Adolf Hitler - Historia

Adolf Hitler - Historia

Adolf Hitler

1889- 1945

Dictador alemán, asesino en masa

El dictador alemán Adolf Hitler comenzó su carrera como aspirante a artista. Sin embargo, no tuvo éxito en sus esfuerzos artísticos y finalmente se alistó en el ejército alemán durante la Primera Guerra Mundial.

Fue herido y recibió dos Cruces de Hierro. En 1919, fundó el Partido Nacionalsocialista (Nazi). Su intento de derrocar al gobierno bávaro en 1923 fracasó y resultó en una pena de prisión que le dio la oportunidad de articular su filosofía política en un libro titulado Mein Kampf ("Mi lucha").

En 1933, tomó el poder y comenzó el rearme inmediato de Alemania. Hitler también instituyó una serie de políticas antisemitas, que finalmente llevaron a la aniquilación de más de seis millones de judíos en Europa.

Hitler, sin ayuda de nadie, llevó a Alemania a la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Hasta el final de la guerra y el último asalto ruso a Berlín, Hitler mantuvo un control estricto sobre todos los aspectos del ejército alemán.

Con la derrota de Alemania asegurada, Hitler se suicidó en su búnker.


Árbol genealógico de Adolf Hitler

El árbol genealógico de Adolf Hitler es complicado. Notarás que el apellido "Hitler" tenía muchas variaciones que a menudo se usaban casi indistintamente. Algunas de las variaciones comunes fueron Hitler, Hiedler, Hüttler, Hytler y Hittler. El padre de Adolf, Alois Schicklgruber, cambió su nombre el 7 de enero de 1877 a "Hitler", la única forma del apellido que usó su hijo.

Su árbol genealógico inmediato está lleno de múltiples matrimonios. En la imagen de arriba, observe cuidadosamente las fechas de matrimonio y las fechas de nacimiento de los muchos parientes de Hitler. Varios de estos niños nacieron ilegítimamente o solo un par de meses después del matrimonio. Esto dio lugar a muchas disputas, como la controvertida cuestión de si Johann Georg Hiedler era o no el padre de Alois Schicklgruber (como se muestra en el cuadro anterior).


Adolf su plataforma política, los veinticinco puntos,

Adolf Hitler fue responsable de más maldad y sufrimiento que cualquier otro hombre en la historia moderna. Hubo muchos sucesos durante su vida que desencadenaron el resultado de lo que sucedería más adelante en la historia.

Adolf Hitler nació en Braunau Am Inn, Austria, el 20 de abril de 1889. De niño le fue muy mal en sus estudios y no completó la escuela secundaria. Fue un gran artista y actor.

& # 8216 Solicitó la admisión a la Academia de Bellas Artes de Viena pero fue rechazado por falta de talento. & # 8217 (Andreas Dorpalen, Enciclopedia Microsoft Encarta) No permitió & # 8217 que nadie le impidiera lo que quería lograr. Fue el mejor orador público de su tiempo.

Los acontecimientos posteriores revelan que Hitler era malvado y quería crear su propia cultura y raza específicas. De 1909 a 1913, Hitler vivió en los distritos más pobres de Viena, moviéndose de un lugar a otro. & # 8216 Cuando era niño idolatraba a los sacerdotes y durante dos años consideró seriamente convertirse en sacerdote. & # 8217 (http: // www.

historyplace.com/worldwar2/riseofhitler/boyhood.htm) En 1913, se mudó a Munich, Alemania para evitar el servicio militar en el Imperio Habsburgo, que despreciaba. Adolf Hitler sirvió para Alemania en la Primera Guerra Mundial. Fue herido durante la Batalla del Somme y fue hospitalizado. Tras su liberación, fue asignado a tareas ligeras en Munich, Alemania.

Le sorprendió la falta de preocupación y la actitud antibelicista entre los civiles alemanes. & # 8216 Culpó a los judíos por gran parte de esto y los vio conspirando para propagar disturbios y socavar el esfuerzo de guerra alemán. Esta idea de una conspiración contra la guerra que involucra a judíos se convertiría en una obsesión para agregar a otras nociones antisemitas que adquirió en Viena, lo que llevaría a un odio cada vez mayor hacia los judíos. & # 8217 (http://www.historyplace.com /worldwar2/riseofhitler/warone.htm) Después de que la guerra había terminado y Alemania estaba en ruinas, el cabo Adolf Hitler recibió la orden de investigar un pequeño grupo conocido como el Partido de los Trabajadores Alemanes y # 8217 en septiembre de 1919, por lo que Hitler asistió.

Un hombre sugirió que el estado alemán de Baviera se separe de Alemania y forme una nueva nación del sur de Alemania con Austria. Esto enfureció a Hitler y lo sermoneó durante quince minutos ininterrumpidos. Uno de los fundadores susurró & # 8220.

..he & # 8217s recibió el don de la palabra. Podríamos usarlo.

& # 8221 Los miembros dieron la bienvenida a Hitler a su grupo en 1919 y Hitler aceptó. Este fue uno de los primeros pasos para provocar la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Hitler pronto se convirtió en el centro de atracción del grupo, atrayendo lentamente a la gente a su grupo. También fue el orador principal del Partido de los Trabajadores Alemanes # 8217. En sus discursos, Hitler habló en contra del Tratado de Versalles y pronunció una conferencia antisemita, culpando a los judíos de los problemas de Alemania. El Partido de los Trabajadores Alemanes # 8217 desarrolló su plataforma política, los Veinticinco Puntos, que incluía el rechazo del Tratado de Versalles. Afirmó los veinticinco puntos en una reunión en Munich, a la que asistieron dos mil personas.

Hitler se convirtió en líder del Partido Nazi a principios de 1921. En el verano de 1920, Hitler eligió el símbolo, que hasta el día de hoy sigue siendo posiblemente el más notorio de la historia, la esvástica. Más tarde, Hitler cambió el nombre de su partido a Partido Nacionalsocialista de los Trabajadores Alemanes y # 8217, llamado para abreviar, Nazi. Para ganar más popularidad para él y su partido, fue a Berlín. En ese momento, los miembros de su partido consideraban a Hitler muy arrogante, incluso dictatorial.

Hitler se apresuró a regresar a Munich y les respondió anunciando su renuncia al Partido el 11 de julio de 1921. Se dieron cuenta de que la pérdida de Hitler significaría el fin del Partido Nazi. Hitler aprovechó el momento y anunció que regresaría con la condición de que fuera nombrado presidente y se le concedieran poderes dictatoriales. Los miembros restantes del Partido Nazi finalmente se echaron atrás y se sometió a votación la demanda de Hitler. El resultado fue 543: 1 a favor de Hitler. El 29 de julio de 1921, Adolf Hitler fue presentado como Fhrer del Partido Nazi. En abril de 1921, los aliados europeos de la Primera Guerra Mundial presentaron una factura a Alemania exigiendo el pago ($ 33 ​​mil millones) por los daños causados ​​en la guerra, que Alemania había comenzado.

