and demand jobs or else picket the employment office, we’ve been informed. This is going to be a long and hard struggle. It will first be necessary to teach the union movement why the white workers must unite with the Negroes in this fight. It won’t be a picnic to force the NYA to give classes to the applicants. Nor are the companies going to be convinced easily.

But, as we told the audience

You know you never got a thing in life unless you fought bitterly for it. You have nothing lo lose. Your lives can’t become more miserable no matter how this thing ends up.”

“Soon we’ll have to fight and die for nothing in another phoney war to save democracy which we don’t have. Surely its better to fight and die for something worthwhile.

The response was such that we have confidence in the future. Fighting jim-crowism in aircraft isn’t the only fight these splendid people are going to make.


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