C. 750 - c. 800
La presunta fundación del importante centro comercial vikingo de Birka en Suecia.
C. 790 - c. 1100
C. 829 - c. 831
El misionero franco St. Ansgar (801-865 EC) introduce por primera vez a los suecos al cristianismo en la ciudad comercial vikinga de Birka.
El centro comercial vikingo de Birka en la actual Suecia entra en un abrupto declive a mediados del siglo X d.C.
La UNESCO declara el centro comercial vikingo de Birka en la actual Suecia como Patrimonio de la Humanidad, junto con el vecino sitio de Hovgården.
Cronología de Suecia
Copyright & # 169 2000-2021 Ken Polsson
correo electrónico de Internet: [email protected]
Reservados todos los derechos. Se concede permiso para crear enlaces web.
a este sitio, no copiar estas páginas a otros sitios web.
Este documento es un intento de reunir varias fuentes publicadas para presentar una cronología sobre Suecia.
Las referencias se enumeran entre [corchetes], que se enumeran aquí. Un número después del punto indica la página en la fuente.
Última actualización: 30 de abril de 2018.
|¿Cuando sucedió? (Hace años que)|
|Hace 24 años|
|El gran pirata Gol D. Roger se entrega a los marines y es condenado a muerte. El discurso de Roger antes de su muerte lleva a los piratas a Grand Line para buscar su tesoro escondido, apodado 'One Piece'. Este evento marca el comienzo de una era llamada "La Gran Era de los Piratas" (大 海賊 時代, Daikaizokujidai ? ) .|
Al enterarse de la captura de Roger, y que Roger será ejecutado dentro de una semana, Shiki hace un alboroto por Marineford antes de ser derribado por Sengoku y Monkey D. Garp. Es enviado al Nivel 6 de Impel Down por sus acciones. & # 9156 & # 93
Shanks comienza su viaje como capitán pirata pidiéndole a Buggy que se una a su tripulación. Buggy declina, y esta es la última vez que la pareja se reúne durante los próximos 22 años hasta que se reúnan durante la Guerra de Marineford.
El legendario carpintero Tom es juzgado por construir el barco de Gol D. Roger, el Oro Jackson. Le dieron diez años para completar su idea de un Tren Marino para ser exonerado de este crimen.
Heracles pierde a todos sus amigos debido a los peligros de la isla. & # 919 & # 93
Incidente de Ohara: Ohara es reducido a cenizas por una Buster Call convocada por el CP9. El profesor Clover, Olvia y todos los ciudadanos de Ohara mueren. Nico Robin, la única superviviente, comienza su vida huyendo del Gobierno Mundial con un 79.000.000 de recompensa. Jaguar D. Saul presumiblemente muere cuando es congelado por Aokiji.
Gaimon llega a la Isla de los Animales Raros y, a través de un percance, queda atrapado dentro de un cofre del tesoro. Su tripulación lo deja atrás.
Hatchan salva a Silvers Rayleigh en el mar y posteriormente se hace amigo de él. & # 9152 & # 93
Shiki escapa de Impel Down. & # 9173 & # 93
Portgas D. Ace nace como "Gol D. Ace". Su madre, Portgas D. Rouge, muere poco después de su nacimiento.
Kozuki Oden y los Nueve Vainas Rojas intentan derrotar a Kaido para abrir las fronteras del País Wano, pero fracasan. Tanto Oden como su esposa Kozuki Toki son ejecutados por Kurozumi Orochi y Kaido. Antes de su muerte, Toki usa los poderes de Toki Toki no Mi para enviar a su hijo con Ame no Habakiri y sus criados a un lugar seguro 20 años en el futuro. & # 9178 & # 93
Inuarashi y Nekomamushi comienzan su enemistad.
Nacen los Charlotte Decuplets, el mayor de los nacimientos múltiples de Charlotte Linlin. & # 9184 & # 93
Un incidente en una isla deja a quinientos soldados secuestrados por piratas. Los piratas exigen que su capitán sea nombrado rey de la isla a cambio de la liberación de los quinientos cautivos. El Gobierno Mundial envía a un niño de trece años para acabar con la situación de los rehenes; mata a los quinientos soldados y luego a los piratas cuando abren fuego contra él. Más tarde, el niño se convierte en la principal máquina de matar del CP9 secreto: Rob Lucci. & # 9149 & # 93
Un rey sin nombre de un reino sin nombre visitó el reino de Kamabakka en la isla de Momoiro. Después de su regreso, fue un okama. Este incidente desgarró el reino y la familia, y luego fueron exiliados. Bellett, hijo de este rey anónimo, se convirtió en pirata y más tarde culparía a Emporio Ivankov por este incidente.
Portgas D. Ace y Sabo comienzan a ahorrar dinero para comprar un barco pirata, salir de Dawn Island y convertirse en piratas.
Tony Tony Chopper nace en Drum Island. Se convierte en un paria de su rebaño debido a su nariz azul.
Como el “Corazón” original, Vergo pasa el nombre a Donquixote Rosinante. & # 919 & # 93
Ocurre el exterminio de la gente de Flevance. Trafalgar Law es reclutado por Donquixote Pirates.
Vergo dejó a los Piratas de Donquixote para ir a una misión secreta. & # 919 & # 93
Fisher Tiger cambia el nombre de la marca de los dragones celestiales en los esclavos hombres-pez liberados a la marca del sol y forma los piratas del sol. & # 9186 & # 93
Las hermanas Boa son encontradas por Gloriosa, Silvers Rayleigh y Shakuyaku, quienes las llevan de regreso a Amazon Lily. & # 9186 & # 93
Bajo las órdenes de Donquixote Doflamingo, Vergo se une a los Marines.
El grupo de la Expedición Nox fue perseguido por el gobierno por buscar poneglyphs, por lo que se convirtieron en los Piratas Nox. & # 9187 & # 93
La licencia de boxeo de Foxy fue revocada porque lo atraparon haciendo trampa con un arma. & # 919 & # 93
Vergo ingresa a la base G-5 después de solicitarlo personalmente. & # 919 & # 93
Toto y su hijo Koza partieron de Alubarna para establecer una aldea en el Oasis de Yuba.