Alemania cayó en una deuda fatal y estallaron disturbios por hambre. En noviembre de 1923, los nazis, con 55.000 seguidores, eran los más grandes y mejor organizados. El Partido Nazi exigió acción. Hitler sabía que tenía que actuar o arriesgarse a perder el liderazgo de su Partido.

Su partido desarrolló un plan. El plan era secuestrar a los líderes del gobierno bávaro y obligarlos a punta de pistola a aceptar a Hitler como su líder. A las 20:30 horas del 8 de noviembre de 1923, tropas de las SA bajo la dirección de Hermann Gring rodearon el lugar. Este intento de toma de posesión se conoció como Revolución Nazi. Hitler ordenó a los tres altos funcionarios del gobierno bávaro que se fueran a una habitación trasera y les informó que se unirían a él para proclamar una revolución nazi y pasarían a formar parte del nuevo gobierno. Los funcionarios aceptaron a regañadientes, pero en secreto no fueron sinceros.

Más tarde, los tres escaparon en secreto del edificio. A la mañana siguiente, Hitler y sus nazis marcharon desesperadamente hacia Munich e intentaron tomar el control, pero fracasaron. Hitler fue acusado de traición y condenado. Su pena fue de cinco años, elegible para libertad condicional en seis meses. Mientras estaba tras las rejas, escribió el primer volumen de un libro, Mein Kampf (& # 8220 My Struggle & # 8221), describiendo sus ideas políticas y raciales con detalles brutalmente complejos, sirviendo tanto como un plan para acciones futuras y como una advertencia para el mundo. En su libro, Hitler divide a los humanos en categorías basadas en la apariencia física, estableciendo órdenes superiores e inferiores o tipos de seres humanos.

En la cima, según Hitler, está el hombre germánico de piel clara, cabello rubio y ojos azules. Hitler se refiere a este tipo de persona como ario. Afirma que el ario es la forma suprema de la raza humana o maestra. & # 8220La contraparte más poderosa del ario está representada por el judío. & # 8221 Unos días antes de la Navidad de 1924, Hitler fue puesto en libertad después de nueve meses. Cuando Hitler tenía 39 años, se enamoró de su sobrina Geli Raubal (era la hija de su media hermana), que tenía casi la mitad de la edad de Hitler. Tenían una vida romántica, pero cuando su relación estaba teniendo problemas, Geli se pegó un tiro y murió.

Hitler se deprimió mucho. Durante la Gran Depresión, Hitler sabía que la gente estaba desesperada y lo escucharía, por lo que decidió postularse para presidente. El día de las elecciones el 14 de septiembre de 1930, los nazis recibieron más del dieciocho por ciento del total y, por lo tanto, tenían derecho a 107 escaños en el Reichstag alemán. En las elecciones presidenciales celebradas el 13 de marzo de 1932, Hitler obtuvo el treinta por ciento de los votos, mientras que Hindenburg obtuvo el cuarenta y nueve por ciento. Hitler se convirtió en canciller de Alemania el 30 de enero de 1933. Su objetivo era acabar con la democracia y establecer la dictadura, y cuando el presidente Paul von Hindenburg en agosto de 1934, Hitler se convirtió en el indiscutible dictador de Alemania. Los enemigos políticos fueron arrestados por miles, encerrados y torturados.

Hitler se apoderó de Austria y Checoslovaquia en 1938-1939 y construyó el poder militar alemán hasta el punto en que estuvo listo para arriesgarse a la guerra. La Segunda Guerra Mundial finalmente estalló en 1939 cuando Hitler invadió Polonia. Hitler lideró muchas victorias alemanas. Su mayor empresa militar de todas fue la invasión de la Unión Soviética, que fracasó. Hitler se negó a retirarse, lo que le hizo perder los países ya conquistados.

Adolf Hitler se suicidó el 3 de abril de 1945, cuando las tropas rusas ya estaban luchando en las calles destruidas de Berlín. La lucha de toda su vida por dominar Alemania y el resto de Europa, los asesinatos de millones de judíos y su objetivo de vengarse de los vencedores de la Primera Guerra Mundial quedarían profundamente impresos en los libros de historia.


Adolf Hitler herido en ataque con gas británico

Entre los heridos alemanes en el Ypres Salient en Bélgica el 14 de octubre de 1918, se encuentra el cabo Adolf Hitler, temporalmente cegado por un proyectil de gas británico y evacuado a un hospital militar alemán en Pasewalk, en Pomerania.

El joven Hitler fue reclutado para el servicio militar austríaco, pero fue rechazado debido a su falta de aptitud mientras vivía en Munich al comienzo de la Primera Guerra Mundial en el verano de 1914, solicitó y recibió un permiso especial para alistarse como soldado alemán. Como miembro del 16º Regimiento de Infantería de Reserva de Baviera, Hitler viajó a Francia en octubre de 1914. Vio una intensa acción durante la Primera Batalla de Ypres, ganando la Cruz de Hierro en diciembre por llevar a un compañero herido a un lugar seguro.

En el transcurso de los dos años siguientes, Hitler participó en algunas de las luchas más feroces de la guerra, incluida la Batalla de Neuve Chapelle, la Segunda Batalla de Ypres y la Batalla del Somme. El 7 de octubre de 1916, cerca de Bapaume, Francia, Hitler fue herido en la pierna por un proyectil. Enviado a convalecer cerca de Berlín, regresó a su antigua unidad en febrero de 1917. Según un camarada, Hans Mend, Hitler fue dado a hablar sobre el triste estado de ánimo y la dedicación a la causa en el frente interno en Alemania: & # x201CHe se sentó en la esquina de nuestro comedor sosteniendo su cabeza entre sus manos en profunda contemplación. De repente, se levantaba de un salto y, corriendo emocionado, decía que a pesar de nuestras grandes armas nos negarían la victoria, porque los enemigos invisibles del pueblo alemán eran un peligro mayor que el mayor cañón del enemigo. & # X201D

Hitler ganó más menciones por su valentía el próximo año, incluida una Cruz de Hierro de Primera Clase por & # x201C valentía personal y mérito general & # x201D en agosto de 1918 por capturar sin ayuda a un grupo de soldados franceses escondidos en un agujero de bala durante la última ofensiva alemana. en el frente occidental. Sin embargo, la lesión de octubre puso fin al servicio de Hitler en la Primera Guerra Mundial. Se enteró de la rendición alemana mientras se recuperaba en Pasewalk. Enfurecido y frustrado por la noticia & # x2014 & # x201, me tambaleé y volví a mi sala a trompicones y enterré mi dolorida cabeza entre las mantas y la almohada & # x201D & # x2014, Hitler sintió que él y sus compañeros soldados habían sido traicionados por el pueblo alemán. En 1941, Hitler como fuhrer revelaría el grado en que su carrera y su terrible legado habían sido moldeados por la Primera Guerra Mundial, escribiendo que & # x201CI me trajo a casa mis experiencias al frente de ellos. comunidad. & # x201D


Adolf Hitler - Historia

Por Charles Whiting

Adolf Hitler amaba a los niños. Antes de que la guerra consumiera todas sus energías, entretenía a los niños en su casa de vacaciones en la "montaña" todo el tiempo. A lo largo de los años, el fotógrafo de su corte, el profesor Heinrich Hoffmann, llenó álbumes completos con fotografías del Maestro y los niños.

Naturalmente, está claro, tenían que ser rubios y sonreír con ganas cuando él les sacó las manos a pasear, se inclinó para hablar con los muy pequeños y les acarició el pelo amarillo brillante. Aunque el Maestro y la mayoría de los admiradores de su corte eran de cabello oscuro, su ideal era la raza aria rubia.

También amaba a los perros, especialmente a los pastores alemanes. Algunos miembros de su corte sostuvieron que amaba a los perros más que a los seres humanos. Incluso en el apogeo de su poder, cuando gobernaba prácticamente toda Europa desde el norte de África hasta Noruega y desde el Canal de la Mancha hasta el Cáucaso, entrenó personalmente a sus propios perros. Al parecer, al hombre más poderoso del continente no le pareció degradante que lo vieran correr frente a uno de sus cachorros, con un palo en la boca para demostrarle al perrito cómo debía llevar tal objeto.
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De hecho, a pesar de su condición de uno de los cuatro hombres más poderosos del mundo, seguía siendo el hombre sencillo del pueblo. Dormía en un catre espartano, no mucho mejor que los de sus soldados. Llevaba una camisa de dormir de algodón blanco, usaba un orinal para sus necesidades durante la noche, y cuando hacía mucho frío en la montaña, se ponía un gorro de dormir anticuado para mantener la cabeza caliente.

Adolf Hitler saluda a la familia del ministro de Armamento del Reich, Albert Speer, a fines de 1942. Dos de los tres hijos son los pequeños Albert e Hilde Speer.

Aborrecía las aguas fuertes, pero en ocasiones podía beber una copa de champán o en los días calurosos una cerveza. Lo mismo pasaba con la comida. Una vez más, no se complació con las ricas comidas y los exóticos platos extranjeros que disfrutaban muchos en su exaltada posición. En cambio, era vegetariano y se apegaba a las verduras caseras que cultivaba en sus propios invernaderos en la montaña: zanahorias, guisantes, puerros y cosas por el estilo. Pero si lo obligaban, comería un guiso hecho con los cortes de carne más baratos o una loncha de jamón cortada directamente de la pierna a la manera campesina.

Una obsesión por la salud

Algunos dijeron que tenía problemas sexuales. Las lenguas maliciosas sostenían que era inadecuado tanto física como psicológicamente. Pero tenía al menos dos amantes conocidas, y los sirvientes que lo espiaban a él y a su última amante, Eva Braun, en la montaña y examinaban su cama por la mañana después de haber dormido allí, siempre declaraban que tenían pruebas suficientes de las sábanas para demostrarlo. la relación fue perfectamente normal.

Aquellos que vieron al Maestro desnudo testificaron que era bastante adecuado en la región inferior. Cuando el Maestro iba de picnic desde la montaña, uno de sus mayores placeres, orinaba contra los árboles con el resto del séquito masculino, quienes naturalmente estaban interesados ​​en las dotes físicas del Maestro. Ninguno de ellos informó nunca que le faltara ese barrio.

Sin embargo, se notó que estaba muy preocupado por su propia salud: era algo así como un hipocondríaco. Sufría de mareos, flatulencias, dolores gástricos y torácicos, pústulas en el cuello y parálisis restrictiva y, al final, tomaba hasta 60 pastillas al día. Al mismo tiempo, también estaba muy preocupado por la salud de sus súbditos.

En una fotografía publicada con fines propagandísticos, Hitler se prepara para lanzar un palo durante una sesión con Muck, uno de sus pastores alemanes.

El resultado fue que instituyó medidas que son extrañamente contemporáneas. Introdujo los registros de cáncer, los primeros en anotar nuevos casos de la enfermedad (incidencia y no solo casos mortales como era habitual en otros países). Se prohibieron los pesticidas que contienen arsénico, que puede causar cáncer. Naturalmente, fumar estaba mal visto y Alemania fue la primera en introducir campañas antitabaco.

La ideología del Maestro promovió dietas con menos azúcar, grasa y carne y menos alimentos enlatados. Por ley, ese gran alimento básico alemán, el pan, tenía que contener un porcentaje mínimo de harina integral. Se prohibieron los tubos de pasta de dientes revestidos de plomo. Hitler era básicamente vegetariano, al igual que su jefe de las SS, Heinrich Himmler, que incluso tenía su propio huerto.

Para 1941, los peligros de fumar se enseñaron en las escuelas y 60 ciudades prohibieron fumar en sus sistemas de transporte público. Un año después, en medio de la guerra total, el Maestro estaba preocupado por las ballenas y escribió: "El creciente consumo de aceite de ballena está disminuyendo la población de ballenas". ¿Qué tan respetuoso con el medio ambiente puede llegar a ser?

Un hombre de contradicciones extremas

¿Qué se puede hacer de un hombre así, tan moderno en su pensamiento, que encarna de muchas maneras los rasgos que se nos enseña a admirar en nuestro propio tiempo: el vegetariano, que instituyó campañas contra los peligros de la radiación y el tabaco (la Alemania de Hitler tuvo la primera Instituto de "Investigación de los peligros del tabaco" en la Universidad de Jena) que utilizó sus oficinas estatales e instalaciones de investigación para proteger el "plasma germinal" nacional, el precursor de nuestra propia herencia genética?

¿Fue este el mismo hombre que forzó una gran guerra en Europa, que resultó en unos 30 millones de muertes? ¿Podría este amante de los perros y los niños rubios iniciar realmente una ola de antisemitismo masivo, que terminó en el Holocausto? ¿Cómo pudo Hitler, que aborrecía la caza y criticaba a sus propios seguidores, en particular al jefe de la Luftwaffe, Hermann Göring, por permitirse disparar pájaros y matar jabalíes, embarcar a miles de hombres, mujeres y niños y, al final, por cientos de miles, para ser liquidado en los hornos de sus campos de concentración?