Los padres de Shachi y Penguin murieron en un tsunami. Fueron criados por la tía y el tío de Shachi, quienes los obligaron a realizar actividades ilegales. & # 9117 & # 93
Boa Hancock se convierte en la nueva emperatriz de Kuja y capitana de los Piratas de Kuja. También se le da un puesto en los Siete Señores de la Guerra del Mar. & # 9189 & # 93
Donquixote Rosinante y Trafalgar Law viajan a Minion Island para robar el Ope Ope no Mi para salvar la vida de Law, pero son descubiertos por la familia Donquixote después de entregar accidentalmente una carta de inteligencia a Vergo, un miembro de la tripulación encubierto de Donflamingo como Marine. Rosinate es asesinado por su hermano y la isla sufre la jaula de pájaros, que mata a todos excepto a un niño que era miembro de una tripulación pirata local.
Doflamingo luego recluta a Sugar y Monet para su familia. & # 9190 & # 93
Sanji es expulsado de la familia Vinsmoke a la edad de 8 años por su padre, Vinsmoke Judge, y se le permite abandonar el Reino de Germa mientras están invadiendo un país en East Blue. Se sube a un crucero cercano llamado Orbit y trabaja allí como chef en prácticas durante los próximos 2 años. & # 9191 & # 93
Mientras deambula por Swallow Island, Bepo es intimidado por dos delincuentes llamados Shachi y Penguin. Trafalgar Law es testigo de la golpiza y Shachi y Penguin se pelean con él. Law los derrota y Bepo se une a él. & # 9192 & # 93
Kawamatsu y Onimaru comienzan a esconder las armas de los ladrones de tumbas. Finalmente, el kappa es encerrado en Udon después de intentar conseguir comida en la Capital de las Flores y come pescado podrido todos los días durante los próximos 13 años. & # 9193 & # 93 & # 9194 & # 93
Shanks pelirrojo, entonces de veintisiete años, llega a la ciudad natal de Luffy y decide quedarse allí. Luffy come accidentalmente el Gomu Gomu no Mi, dándole poderes de goma y una incapacidad para nadar. Higuma es devorado por un Sea King en un incidente que involucra a Luffy y Shanks. Shanks abandona la ciudad natal de Luffy después de permanecer allí durante casi un año. & # 9195 & # 93
Poco después de la partida de Shanks, Luffy es llevado por su abuelo Monkey D. Garp para entrenar con Curly Dadan y conoce a su hermano adoptivo Portgas D. Ace. Luffy pronto forma una hermandad con Ace y Sabo basándose en su deseo compartido de convertirse en piratas.
Disgustado por el fracaso de Porchemy, Bluejam dispara a Porchemy.
Los dragones celestiales vienen a visitar el reino de Goa en la isla Dawn. Los Piratas de Bluejam prendieron fuego a la Terminal Grey en preparación para su llegada, pero la mayoría de los que residen allí se salvan de ser quemados hasta la muerte por Monkey D. Dragon y los Revolucionarios.
Sabo es atacado por un Noble Mundial y se presume muerto. Es rescatado por Dragon, pero pierde sus recuerdos y se une a los revolucionarios.
El capitán pirata Mont Blanc Cricket llega a Jaya. Se queda a buscar la verdad sobre si su antepasado fue un mentiroso para poder ser liberado de la maldición de su familia. Su tripulación lo abandona poco después.
La famosa actriz Victoria Cindry muere en un trágico accidente. El Dr. Hogback conoce al Señor de la Guerra del Mar Gecko Moria, junto con Absalom y Perona.
Hatchan visita a Shakuyaku y Silvers Rayleigh por última vez después de unirse a los Sun Pirates.
Los Piratas del Sol conocen a Koala, una joven esclava de los Dragones Celestiales. Fisher Tiger cambia el nombre de su marca de esclava a la marca del sol, convirtiéndola en la primera humana en llevar el emblema de los Piratas del Sol.
Al regresar a Koala a su isla natal, Fisher Tiger es emboscada por un grupo de infantes de marina liderados por el contralmirante Strawberry. Después de apenas escapar de la isla con un barco de la Marina robado por su tripulación, Tiger elige morir en lugar de recibir una transfusión de sangre humana en el barco.
Enfurecido por la muerte de Tiger, Arlong regresa a la isla Foolshout para vengarse de los humanos que traicionaron a Tiger, solo para ser derrotado y capturado por el vicealmirante Borsalino. Luego es encarcelado en Impel Down.
Zeff regresa del Grand Line. Una tormenta hunde el barco pirata Orbit y Zeff. Zeff y Sanji terminan varados en una isla con muy poca comida durante 85 días y finalmente se salvan. Se abre Baratie.
Kuina y Roronoa Zoro prometieron que uno de ellos se convertiría en el mejor espadachín. Después de que Kuina muere, Koushirou le da a Zoro el Wado Ichimonji para alcanzar su objetivo. & # 919 & # 93
Doflamingo incrimina a Riku Doldo III y sus soldados por varios crímenes contra sus propios ciudadanos antes de abalanzarse y reclamar el puesto de rey de Dressrosa.
Arlong invade Cocoyasi Village y comienza a construir su imperio. Bell-mère es asesinado por él y Nami es reclutada por los Piratas de Arlong.
Tom completa el Sea Train, el Puffing Tom. Le tomó cuatro años más a él y a los demás agregar las pistas a otras islas.
CP5, liderado por Spandam, enmarca a Tom, quien es llevado a Enies Lobby. Se presume que Cutty Flam está muerto después de intentar detener el tren marítimo que transportaba a Tom.
La princesa Shirahoshi es tocada por Vander Decken IX, convirtiéndola en un objetivo de sus poderes.
La reina Otohime es asesinada, provocando un alboroto en la isla Gyojin.
Hody roba las píldoras de energía de Tamate Box y renuncia al ejército de Neptuno. En caso de otro robo, el Ministro de Derecho coloca dentro de la caja explosivos que detonarán en el momento en que se abra.
Shirahoshi está encerrada dentro de la Torre Hard-Shell del Palacio Ryugu para protegerla de los obsequios y amenazas de los proyectiles de Decken.
Pekoms lidera a los otros visones de los Piratas Nox que no pudieron continuar su viaje, dejando solo a Pedro y Zepo. Más tarde, Pekoms y su grupo llegaron al territorio de Big Mom. Allí, les salvaron la vida y entraron a su cuidado. & # 9198 & # 93
Minatomo vende los planos a la mansión de Kaido en una casa de empeños. Algún tiempo después, Ashura Doji robó los planos de Rakuda y corrió hacia Kuri con ellos. & # 9199 & # 93 & # 91100 & # 93
Después de escuchar sobre Davy Jones, Foxy comienza a formar un equipo a través de Davy Back Fights. & # 919 & # 93
A pesar de la advertencia de Ashura Doji de esperar, muchos de sus amigos se dirigen a Onigashima para luchar contra Kaido. Finalmente fueron asesinados. & # 91101 & # 93
Koala se une al Ejército Revolucionario.
Gan Fall es reemplazado como Dios de Skypiea por Enel en un golpe de Estado.
Se lleva a cabo una reunión en Mary Geoise con el Consejo Mundial para discutir Dragon y su movimiento revolucionario.
Hiriluk muere tras su muerte, Tony Tony Chopper se va a vivir con el Doctor Kureha, quien comienza a enseñarle cómo ser un verdadero médico. & # 9139 & # 93
Dos fanáticos del libro sobre Mont Blanc Noland, Masira y su hermano Shoujou, se presentan en Jaya para ayudar a Mont Blanc Cricket en sus esfuerzos por arreglar las cosas con su antepasado.
Rob Lucci, Kaku y Kalifa de CP9 van de incógnito y se unen a la Compañía Galley-La para aprender más sobre los planos de Pluton. Blueno va a Water 7 con ellos, pero consigue trabajo como barman.
Nico Robin es contratado por Crocodile en Baroque Works como su socio.
Una sequía comienza en Arabasta, y se sospecha que el rey la causó con el uso de Dance Powder.
Axe-Hand Morgan se siente honrado por traer al infame "Capitán Kuro" y comienza su ascenso al poder en los Marines. & # 91104 & # 93
La familia Franky comienza a cobrar 200,000,000.
Los padres de Kaya mueren. Poco después, Kaya se enferma. & # 91107 & # 93
Koby termina accidentalmente como el chico de las tareas del pirata Alvida. & # 91108 & # 93
Desafiando al Dr. Vegapunk, Caesar Clown realiza un experimento con armas químicas en Punk Hazard. El experimento destruye todo el ecosistema de la isla y deja paralizados a muchos prisioneros.
El pueblo de Amigasa sufre una hambruna. Portgas D. Ace y su tripulación fueron capturados por los aldeanos de Amigasa, quienes les robaron la comida. Los piratas se liberaron pero pudieron quedarse en la aldea como invitados durante algunas semanas. A Tama le gusta Ace y decide convertirse en una kunoichi encantadora para cuando regrese.
El dueño de Chouchou va al hospital y nunca regresa. & # 9197 & # 93
Mocha y Sind fueron secuestrados y llevados a Punk Hazard para ser los dos primeros sujetos del experimento de gigantificación. & # 91109 & # 93 & # 91110 & # 93
Cavendish aparece en el Nuevo Mundo como un nuevo y poderoso Super Novato.
Eventos previos al salto temporal
Nota: Esto se está escribiendo como si mirara hacia atrás en los eventos. Tenga en cuenta que es posible que las personas del mundo de One Piece no conozcan los eventos como se les dice al lector. El primer ejemplo son los eventos de Arabasta y el encubrimiento de los gobiernos mundiales.
Zoro salva a Rika de Soro, el perro de Helmeppo. Por desafiarlo y matar a Soro, Helmeppo crucifica a Zoro durante nueve días sin comida ni agua. Luffy rescata a Zoro y lo recluta como su primer miembro de la tripulación. Koby se une a los Marines.
Nami acepta viajar con Luffy para su mutua conveniencia. Luffy, Nami y Zoro derrotan a Buggy y su tripulación en Orange Town, obteniendo un mapa de Grand Line.
Klahadore planea matar a Kaya y heredar su fortuna, pero los de Sombrero de Paja ayudan a Usopp a derrotarlo a él y a su tripulación. Reciben el Going Merry de Merry y Usopp se une a su tripulación. Se establece el jolly roger de los Piratas de Sombrero de Paja.
Zoro tiene dos katanas rotas por Dracule Mihawk, y luego Luffy derrota a Don Krieg en el Baratie, y Sanji se une a los Sombreros de Paja.
En Cocoyasi Village, Arlong rompe su acuerdo con Nami y posteriormente es derrotado junto con toda su tripulación. Nami se une a los de Sombrero de Paja de verdad esta vez.
Después de haber derrotado a tres personas con grandes recompensas, Luffy recibe su primera recompensa de los marines: 30 millones de barrigas. Los de Sombrero de Paja entran en Grand Line.
Thatch descubre al Yami Yami no Mi. Marshall D. Teach lo asesina y le roba la fruta. Portgas D. Ace deja el Moby Dick para encontrarlo.
Barbanegra y su equipo asaltan la isla Drum. Wapol huye asustado.
Un golpe lleva a la toma de Vira.
18 de febrero: & # 919 & # 93 Luffy y Usopp crean al Sr. Muñeco de Nieve y a la Reina de las Nieves, pero son destruidos en sus discusiones.
19 de febrero: & # 919 & # 93 Igaram crea tres muñecos Honohonouenchi e intenta dirigirse a Arabasta, pero Miss All Sunday hace explotar su barco.
Los de Sombrero de Paja se hacen amigos de Nefertari Vivi, derrotan a Wapol, reclutan a Tony Tony Chopper, conocen a Dorry y Brogy y se dirigen a Arabasta. Dalton es nombrado gobernante del rebautizado Reino de Sakura. Cuando desmantelan Baroque Works y derriban a Crocodile, el gobierno lo encubrirá. Crocodile es arrestado por Tashigi y Smoker en Arabasta, quienes son promovidos por sus esfuerzos. La sequía termina y la paz regresa al país. La princesa Vivi regresa después de haber desaparecido unos años antes. Nico Robin se une a los de Sombrero de Paja.
Enel es derrotado por los de Sombrero de Paja. Gan Fall regresa como Dios de Skypiea. La guerra entre los Skypieans y Shandia termina.
La racha ganadora de Foxy en Davy Back Fight, después de 920 victorias, está rota.
El líder del CP9, Spandam, invoca accidentalmente una Buster Call a Enies Lobby, aniquilando la isla de la justicia. La destrucción se atribuye a los de Sombrero de Paja, a todos los cuales se les asignan recompensas.
Shu usa sus poderes de Sabi Sabi no Mi para oxidar a Yubashiri.
25 de marzo & # 919 & # 93: Se fabrica el Thousand Sunny. Franky se une a los de Sombrero de Paja.