Hitler se inclina para saludar a un niño alemán con los ojos muy abiertos que usa lederhosen nativos en esta foto de propaganda, que fue ampliamente distribuida en Alemania y en el extranjero. Tenga en cuenta a los adultos que lo aprueban sentados al fondo.

¿Podría una modernidad tan progresista y benevolente ir de la mano de esta crueldad medieval, casi patológica? En el caso de Adolf Hitler, el nuevo amo de Alemania desde 1933, podría. Y, en realidad, no es tan difícil de comprender. Hitler, como muchos de su generación, había sido brutalizado por cuatro años en las trincheras en la Primera Guerra Mundial. Herido y cegado temporalmente en esa guerra, fue liberado de un ejército alemán derrotado, que había sido su primer hogar real, en un caótica nueva República Alemana. Como tantos otros de esa "Generación del Frente", los "rastrojos", como se llamaban a sí mismos, sentía que los socialistas y los plutócratas judíos que creía que ahora dirigían esta nueva Alemania decadente lo habían traicionado.

Así, fue mientras absorbía las nuevas ideas corrientes en la década de 1920 (y hay que recordar que la Alemania de esa época fue precursora de la modernidad en prácticamente todos los campos), cuando Hitler y muchos otros volvieron a caer en la cultura cruel de un Alemania más antigua. Cuando Hitler y sus seguidores llegaron al poder, había una especie de polaridad de dos extremos que muchos extranjeros encontraron desconcertante y luego repugnante. ¿Cómo pudieron los guardias nazis en los campos de concentración dar a algunos de los niños a su cargo una típica Navidad alemana, llena de todo su sentimentalismo y kitsch, y luego enviar a esos mismos niños a los hornos un día más tarde?

El burgués Berghof

Fue un poco diferente cuando Hitler construyó su casa de vacaciones en los Alpes bávaros, que más tarde se convirtió en el sitio de su corte. La Haus Wachenfeld, más tarde llamada Berghof después de que Hitler la remodelara, era una extraña mezcla de grandiosidad —un escenario natural para una de las pomposas óperas de Wagner— y lo mundano. Sus grandes ventanales brindaban impresionantes vistas panorámicas de los picos circundantes. Pero su arquitectura era suburbana bávara: manteles a cuadros, sillas de madera con corazones tallados en ellos, platos de peltre y tazas para beber en los estantes. La decoración pudo haber sido lujosa, pero el efecto general no fue palaciego sino burgués.

En el Berghof, donde se celebró principalmente su corte, el estilo de vida del Führer era igualmente contradictorio. Allí podría recibir a políticos famosos, jefes de estado, incluso un ex rey de Gran Bretaña, pero entre asuntos de estado, los días de Hitler en el Berghof fueron una ronda monótona de comidas aburridas, películas tontas de Hollywood (las favoritas del Maestro eran Charles Laughton en La vida privada de Enrique VIII y Gary Cooper en La vida de un lancero de Bengala) y tediosos monólogos de una hora.

& # 8220Análisis de la personalidad de Adolph Hitler & # 8221

Pero había otro lado secreto de Adolf Hitler, descubierto en 2003. En 1943, el general William "Wild Bill" Donovan, jefe de la Oficina Estadounidense de Servicios Estratégicos (OSS), el precursor de la moderna Agencia Central de Inteligencia (CIA), encargó un informe ultrasecreto sobre Hitler. Treinta copias del informe compilado por el Dr. Henry Murray se encontraron en la Universidad de Cornell en Ithaca, Nueva York, casi 60 años después.

El informe se tituló "Análisis de la personalidad de Adolf Hitler". Murray presenta una imagen de Hitler diferente de la persona amable y simple amante de los perros que presentó al mundo de antes de la guerra. Basado en psicoanálisis y declaraciones de antiguos íntimos de Hitler como "Putzi" Hanfstaengl y Otto Strasser, quienes habían huido a los Estados Unidos, Murray afirmó que Hitler sufría de neurosis, histeria, paranoia, tendencias edípicas y esquizofrenia.

Hitler se relaja en la terraza de Berchtesgaden
con su mascota más famosa, Blondi. Posteriormente, el pastor alemán fue envenenado durante una prueba de la potencia del cianuro del Führer.

Dos años antes del suicidio de Hitler, Murray concluyó con asombrosa previsión: "Hay una poderosa compulsión en él para sacrificarse a sí mismo y a toda Alemania por la aniquilación vengativa de la cultura occidental, a morir, arrastrando a toda Europa con él al abismo".

Murray especuló que Hitler podría hacer arreglos para que lo asesinaran o se retiraría a su búnker y se dispararía. El complot de los generales alemanes para asesinar a Hitler en julio de 1944 fracasó. Al final, Hitler, como es bien sabido, se suicidó en 1945. La tarea de Murray fue también proponer formas de "convertir a los alemanes en una nación amante de la paz" después de la guerra. No oculta su creencia de que el pueblo alemán compartía la culpa de Hitler. Escribió: "Este semidiós satisfizo casi exactamente las necesidades, los anhelos y los sentimientos de la mayoría de los alemanes".

Adolf Hitler y & # 8220The Mountain People & # 8221

Este era el Maestro, que reunió una especie de mafia nazi a su alrededor en la montaña. A su debido tiempo, él y ellos conquistarían la mayor parte de Europa desde el Canal de la Mancha hasta los Montes Urales. Sus soldados lograrían tremendas victorias, luchando contra los británicos, los estadounidenses, los rusos y una veintena de naciones más pequeñas. De manera indirecta, romperían los imperios británico, francés y holandés e iniciarían la Guerra Fría, de la que Estados Unidos emergería como la superpotencia mundial. Pero esta mafia nazi, "la gente de la montaña", como se llamaban a sí mismos, dominada por el megalómano Hitler, seguía siendo esencialmente un grupo de sapos de segunda categoría. Una vez que Hitler murió, sus seguidores se desvanecieron como si nunca hubieran existido.

El fallecido Charles Whiting fue un veterano de la Segunda Guerra Mundial y, posteriormente, autor de numerosos libros aclamados sobre el tema.


Tu guía de Adolf Hitler: datos clave sobre el dictador nazi

Es una de las figuras más conocidas, pero denostadas, de la historia. Pero, ¿cuánto sabe sobre el dictador alemán Adolf Hitler? Aquí está todo lo que necesita saber sobre el líder nazi, desde su ascenso al poder hasta la verdad sobre su muerte en Berlín en 1945.

Esta competición se ha cerrado

Publicado: 5 de febrero de 2021 a las 9:31 a.m.

Adolf Hitler es una de las figuras más conocidas y despreciadas de la historia. Fue el arquitecto principal de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, luego de su ascenso al poder como líder del Partido Nazi en la década de 1920. Sus políticas antisemitas llevaron a la muerte de más de seis millones de judíos durante el Holocausto, consolidando su reputación como uno de los hombres más infames de la historia.

Aquí está su guía para el dictador alemán, desde su juventud en Austria hasta su ascenso al poder y su muerte durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial ...

Hitler: hechos clave

Nació: Adolf Hitler nació el 20 de abril de 1889 en Braunau am Inn, Austria.

Murió: Hitler murió por suicidio en un búnker de Berlín, a los 56 años, el 30 de abril de 1945.

Conocido por: Siendo el líder del Partido Nazi e iniciando la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Adolf Hitler reemplazó a Anton Drexler como presidente del partido del Partido Nazi en julio de 1921, y poco después adquirió el título de führer ("líder"). Fue canciller de Alemania desde el 30 de enero de 1933, y Führer y canciller combinados desde el 2 de agosto de 1934. Su ascenso al poder condujo a la Segunda Guerra Mundial ya la muerte de más de seis millones de judíos en el Holocausto.

Familia: Adolf Hitler fue el cuarto de los seis hijos de Alois Hitler (1837-1903) y su tercera esposa, Klara (1860-1907). Sus hermanos completos son: Gustav, Ida, Otto, Edmund y Paula, pero también tuvo dos medios hermanos, Alois Jr y Angela, de matrimonios anteriores de su padre. Alois, que era ilegítimo, llevaba el nombre de su madre Schicklgruber durante algún tiempo, pero en 1876 había establecido su reclamo familiar al apellido "Hitler". El propio Adolf Hitler nunca utilizó ningún otro apellido.

NIñez temprana: La mayor parte de la infancia de Hitler transcurrió en Linz, Austria. Tenía una relación difícil con su padre, y muchos de sus argumentos se centraban en la negativa de Hitler a comportarse en la escuela. Sin embargo, le tenía mucho cariño a su madre, que murió en 1907.

Educación: Hitler tuvo una educación mixta y, en general, muchos historiadores lo han considerado un estudiante mediocre. Aunque su padre deseaba que su hijo siguiera una carrera en sus propios pasos, en una oficina de aduanas, Hitler tenía otras ideas. Las tensiones aumentaron cuando Alois envió a Hitler a la Realschule (un tipo de escuela secundaria) en Linz en septiembre de 1900 y Hitler tuvo un desempeño deficiente. Hitler sugirió más tarde que se trataba de un acto intencional en su nombre: deliberadamente actuó mal para mostrarle a su padre que se le debería permitir perseguir su sueño de convertirse en artista.

La narrativa no se sostiene del todo si se considera que, tras la muerte de Alois en enero de 1903, el rendimiento educativo de Hitler se deterioró aún más. Luego pasó a estudiar en otra escuela en Steyr, donde tuvo que volver a tomar sus exámenes finales antes de irse sin ninguna intención de continuar con su educación.

¿Estamos más fascinados con Hitler que con cualquier otro dictador?

Hitler ha sido conmemorado en innumerables libros, programas de televisión y películas. Entonces, ¿por qué estamos fascinados con el dictador nazi?

"En el sentido más obvio, la respuesta parece clara: Hitler fue el autor principal de la guerra más devastadora y del genocidio más terrible que el mundo haya conocido hasta ahora", explica el profesor Ian Kershaw, uno de los principales expertos mundiales en Líder nazi, que cree que nuestra preocupación permanente por Hitler va mucho más allá de un interés convencional en personajes históricos de gran poder e influencia.

¿Fue Hitler un buen pintor?

Mientras líderes como Winston Churchill y George W Bush tomaron la pintura como un pasatiempo posterior a la política, un joven Adolf Hitler pagó las facturas como artista que busca empleo entre 1910 y 14. Se centró principalmente en postales y anuncios, y ganó lo suficiente para ganarse la vida, moviéndose por los albergues de Viena.

Sin embargo, técnicamente era mediocre. No pasó el examen de la Escuela General de Pintura de la Academia de Bellas Artes de Viena, en parte debido a su lucha por capturar la forma humana. La segunda vez que presentó su solicitud, sus dibujos de muestra se consideraron de tan mala calidad que ni siquiera fue admitido en el examen de ingreso.

Algunos podrían argumentar que el arte de Hitler también fue extrañamente peatonal en una era radical de Picasso y Van Gogh. Como lector voraz de historia y mitología, y con una mente rebosante de pensamientos políticos, es un tanto sorprendente que este forastero enojado pintara escenas anodinas de postales de edificios y paisajes.

Si la pintura no era su fuerte, la verdadera fuerza de Hitler se podía encontrar en sus habilidades de oratoria. “Era, por supuesto, un demagogo magistral, la base de su temprano dominio dentro del Partido Nazi”, explica el profesor Kershaw. "Más que cualquier otro político alemán contemporáneo, habló en un idioma que dio voz a la ira y los prejuicios de su audiencia".

También fue muy leído, señala Kershaw: “Su excelente memoria le permitió recordar información sobre muchos temas. Esto impresionó no solo a quienes lo rodeaban y a otros que ya eran susceptibles a su mensaje ".

¿Qué hizo Hitler durante la Primera Guerra Mundial?

Aunque Adolf Hitler tenía veintitantos años cuando estalló la Primera Guerra Mundial en 1914, inicialmente trató de evitar el servicio militar obligatorio. Luego, cuando lo obligaron a alistarse, falló el examen médico. Todavía terminó en uniforme, uniéndose al ejército bávaro (parte del alemán) en su lugar.

Hitler sirvió en este ejército en la Primera Batalla de Ypres. Según Hitler, su regimiento de 3.600 personas se redujo a 611 durante la batalla y fue uno de los 42 supervivientes de su compañía de 250 efectivos. Uno de sus roles era el de corredor de trincheras. También fue herido en el Somme y recibió dos veces la Cruz de Hierro por su valentía, una vez por recomendación de un camarada judío.

Luego, en la noche del 13 al 14 de octubre de 1918, el cabo Hitler quedó atrapado en un ataque con gas mostaza por parte de los británicos. Pasó el resto de la guerra recuperándose de una ceguera temporal, y se enteró de la rendición de Alemania en un hospital militar, aunque hay algunos indicios de que esta historia fue inventada por Hitler y que, de hecho, estaba siendo tratado por 'ambliopía histérica', una enfermedad psiquiátrica. trastorno conocido como "ceguera histérica". Fue durante este tiempo, afirmó más tarde Hitler en su manifiesto político. MI lucha (publicado por primera vez en 1925), que “se me ocurrió la idea de que liberaría a Alemania, que la haría grande”.