Un pequeño matón de la mafia conocido como Duval es perseguido por cazarrecompensas como resultado de su sorprendente parecido con el nuevo cartel de recompensas de Sanji. Los infantes de marina de la Marine HQ también se despliegan después de él a instancias de Vinsmoke Judge. & # 91113 & # 93
Shanks entra en contacto con Barbablanca. A pesar de los esfuerzos de los marines, los dos se encuentran. Dos días antes de su reunión, "Fire Fist" Ace fue derrotado por Blackbeard. Es entregado a los marines, quienes fijaron una fecha para su ejecución. El Gobierno Mundial convoca a los Siete Señores de la Guerra del Mar para que se unan a los Marines para una guerra contra Barbablanca. Barbanegra es designado para el puesto de Señor de la Guerra del Mar por su papel en la incorporación de Ace.
Shusui es entregado a Roronoa Zoro por Ryuma. Más de mil sombras secuestradas por Warlord Gecko Moria son devueltas a sus dueños originales. La mayoría sospecha que Moria fue derrotada, sin embargo, Moria conserva el estado de Señor de la Guerra y no se publican informes sobre tal derrota. Brook se une a los de Sombrero de Paja.
En el Archipiélago de Sabaody, Luffy golpea a un Noble Mundial en la cara, y Bartholomew Kuma envía a cada miembro de los Piratas de Sombrero de Paja a volar a una isla separada.
Luffy se convierte en el primer hombre en poner un pie en Amazon Lily.
Monkey D. Luffy, capitán de los Piratas de Sombrero de Paja, irrumpe en Impel Down, de donde Buggy intenta escapar. 241 prisioneros logran escapar de la prisión, lo que marca la primera fuga masiva de su historia. Mientras tanto, Barbanegra invade Impel Down para liberar y reclutar al antiguo carcelero jefe de Impel Down, Shiryu, y a varios convictos del apócrifo Nivel 6: Vasco Shot, Catarina Devon, Sanjuan Wolf y Avalo Pizarro.
El Manticore de Impel Down escapa de la prisión y es capturado por los Piratas de Big Mom, en el que Charlotte Mont-d'Or lo sella en un libro.
Tiene lugar la Guerra Cumbre de Marineford. Both Luffy's and Ace's heritage are revealed to the public. Portgas D. Ace dies when Admiral Akainu's magma fist goes through his chest. Edward Newgate dies standing up at Marineford. Marshall D. Teach somehow steals and assimilates Whitebeard's Devil Fruit power, making him the only human known to wield the power of two Devil Fruits. The battle is brought to an end with the arrival of Shanks and the Red Hair Pirates. Other pirates start to invade Whitebeard's territory after hearing of his death.
Monkey D. Garp and Sengoku resign from the Marines.
Monkey D. Luffy, Jinbe, Trafalgar Law, and the Heart Pirates are the first males ever permitted to set foot on Amazon Lily, an island that is usually off-limits to men.
Luffy, Jinbe, and Silvers Rayleigh return to Marineford. They sailed around the island once, Luffy rang the Ox Bell sixteen times and gave a silent prayer, and they left once again on the Kuja Pirates' ship.
The original childhood lab of Dr. Vegapunk on Karakuri Island explodes after Franky presses a self-destruct button in the lab. This event becomes known to the world as the "Nightmare of Baldimore". Soon after that, Franky causes another incident, which would become known as the Legend of the Sacred Burning Beast of Baldimore.
Monkey D. Luffy decides to disband the Straw Hat Pirates for two years in order to allow the crew to train and become stronger.
Buggy is invited into the Seven Warlords of the Sea and accepts.
Sabo regains his memory of Luffy and Ace before he decides to find the Mera Mera no Mi.
During the timeskip
|When did it happen? (Years Ago)|
|1 year ago|
|A great battle takes place between the Marines and the combined forces of Duval and his Rosy Life Riders, Hatchan, and Bartholomew Kuma, over the Straw Hat Pirates' ship, the Thousand Sunny. In the end, the Marines were forced to retreat, with the Rosy Life Riders, Hatchan, and Kuma sustaining serious damage. The Thousand Sunny was left unharmed.|
An argument occurs between Admirals Aokiji and Akainu for the vacant position of Fleet Admiral. The two engage in a duel to the death on Punk Hazard, which lasted for ten days and left both men severely wounded. In the end, Sakazuki wins and is promoted to the position of fleet admiral. This results in the transfer of Marineford to the New World, the relocation of the G-1 branch, the resignation of Aokiji from the Marines, and the reconstruction of the Marines. The battle causes one side of Punk Hazard to be permanently embroiled in flames, leaving the other half permanently frozen over. The World Military draft is held, and the two vacant Admiral positions are filled by Issho and Ryokugyu.
After defeating the remnants of the Whitebeard Pirates in the Payback War, Marshall D. Teach acquires great notoriety in the New World by conquering Whitebeard's former sphere of influence, attacking and murdering Devil Fruit users, and stealing their abilities to increase the abilities of his crew, resulting in him usurping Whitebeard's previous status as one of the Four Emperors.
Bartolomeo appears in the New World as a powerful new Super Rookie.
Trafalgar Law obtains a bounty of 440,000,000 for unknown reasons. After sending the disembodied (but living) hearts of 100 pirates to Marineford, he is appointed to a Warlord of the Sea position. ]
X Drake allies with the Beast Pirates and aides in the destruction of Amigasa Village. ]
Capone Bege starts planning the assassination of Big Mom. ]
Komurasaki gradually tricks Bingo into giving away all of his money, and then later spends it all. ]
Marshall D. Teach acquires the status of Emperor.
|When did it happen? (Years Ago)|
|The prince and king of the Goa Kingdom die of a suspicious death, resulting in Sterry ascending to the throne. ]|
Kin'emon, Kiku, Raizo, Kanjuro, and Kozuki Momonosuke arrive in the Wano Country of this year from 20 years ago, having been sent forward through time by the powers of the Toki Toki no Mi. While Kiku stays at Wano, the rest left to recruit allies. ]
The Fake Straw Hat Crew recruit famous pirates but are unmasked by Sentomaru, who has been promoted into the Marines. The real Straw Hat Pirates reunite at Sabaody Archipelago and word gets out that they're back in action. Upon pursuit by marines, they escape with their coated ship into the sea. With help from various groups of people, the Straw Hats set off for Fish-Man Island.