¿Cuándo se involucró Hitler en la política por primera vez?

Hitler apareció por primera vez en la escena política en la ciudad alemana de Munich a fines de 1919 como orador del derechista Partido de los Trabajadores Alemanes (DAP). El DAP cambió su nombre a NSDAP (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei) en febrero de 1920, antes de que Hitler asumiera oficialmente el cargo de presidente del partido en julio de 1921. El partido, que Hitler sentía que carecía de dirección, también se conocía como el `` Partido Nazi de Hitler '' en ese momento, sin embargo, el propio Hitler no era realmente conocido fuera de Baviera. hasta mucho más tarde.

Durante los primeros años de la década de 1920, Hitler mantuvo a propósito cierto grado de misterio a su alrededor. He refused to let unofficial photographers take his picture, instead opting to employ his own personal photographer, Heinrich Hoffmann, who produced a series of bestselling books of pictures that portrayed the Nazi leader as an aloof intellectual. “They aimed to show Hitler as a man of the people and, at the same time, the political philosopher of genius in lofty isolation, among the mountains that surrounded his Alpine retreat near the town of Berchtesgaden, Bavaria, as he pondered Germany’s future and bore the entire burden of responsibility on his shoulders,” explains Professor Kershaw. The creation of the ‘Hitler mystery’ was a masterful move of PR, utilised at a time when other politicians did not pay too much attention to such tactics.

How did Hitler rise to power?

Hitler’s first official grasp for power took place in November 1923. He and his supporters attempted to seize political power in Munich, as a prelude to a takeover in Berlin. Around 2,000 Nazis took part in the violent daytime coup, which became known as the Munich (Beer Hall) Putsch.

What happened during the Beer Hall Putsch?

Hitler led his Nazi movement in a daytime march through central Munich, which was intended as a show of force, aiming at seizing power in Bavaria and then in Berlin a reprise of Mussolini’s March on Rome, which had brought the Fascist leader to power the previous year.

But, after sweeping aside a number of police pickets, Hitler’s marchers finally met their match by the Feldherrnhalle on the Odeonsplatz, where a detachment of Bavarian police refused to back down and fired on the column. In the mêlée, 14 Nazis were killed along with one unlucky waiter nearby, who was caught in the cross-fire. Two other Nazis were killed elsewhere in the city, but Hitler – wrenched to the ground by a dying man beside him and shielded by his loyal bodyguard, Ulrich Graf – escaped with only a dislocated shoulder. Despite its failure, the Putsch would become the founding legend of the Nazi movement.

When the coup collapsed, Hitler was arrested and charged with treason. The subsequent trial was a complex affair – as historian Roger Moorhouse explains: “Hitler probably should have been sent for trial to the constitutional court at Leipzig, but Munich’s political establishment was keen to keep the matter ‘in house’, for fear of giving oxygen to the rumours of official complicity with the Nazis. So, with a tame, sympathetic judge – Georg Neithardt – presiding, the trial opened in the Munich infantry school on 26 February.

“Those hoping for Hitler’s political demise were to be disappointed. He expertly played the court, assisted by Neithardt, and so reached a much wider audience than he had ever reached before. By the end of the trial, he had a national following for the first time, and had emerged as the undisputed leader of the German radical right.”

Hitler served just nine months of his five-year prison sentence at Landsberg Prison. Following his release, he was forbidden from making public speeches but continued speaking to private audiences and gained a reputation as a formidable orator. By the 1930s he had cultivated an elaborate public profile, selling a “novel vision” to his followers and the wider German public. “Hitler was offering national redemption, a ‘new Germany’, a ‘new man’, a ‘new Jerusalem’,” says Moorhouse.

The Nazi party gradually grew in numbers throughout the late 1920s – and by July 1932, they had transformed from a small, revolutionary party to the largest elected party in the Reichstag (German parliament). They did this primarily through the use of effective propaganda, with support from the from the Sturmabteilung (SA), otherwise known as the Brownshirts, a paramilitary wing of the NSDAP.

Rise to dictator

Once Hitler had established himself as a key player in the German political scene of the 1930s, consolidation of his power as a dictator happened rather quickly. He achieved this with a “twin-track approach”, according to historian Richard J Evans.

The first track involved convincing the right-wing government that Hitler should rule Germany by decree. This was agreed by conservatives who were largely motivated by a desire to crush the Communist Party. “In November 1932, the Social Democrats and Communists together had more votes and seats than the Nazis, but they were also deadly enemies of each other and couldn’t get their act together to stop the Nazis. Hitler used legal or quasi-legal powers of the government, particularly the president’s power to rule by decree in a state of emergency,” explains Evans.

Listen: Historian Frank McDonough discusses the rise of Hitler and Nazi Germany, covering the period from the start of the Third Reich to the early months of World War Two

On 23 March 1933, the Reichstag was persuaded by Hitler – through a mixture of threats and inducements – to vote for an Enabling Law that meant that the cabinet (Hitler and the ministers) had the power to issue legislation without reference to the president or to the Reichstag, thereby giving them dictatorial powers.

The second track involved “mass, brutal violence” on the streets. During this time, between 100,000–200,000 people were put into concentration camps or ‘roughed up’ and released on condition of not engaging in politics.

Where did Hitler get his ideas?

According to historian Richard J Evans, Hitler drew his political ideas from a variety of sources: “from a version of Social Darwinism that saw society and international relations as a sort of struggle of races for the survival of the fittest from Arthur de Gobineau, a French theorist who invented the pseudoscientific idea of race theory from Russian émigrés from the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917, who brought with them the idea that Bolshevism and communism were creations of the Jewish race from a certain amount of what’s called ‘geopolitics’, which was invented by an American.”

MI lucha

Hitler wrote his book MI lucha (or ‘My Struggle’) during his nine months imprisoned in Landsberg Prison in 1924.

It is a strange book – part Nazi manifesto, part rose-tinted autobiography, with excursions into Hitler’s theories on race, antisemitism, anti-Bolshevism, anti-capitalism, the uses of propaganda and the failings of democracy. It is famously turgid in style, so crammed with Hitler’s verbose musings that one reviewer dubbed it “Sein Krampf” (“His Cramp”).

Understandably, perhaps, sales of Mein Kamf were initially rather sluggish after the book was published in 1925, but they picked up as Hitler’s political stock rose. By 1933, it had sold some 300,000 copies, and would sell some 12 million more in the years that followed, providing Hitler with a handsome personal income, which – among other things – funded his purchase of the Berghof, his residence above Berchtesgaden in the Bavarian Alps.