As punishment for helping the Straw Hats, Bartholomew Kuma was enslaved by the Celestial Dragons some point later. Η]
Madam Shyarly of the Mermaid Cafe predicts the destruction of Fish-Man Island at the hands of Straw Hat Luffy. Meanwhile, Hody Jones, captain of the New Fish-Man Pirates, and Vander Decken IX, captain of the Flying Pirates, form an alliance and initiate a rebellion against the Ryugu Kingdom. Princess Shirahoshi manifests her ability to summon Sea Kings in order to stop Noah from falling onto Fish-Man Island. She is revealed to be the ancient weapon, Poseidon. Jinbe donates blood to Luffy in the very first human-fish-man blood transfusion since it was outlawed.
Jinbe promises to join the Straw Hats once he finished taking care of his duties.
Neptune frees the human pirates makes the Fish-Man subordinates work under him and arrests Hody, officers of the New Fish-Man Pirates, and Vander Decken. Some of the human pirates were later captured by G-5.
The Straw Hat Pirates are targeted by Big Mom after Luffy challenges her and declares himself as the future protector of Fish-Man Island. Luffy gives Tamago and Pekoms the treasure that Caribou stole, including the Tamate Box with an explosive inside of it.
The Straw Hats form an alliance with the Heart Pirates in order to dethrone Kaido. Smiley eats the candy, causing a poisonous gas that can petrify people to spread across Punk Hazard. The group defeats and kidnaps Caesar Clown at Punk Hazard before continuing to Dressrosa in order to take down Donquixote Doflamingo. Both Vergo and Monet die.
G-5 take the children from Punk Hazard to see Vegapunk.
An alliance between the Kid, On Air and Hawkins Pirates to depose the Emperor Shanks is formed.
Jinbe places Caribou in a G-5 Marine base. The Caribou Pirates tried to rescue him, but got captured as he sails free. Caribou ends up on one of Kaido’s favorite islands. The Caribou Pirates meet up on the island with a Marine ship. They defeat Scotch and destroyed the factory, but Caribou is taken by X Drake and is later taken prisoner in Wano.
Zou is invaded by Jack and his division of the Beasts Pirates, who cause mass devastation while hunting the ninja, Raizo.
Kuzan becomes an affiliate of the Blackbeard Pirates.
All toys on the island of Dressrosa return to their original forms after Sugar loses consciousness. Sabo, the second-in-command of the Revolutionary Army, consumes the Mera Mera no Mi, which previously belonged to his late brother, Portgas D. Ace. Donquixote Doflamingo is defeated, his crew is arrested, and reign over Dressrosa is returned to the Riku Family. Doflamingo's fall sends many nations that depended on him into chaos, allowing the Revolutionaries to increase their victories.
Seven crews pledge their allegiance to the Straw Hat Pirates, forming the Straw Hat Grand Fleet, which consists of over 5000 members. Due to the events from their reunion at Sabaody Archipelago until Dressrosa, all of the Straw Hats receive new bounties, with updated pictures on their posters, and Sanji's status is changed to "Wanted Only Alive".
After confronting Kaido, the On Air Pirates and Hawkins Pirates become subordinates of the Beasts Pirates while Kid remains prisoner.
Jack attacks Doflamingo's escort. He sinks two of the ships, but is ultimately defeated. He survives, and the newspapers falsely report him as dead.
The Blackbeard Pirates attack the Revolutionaries' island base of Baltigo, resulting in the base being completely destroyed in which the new base is located in Momoiro Island. ]
Brook of the Straw Hat Pirates creates copies of Charlotte Linlin's Road Poneglyph after infiltrating her storeroom, making the Straw Hats one of the few factions in the world to have possession of one at the time.
The Tamate Box explodes, causing Whole Cake Chateau to fall.
Pedro blows himself up with dynamite to have the Straw Hats move forward.
Morgans reports the details of the Sanji Retrieval Team's successful raid against the Emperors Charlotte Linlin to the entire world. Morgans also reveals to the world of Sanji's heritage, the formation of the Straw Hat Grand Fleet, and the addition of the former Warlord of the Sea Jinbe to the Straw Hat Pirates. Following this news, Germa Kingdom is officially expelled from the Government for their attempted alliance. It is also reported that Luffy is considered by certain parts of the world to be a fifth Emperor. ]
March 3 Η] : Luffy washes up on Kuri Beach in Wano Country and saves Tama from a group of Beasts Pirates.
Shimotsuki Yasuie gets executed. This year’s Levely ends. Roronoa Zoro makes a deal to replace Shusui with Enma. Charlotte Linlin and Kaido decide to form a temporary alliance with their pirate crews.
The Seven Warlords of the Sea system is abolished and the Marines start to attack the former Warlords. ]
During the Fire Festival on Onigashima the Ninja-Pirate-Mink-Samurai Alliance affiliates begin an attack. Kurozumi Orochi is betrayed. Kurozumi Kanjuro is killed by Kozuki Oden's retainers.
Cuerdale Hoard (United Kingdom)
The Cuerdale Hoard is an enormous Viking silver treasure of some 8000 silver coins and pieces of bullion, discovered in Lancashire, England in 1840 in the region called the Danelaw.
Cuerdale is only one of several Viking hoards found in the Danelaw, a region owned by the Danes in the 10th century AD, but is the largest found yet to date. Weighing almost 40 kilograms (88 pounds), the hoard was found by workmen in 1840, where it had been buried in a lead chest sometime between AD 905 and 910.
Coins in the Cuerdale Hoard include a large number of Islamic and Carolingian coins, numerous local Christian Anglo-Saxon coins and smaller amounts of Byzantine and Danish coins. Most of the coins are of English Viking coinage. Carolingian (from the empire established by Charlemagne) coins in the collection came from Aquitaine or a Netherland mint Kufic dirhams come from the Abbasid dynasty of the Islamic civilization.
The oldest coins in the Cuerdale Hoard are dated to the 870s and are the Cross and Lozenge type made for Alfred and Ceolwulf II of Mercia. The most recent coin in the collection (and thus the date usually assigned to the hoard) was minted in 905 AD by Louis the Blind of the West Franks. Most of the rest can be assigned to the Norse-Irish or the Franks.
The Cuerdale Hoard also contained hack-silver and ornaments from the Baltic, Frankish, and Scandinavian regions. Also present was a pendant known as "Thor's hammer", a stylized representation of the Norse god's weapon of choice. Scholars are unable to say whether the presence of both Christian and Norse iconography represents the owner's brand of religion or the materials were simply scrap for bullion.
There is only a handful of WH sites associated with the Vikings, and the major reason for this seems to be that they just didn't leave that many traces. Their buildings were made of wood, so the major Viking remains are runestones and burial mounds. These are also what you can see in this site, spread over 2 islands in Lake Mälar, just outside Stockholm. Birka, on the island of Björkö, is only reachable by boat, and there is a daily excursion boat leaving from Stadshuset. The island includes a decent museum with many findings (although most are in Stockholm museums), and the guided tours take you to the major burial mounds and modern additions (a chapel and a large cross dedicated to St. Ansgar, who - unsuccessfully - tried to bring Christianity to Birka). Birka was a large trading post in its heyday, and one of only a handful of Viking-age cities. The king, however, resided in Hovgarden, on the island of Adelsö, just a short boat ride away. I wasn't really sure how to include this in my travel plans, but in the end, it was pretty easy. Just 30 minutes after the boat to Stockholm left, another boat made the trip to Adelsö, and I could explore the site on my own. There are burial mounds there as well, plus a few scattered runestones, which I didn't see in Birka. So I think both islands are worth a visit, even if the bus trip from Adelsö back to Stockholm took over an hour. This is one of the few insights into authentic Viking life that one can get anywhere - and there is a realistic imitation of a Viking settlement close to the museum in Birka.
4 Viking Parliament
For years, the exact location of a Viking Parliament in Dingwall, Scotland, have eluded archaeologists and historians alike. It was only in 2013 when it was finally located. After excavating for more than a year, archaeologists hit the jackpot&mdashthey unearthed the remains of the lost Viking parliament at a parking lot known as the Cromartie Memorial car park.
More popularly known as a &ldquoThing,&rdquo the Viking parliament was built on the instructions of a powerful Viking earl named Thorfinn the Mighty. Aside from the Thing, Thorfinn also commissioned the construction of a ditch, an aqueduct, and a road.
This discovery has elicited excitement among historians in the United Kingdom since it could &ldquohelp them learn more about the Norse Vikings, who battled for control of land across the north of Scotland.&rdquo
The Sami are one of the indigenous people of the world. The first document to mention the Sami in Sweden was written almost 2,000 years ago. Inland parts of upper Norrland are known to have been inhabited even longer, however – for close to 10,000 years.
The Viking Age (800–1050 AD) was characterised by a significant expansion of activity, in Sweden’s case largely toward the east. Many Viking expeditions set off from Sweden to both plunder and trade along the Baltic coast and the rivers that stretched deep into present-day Russia. The Vikings traveled as far as the Black and Caspian Seas, where they developed trading links with the Byzantine Empire and the Arab kingdoms. Christianity first reached Sweden with a mission led by Ansgar, who visited in the 9th century, but the country was not converted to Christianity until the 11th century.
There are more than 2,500 rune stones in Sweden, with messages dating from the 5th century to the mid-12th century, making them the oldest preserved Swedish documents. Relatives often had stones erected in memory of a dead family member.
History of Venetian Masks
Venetian masks have a long history of protecting their wearer's identity during promiscuous or decadent activities. Made for centuries in Venice, these distinctive masks were formed from paper-mache and wildly decorated with fur, fabric, gems, or feathers. Eventually, Venetian masks re-emerged as the emblem of Carnevale (Venetian Carnival), a pageant and street fair celebrating hedonism.
Venetian masks have been worn in Venice, Italy, since antiquity.
Unlike the vast majority of their counterparts in contemporary European nations, each citizen in Venice enjoyed a high standard of living. Everyone was part of the great economic machine that was the Republic. Venice was capitalizing on its position, on its gains, long before its contemporaries had realized the value of a market economy. With a level of social wealth unequaled since, the citizens of Venice developed a unique culture&mdashone in which the concealing of the identity in daily life became paramount to daily activity. Part of the secrecy was pragmatic: there were things to do, people to see, and perhaps you might not want others to know what deals you were cutting. After all, the city is relatively small.
Additionally, the masks served an important social purpose of keeping every citizen on an equal playing field. Masked, a servant could be mistaken for a nobleman&mdashor vice versa. State inquisitors and spies could question citizens without fear of their true identity being discovered (and citizens could answer without fear of retribution). The morale of the people was maintained through the use of masks&mdashfor with no faces, everyone had voices.
As a result of the concealment of identity, however, people naturally found themselves taking advantage of the situation. The society grew ever more decadent. The immense amount of travelers coming through the city meant that sexual promiscuity was commonplace and acceptable. Gambling went on all day and night in the streets and houses, even in convents. Women's clothing became more revealing homosexuality, while publicly condemned, was embraced by the populace. Even the nuns and monks of the clergy, bejeweled and dressed in the latest imported creations, wore masks and engaged in the same acts as the majority of their fellow citizens. Rome turned a blind eye, as long as the Republic continued to make generous donations.
The Republic fell into a state of luxury, indolence, and moral decay. Eventually the wearing of masks in daily life was banned and limited only to certain months of the year. During the last year of the Republic's existence, this period extended for over three months from December 26. After the 1100s, the masquerade went through periods of being outlawed by the Catholic Church, especially during holy days. Their policy leads to eventual acceptance when they declared the months between Christmas and Shrove Tuesday free for Venetian mask - attired decadence. This period evolved into Carnival, the pre-Lent celebration meaning, "remove meat." Although Venetian Carnival lost popularity as Venice's cultural production faltered during the Enlightenment, it was officially reintroduced in 1979.
The modern celebration of Venetian Carnival has reinvigorated the art and craft of making Venetian masks. Recognizable types of Venetian masks continue to dazzle tourists, dancers, and pageant participants during Carnival and year round. Wearing Venetian masks has spread to Halloween masquerade balls and what North and South Americans call Mardi Gras, but they always carry their rich Italian history.
In general all Venetian masks may be classified under two major groups:
COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE MASKS
These masks date back to the second half of the sixteenth century and represent characters, ethnic traditions, professions and trades closely tied to the different cities of Italy personified by professional actors in the Commedia dell'Arte (means Art of Comedy in Italian)
Commedia dell'Arte was a form of improvisational theater, which began in the 16th century and was popular until the 18th century, although it is still performed today. Traveling teams of players would set up an outdoor stage and provide amusement in the form of juggling, acrobatics, and, more typically, humorous plays based on a repertoire of established characters with a rough storyline, called Canovaccio.
Troupes occasionally would perform directly from the back of their traveling wagon, but this is more typical of Carro di Tespi, a sort of traveling theatre that dates back to antiquity.
The performances were improvised around a repertory of stock conventional situations, adultery, jealousy, old age, love, some of which can be traced in Roman comedies of Plautus and Terence. The dialogue and action could easily be made topical and adjusted to satirize local scandals, current events, or regional tastes, mixed with ancient jokes and punch lines. Characters were identified by costume,masks, and even props, such as the slapstick.