Sales of the book have continued after his death, and particularly since its copyright expired in the 2015 (which also marked the 70th anniversary of the Hitler’s death).

Why did Hitler hate the Jews?

Anti-Semitism was at the heart of Nazi ideology, but what inspired Hitler’s hatred of the Jews and prompted the creation of a system that ultimately led to the systematic rounding up and killing of some six million people?

Hitler obviously did not invent modern anti-Semitism, which has roots in the Middle Ages. By the 13th century, for example, rules enacted across Europe obliged Jews to wear an identifying badge to distinguish them from non-Jews’. And in medieval Europe specifically, anti-Jewish hostility was exemplified by the concept of ‘the blood libel’, the accusation that Jews were murdering Christian children as part of their Passover rituals.

Although we don’t know how early Hitler formed his opinions of Jewish people, he himself states that he felt anti-Jewish while working as a painter in Vienna – a city with a large Jewish population – before the First World War. “For me this was a time of the greatest spiritual upheaval I have ever had to go through,” he writes in MI lucha. “I had ceased to be a weak-kneed cosmopolitan and became an anti-Semite.” Some historians have since suggested that Hitler created this narrative of himself as an early anti-Semite retrospectively – and MI lucha should certainly be understood in the context of its purpose as propaganda. Perhaps rather curiously, one of Hitler most loyal patrons while he lived in Vienna as a young artist was a Jew called Samuel Morgenstern.

What is clearer is that Hitler’s anti-Semitism intensified following Germany’s defeat during the First World War, in which he served as an ordinary soldier on the western front and was decorated for bravery. The defeat had come as a shock to many Germans, who believed that they had been on course to win following the Spring Offensive and victory over Russia in 1918. Following the Allied victory, harsh penalties were imposed on Germany including the loss of certain territories and reparations were demanded, through the Treaty of Versailles.

Like many of his contemporaries, Hitler decided that the reason Germany lost the war was the weak will of the Kaiser, who was deposed in 1918. According to Richard J Evans, speaking on the HistoryExtra podcast, “Hitler believed that the Weimar Republic, which succeeded the Kaiser’s Germany, was a Jewish creation, and democracy was something Jewish. These were all complete fantasies. But the effect of the First World War was decisive, including on Hitler’s anti-Semitism and his belief the Jews were to blame for everything bad that had happened.”

Was Hitler Christian?

To read and hear Hitler’s public rhetoric in his early days in politics, it would be easy to think that Adolf Hitler had a connection to Christianity, albeit a warped one. Adolf Hitler had been born to a strongly Catholic mother, after all, and had been baptised. He certainly identified as a Christian in speeches and in his book, Mein Kampf.

But any declarations of religious faith were mere propaganda. Hitler received the sacrament of confirmation only at his mother’s behest, and after leaving his family home never returned to church. So when he called himself a Christian in speeches and MI lucha, it was in the name of political expediency, to win over an overwhelmingly Christian Germany.

Once in power, Hitler’s attitude towards the Church hardened. The Nazis pushed his ‘Positive Christianity’ movement, which rejected traditional doctrine and anything deemed ‘too Jewish’ (such as the divinity of Jesus) while espousing their master-race ideology.

What was Hitler’s relationship with Eva Braun?

Eva Braun (1912–1945) was the long-term companion of Adolf Hitler. The pair married on 29 April 1945 – just one day before they both died by suicide.

German historian Heike B Görtemaker notes that Braun was much more than a passive figure in the Nazi regime. “All members of the Berghof circle, including Eva Braun, were not just witnesses, but convinced of the Nazi ideology,” she writes. “Although it cannot be verified that Braun knew about the Holocaust – and all surviving members of Hitler’s inner circle later denied knowledge – Braun, like all others, was at least informed about the persecution of the Jews, depriving them of any civil rights.”

Was Braun in love with Hitler? It is almost impossible to identify her true feelings, says Görtemaker. However Braun’s closest friend, Herta Schneider, “declared in 1949 that Braun had been in love with Hitler”.

Where did Hitler live?

Hitler maintained three residences during the Third Reich: the Old Chancellery in Berlin his Munich apartment and Haus Wachenfeld (later the Berghof), his mountain home on the Obersalzberg. All three were thoroughly renovated in the mid-1930s and facilitated the creation of a new, sophisticated persona for the führer.

“Media depictions of Adolf Hitler at home – reading, walking his dogs and enjoying fine artwork – were used by the Nazi regime to create a favourable public image of the führer,” writes Professor Despina Stratigakos.

How did Hitler die?

During the last months of the Second World War – and as the prospect of losing the war became ever more apparent – Hitler withdrew into his bunker in Berlin. It was “the last station in his flight from reality”, wrote the Führer’s favoured architect, Albert Speer. Hitler continued to deliver orders from the bunker, including one that dictated his body should be incinerated upon the event of his death (he had heard about the treatment of fellow dictator Benito Mussolini’s body, who had been strung up in a public square in Milan).

On 20 April 1945, Hitler’s 56th birthday, the first enemy shell hit Berlin. Soviet troops soon entered the city – and by 30 April 1945, Hitler was dead.

It is generally accepted that Hitler shot himself, although accounts differ as to whether he also bit down on a cyanide capsule. Following his death by suicide, Hitler’s body and that of his long-term mistress Eva Braun, whom he had married a day earlier and who had herself injected cyanide, were removed from the bunker, doused in petrol and set alight.

Rachel Dinning is the digital section editor at HistoryExtra


Adolf Hitler

Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-H1216-0500-002 / CC-BY-SA

Adolf Hitler, a charismatic, Austrian-born demagogue, rose to power in Germany during the 1920s and early 1930s at a time of social, political, and economic upheaval. Failing to take power by force in 1923, he eventually won power by democratic means. Once in power, he eliminated all opposition and launched an ambitious program of world domination and elimination of the Jews, paralleling ideas he advanced in his book, Mein Kampf. His 𔄙,000 Year Reich” barely lasted 12 years and he died a broken and defeated man.

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

Students will learn:

1. Facts about Hitler’s life and the historical events which occurred during that time.

2. Hitler’s view of history, his theory of race, and his political goals.

3. Hitler’s use of anti-Semitism to advance his career and to consolidate power.

4. How a political leader was able to manipulate the political system in a democracy and obtain autocratic power.

CHAPTER CONTENT

Hitler’s Early Life

Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889, the fourth child of Alois Schickelgruber and Klara Hitler in the Austrian town of Braunau. Two of his siblings died from diphtheria when they were children, and one died shortly after birth. Alois was a customs official, illegitimate by birth, who was described by his housemaid as a “very strict but comfortable” man. Young Adolf was showered with love and affection by his mother.