Male Commedia dell'Arte characters were depicted by actors wearing masks representing regions or towns. The female characters, however, were usually not masked. In fact, the roles were often played by males in women's clothing and wigs, in travesti, as it is called.
Thus, the Commedia dell'Arte, with its stock situations and characters and improvised dialogue, has shown the way to many other forms of drama, from pantomime and Punch and Judy - which features debased forms of the commedia characters - to the modern animated cartoon, situation comedy, and even professional wrestling. The characters and tropes of the Commedia have also been used in modern novels, from sword and sorcery to literary works, notably by Michael Moorcock in his Jerry Cornelius stories that culminate with the Guardian prize-winning The Condition of Muzak.
ARLECCHINO is a most popular of Zanni or comic servant characters from the Italian Commedia dell'Arte. Arlecchino traditionally wore an outfit of patches and rags, which evolved into the lozenge-shaped motley seen today. His mask was black with a large red blemish on his forehead similar to a boil.
The primary aspect of Arlecchino was his physical agility. While generally depicted as quite stupid and greedy (in a gastronomic sense) his acrobatics were what an audience expected to see. The character would never simply perform an action when the addition of a cartwheel or back flip would spice up the movement.
Within these restrictions the character was terribly elastic. Various troupes and actors would alter his behavior to suit style, personal preferences, or even the particular scenario being performed.
He is typically cast as the servant of an innamorato or vecchio much to the detriment of his master's plans. Arlecchino often had a love interest in the person of Colombina, and his lust for her was only superseded by his desire for food or fear of his master.
The origins of the name are uncertain. Some say it comes from Dante's Commedia where one of devils is called Alichino. Others say it could come from Harlenkoenig, a Scandinavian hero. In another hypothesis it comes from Harlay, an English gentleman of the court of Henri III, who had protected an Italian actor.
BRIGHELLA is a comic, masked character from the Commedia dell'Arte, a money-grubbing villain and a partner of Arlecchino. His costume consisted of loosely fitting, white smock and pants with green trim and was often equipped with a battachio or slapstick. He wore a green half-mask displaying a look of preternatural lust and greed.
He is loosely categorized as one of the Zanni or servant characters though he often was portrayed as a member of the middle class such as a tavern owner. He is essentially Arlecchino's smarter and much more vindictive older brother. As is typical of those who have risen from poverty, he is often most cruel to those beneath him on the social ladder.
He is an inveterate schemer. Frequently paired with other Zanni as his assistants or employees, Brighella's plans were frequently foiled by their own ineptitude.
BURRATINO is a minor character from the Commedia dell'arte, one from the Zanni class.He is often not a servant, but is not well to do either. He is the quick witted earthy fellow who might be the innkeeper or grocer. If he is not a servant, he is often friends with them.
Though only mildly popular on the stage, Burrattino found his real fame in the marionette theater. According to Pierre Louis Ducharte, Burrattino puppet's influence in Italy was so great that "by the end of the sixteenth century, all marionettes operated by strings and a wire were called burattini, instead of bagatelli or fantoccini, as they had been known up to that time."
CAPITAN SCARAMOUCHE either a young man of adventure or a quite old mariner, a boasting, swashbuckling officer, often Spanish, dressed-to-kill in cape, feathered hat, high boots, with sword in belt, was always a prime favorite. He told extraordinary tales about how he beat a whole army of Turks and carried off the beard of the Sultan, but when there was a hint of real danger he was the first to run away. He made love to the none-too-innocent servant maid, and got trashed by her Harlequin lover. This character, of course, is none other than the Miles Glorious of Plautus, called in Italy Il Capitano Spavento della Valle Inferno, or simply Spavento.
COLOMBINA (means "little dove" in Italian) is a comic servant character from the Commedia dell'Arte. Colombina was usually dressed in a ragged and patched dress appropriate to a hired servant. Occasionally, under the name Arlecchina she would wear motley similar to her counterpart Arlecchino. She was also known to wear heavy makeup around her eyes and carry a tambourine which she could use to fend off the amorous advances of Pantalone. She was often the only functional intellect on the stage. Colombina aided her mistress, the inamorata to gain the affections of her one true love by manipulating Arlecchino and counter-plotting against Pantalone while simultaneously managing the whereabouts of the inamorato.
ILL DOTTORE is a local aristocrat and/or doctor of medicine or law or anything else he claims to know about, which is most things. He traditionally is portrayed as having been educated in Bologna. He is often extremely rich, generally with "old" money, though the needs of the scenario might have things otherwise. He is extremely pompous, and loves the sound of his own voice, spouting ersatz Latin and Greek. His interaction in the play is usually mostly with Pantalone, either as a friend, mentor or competitor.
He is typically depicted as an elderly man who only knows nonsense. He makes many cruel jokes about the opposite sex and believes that he knows everything about everything. He is an obese man that enjoys the bottle and eating to excess. His mask is unique in that it is the only mask in Commedia dell'Arte to cover only the forehead and nose. It is sometimes black in color or else flesh-toned with a red nose.
His costume is usually all or mostly black, sometimes with a white collar. He frequently wears a hat, and long, trailing robes. If the actor playing the role is not naturally fat then he is padded out to make him seem so.
PANTALONE is a miserly, libidinous, aged character from the Commedia dell'Arte. Usually he is a shopkeeper from Vienna, somewhat stupid, fond of food and of pretty women, talkative, gullible, full of temper, and the butt of all the jokes, some of them very indecent, yet forgiving in the end.
He traditionally wears a large codpiece to advertise his virility, which everyone around him knows to be long gone.
He is often cast as the parent of one of the inamorata and has some business or personal relationship with Dottore or Capitano. Pantalone's plans to profit at the expense of his family and friends are guaranteed to be thwarted by his servant. He traditionally wears a large codpiece to advertise his virility (which everyone around him knows to be long gone) along with a mask with a long hooked nose, a tight red vest, red breeches and stockings, a black cassock, slippers and a brimless hat.
PIERROT (Pedrolino in his Italian incarnation) is a stock figure in the Commedia dell'Arte. Pierrot is normally portrayed as personable, charming and kind, to the point of excess he blames himself for wrongs never done and because of his good and trusting nature is often easily tricked. The noticeable feature of Pierrot's behavior is his naiveness, he is seen as a fool, always being cheated and joked on by the others. Despite his suspicions about things, Pierrot always ends up trusting people and believing in their lies. Pierrot is also called as a lunatic, an a person outside the reality, in a state of unawareness about what's happening around, someone for whom anything matters, just cheering and playing all the time.
Pierrot wears white clothes, which are occasionally overlarge for him but more commonly are well fitted, and sometimes black accessories. On his head he wears a hat that is either tall and pointed or else small and brimmed. Pierrot is very occasionally depicted with a teardrop on his face, and he usually wears no mask the actor is generally expected to have a great range of facial expression, and this tradition has been in play since at least the start of the 1600s. His face is sometimes whitened with powder or flour.
PULCINELLA is a classical character that originated in the Commedia dell'Arte of the 17th century, a hunchback who still chases women. Pulcinella was the model for Punch in the English variation Punch and Judy. Pulcinella became a stock character in Neapolitan puppetry. His main characteristic, from which he acquired his name, is his extremely long nose, which resembles a beak. In Latin, this was a pullus gallinaceus, which led to the word "Pulliciniello" and "Pulcinella", related to the Italian pulcino or chick. His traditional temperament is to be mean, vicious, and crafty: Pulcinella main mode of defense is to pretend to be too stupid to know what's going on, and his secondary mode is to physically beat people.
Pulcinella often wears a black mask and long white coat, and has loose and straggly hair.
ZANNI is the archetype of the comic servant characters of the Commedia dell'arte. Its name comes from Giovanni (also said Zan, Zane, Zuane), a typical name of servants whose forefathers emigrated in Venice search for work from the valleys around Bergamo. Opposed to the Magnifici (the masters), the role of the Zanni is very changeable: silly, simple-minded, and vulgar. Once inside the city environment Zanni becomes sly, cunning, meddling, and cheeky. Many times he remains poor, constantly hungry.
Zanni's costume was loosely fitting white smock and pants. He wore a black mask reminiscent of his more popular descendant, Arlecchino.
Venetian Mask is the object, which most represents Venice, because it plays the Venetian spirit projected towards the party, the transgression and the amusement. There were many occasions when people turned to dressing up, in fact masks were worn many months of the year. In the eighteenth century, Venice enjoyed the reputation of having the most famous Carnival in the world. All the social classes took part and the mask represented the trick for the expression of that big collective magic.
BAUTA is famous through the Carnival of Venice as it is the main type of mask worn during the Carnival. Bauta was used also on many other occasions as a device for hiding the wearer's identity and social status. It would permit the wearer to act more freely in cases where he or she wanted to interact with other members of the society outside the bounds of identity and everyday convention. It was thus useful for a variety of purposes, some of them illicit or criminal, others just personal, such as romantic encounters.
The name Bauta does not have up to now, a definite interpretation. It may came from the German "behten" (to protect), as well as from "bau"(or "babau"), typical Italian representation of the monster, or bad beast, used by adults to scare children. "Se non stai bravo viene il babau e ti porta via &hellip (if you do not behave, the babau will come and take you away &hellip)".
This very Venetian mask was considered an ideal disguise by kings and princes who could move freely into the city without being recognized but was worn by strangers too. Fame of the Bauta went on along the Serenissima Republic, with the French and Austrian rules it started to disappear, considered as a reactionary symbol.
Bauta is quite ghostlike and with the centuries the fashion was to wear it with a black tricorno (the 3-pointed typical Venetian hat), zendale (long hood made of satin and macrame), and long cape.
DAMA , which presents many elegant variations corresponds to the ladies of the Cinquecento (the period of Titian) who covered themselves in jewels, expensive clothing and elaborate coifs. In our days this is probably the most popular and most beautiful mask type used during the Venetian Carnival.
GATTO (means cat in Italian) is a traditional Venetian Carnival mask. Cats were so scarce in Venice that they became the subject of one of the most typical masks. Legend has it that a man who owned nothing but his old cat came to Venice from China. The cat rid the palace of all its mice and the man became rich. When he went back home, his rich neighbor was green with envy and rushed to Venice with his most precious silks, thinking that if a mere cat made the other man rich, he would be enormously rewarded for these precious items. Indeed, the Duke promised him his most precious possession in return for his gifts. and the neighbor went home with the cat!
JESTER , o JOLLY as a female variant, is a specific type of clown mostly associated with the Middle Ages. Starting in Italy, Jester moved into all of Europe, influencing theatre in Spain, Holland, Germany, Austria, England, and especially, France.
The origins of the Jester are said to have been in prehistoric Western tribal society. Pliny the Elder mentions a royal Jester (planus regius) when recounting Apelles' visit to the palace of the Hellenistic King Ptolemy I. However, Jesters are mainly thought of in association with the European Middle Ages. Jester was symbolic twin of the king. All Jesters and fools in those days were thought of as special cases whom God had touched with a childlike madness&mdasha gift, or perhaps a curse. Mentally handicapped people sometimes found employment by capering and behaving in an amusing way. In the harsh world of medieval Europe, people who might not be able to survive any other way thus found a social niche.
Jesters typically wore brightly colored clothing in a motley pattern. Their hats were especially distinctive made of cloth, they were floppy with three points, each of which had a jingle bell at the end. The three points of the hat represent the asses' ears and tail worn by Jesters in earlier times. Other things distinctive about the jester were his incessant laughter and his mock scepter, known as a bauble or marotte.
MORETTA is traditional Venetian mask. This mask was worn by Venetian women all year around. Moretta is an oval mask of black velvet that was usually worn by women visiting convents. It was invented in France and rapidly became popular in Venice as it brought out the beauty of feminine features. The mask was finished off with a veil.
VOLTO (means face in Italian) also known as the Citizen mask, because it was worn by the common people during all Holidays since ancient time: S. Marco's day, Sensa feast day, S. Vito and Modesto, S. Stefano festivities are only a few examples.
DOTTORE PESTE is a modern Venetian Carnival mask. This mask has a very unique history. One of the worst scourges for the city of Venice was without any doubt the Plague, which struck the city on several occasions. Because of this the Plague Doctor isn't a real mask but was a disguise used by local plague doctors who went on visits wearing this strange costume to people afflicted with plague.
Dottore Peste outfit consisted of a hat to show that the man was a doctor, a mask to protect the face which included crystal eyes to protect the wearer's eyes and the beak which was stuffed with spices or herbs to purify the air that the doctor breathed, a wooden stick to push away victims who would get too close to him, a pair of leather gloves to protect the hands, a gown waxed from the exterior, and full length boots.