When Adolf was three years old, the family moved to Passau, along the Inn River on the German side of the border. A brother, Edmond, was born two years later. The family moved once more in 1895 to the farm community of Hafeld, 30 miles southwest of Linz. Another sister, Paula, was born in 1896, the sixth of the union, supplemented by a half brother and half sister from one of his father’s two previous marriages.

Following another family move, Adolf lived for six months across from a large Benedictine monastery. The monastery’s coat of arms’ most salient feature was a swastika. As a youngster, Adolf’s dream was to enter the priesthood. While there is anecdotal evidence that Adolf’s father regularly beat him during his childhood, it was not unusual for discipline to be enforced in that way during that period.

By 1900, Hitler’s talents as an artist surfaced. He did well enough in school to be eligible for either the university preparatory “gymnasium” or the technical/scientific Realschule. Because the latter had a course in drawing, Adolf accepted his father’s decision to enroll him in the Realschule. He did not do well there.

Adolf’s father died in 1903 after suffering a pleural hemorrhage. Adolf himself suffered from lung infections, and he quit school at the age of 16, partially the result of ill health and partially the result of poor school work.

In 1906, Adolf was permitted to visit Vienna, but he was unable to gain admission to a prestigious art school. His mother developed terminal breast cancer and was treated by Dr. Edward Bloch, a Jewish doctor who served the poor. After an operation and excruciatingly painful and expensive treatments with a dangerous drug, she died on December 21, 1907.

Hitler spent six years in Vienna, living on a small legacy from his father and an orphan’s pension. Virtually penniless by 1909, he wandered Vienna as a transient, sleeping in bars, flophouses, and shelters for the homeless, including, ironically, those financed by Jewish philanthropists. It was during this period that he developed his prejudices about Jews, his interest in politics, and debating skills. According to John Toland’s biography, Adolf Hitler, two of his closest friends at this time were Jewish, and he admired Jewish art dealers and Jewish operatic performers and producers. However, Vienna was a center of anti-Semitism, and the media’s portrayal of Jews as scapegoats with stereotyped attributes did not escape Hitler’s fascination.

In May 1913, Hitler, seeking to avoid military service, left Vienna for Munich, the capital of Bavaria, following a windfall received from an aunt who was dying. In January, the police came to his door bearing a draft notice from the Austrian government. The document threatened a year in prison and a fine if he was found guilty of leaving his native land with the intent of evading conscription. Hitler was arrested on the spot and taken to the Austrian Consulate. Upon reporting to Salzburg for duty, he was found “unfit…too weak…and unable to bear arms.”

Hitler’s World War I Service

When World War I was touched off by the assassination by a Serb of the heir to the Austrian Empire, Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Hitler’s passions against foreigners, particularly Slavs, were inflamed. He was caught up in the patriotism of the time, and submitted a petition to enlist in the Bavarian army.

After less than two months of training, Hitler’s regiment saw its first combat near Ypres, against the British and Belgians. Hitler narrowly escaped death in battle several times, and was eventually awarded two Iron Crosses for bravery. He rose to the rank of lance corporal but no further. In October 1916, he was wounded by an enemy shell and evacuated to a Berlin area hospital. After recovering, and serving a total of four years in the trenches, he was temporarily blinded by a mustard gas attack in Belgium in October 1918.

Communist-inspired insurrections shook Germany while Hitler was recovering from his injuries. Some Jews were leaders of these abortive revolutions, and this inspired hatred of Jews as well as Communists. On November 9th, the Kaiser abdicated and the Socialists gained control of the government. Anarchy was more the rule in the cities.

Free Corps

The Free Corps was a paramilitary organization composed of vigilante war veterans who banded together to fight the growing Communist insurgency which was taking over Germany. The Free Corps crushed this insurgency. Its members formed the nucleus of the Nazi “brown-shirts” (S.A.) which served as the Nazi party’s army.

Weimar Republic

With the loss of the war, the German monarchy came to an end and a republic was proclaimed. A constitution was written providing for a President with broad political and military power and a parliamentary democracy. A national election was held to elect 423 deputies to the National Assembly. The centrist parties swept to victory. The result was what is known as the Weimar Republic. On June 28, 1919, the German government ratified the Treaty of Versailles. Under the terms of the treaty which ended hostilities in the War, Germany had to pay reparations for all civilian damages caused by the war. Germany also lost her colonies and large portions of German territory. A 30-mile strip on the right bank of the Rhine was demilitarized. Limits were placed on German armaments and military strength. The terms of the treaty were humiliating to most Germans, and condemnation of its terms undermined the government and served as a rallying cry for those who like Hitler believed Germany was ultimately destined for greatness.

German Worker’s Party

Soon after the war, Hitler was recruited to join a military intelligence unit, and was assigned to keep tabs on the German Worker’s Party. At the time, it was comprised of only a handful of members. It was disorganized and had no program, but its members expressed a right-wing doctrine consonant with Hitler’s. He saw this party as a vehicle to reach his political ends. His blossoming hatred of the Jews became part of the organization’s political platform. Hitler built up the party, converting it from a de facto discussion group to an actual political party. Advertising for the party’s meetings appeared in anti-Semitic newspapers. The turning point of Hitler’s mesmerizing oratorical career occurred at one such meeting held on October 16, 1919. Hitler’s emotional delivery of an impromptu speech captivated his audience. Through word of mouth, donations poured into the party’s coffers, and subsequent mass meetings attracted hundreds of Germans eager to hear the young, forceful and hypnotic leader.

With the assistance of party staff, Hitler drafted a party program consisting of twenty-five points. This platform was presented at a public meeting on February 24, 1920, with over 2,000 eager participants. After hecklers were forcibly removed by Hitler supporters armed with rubber truncheons and whips, Hitler electrified the audience with his masterful demagoguery. Jews were the principal target of his diatribe. Among the 25 points were revoking the Versailles Treaty, confiscating war profits, expropriating land without compensation for use by the state, revoking civil rights for Jews, and expelling those Jews who had emigrated into Germany after the war began.

The following day, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion were published in the local anti-Semitic newspaper. The false, but alarming accusations reinforced Hitler’s anti-Semitism. Soon after, treatment of the Jews was a major theme of Hitler’s orations, and the increasing scapegoating of the Jews for inflation, political instability, unemployment, and the humiliation in the war, found a willing audience. Jews were tied to “internationalism” by Hitler. The name of the party was changed to the National Socialist German Worker’s party, and the red flag with the swastika was adopted as the party symbol. A local newspaper which appealed to anti-Semites was on the verge of bankruptcy, and Hitler raised funds to purchase it for the party.

In January 1923, French and Belgian troops marched into Germany to settle a reparations dispute. Germans resented this occupation, which also had an adverse effect on the economy. Hitler’s party benefited by the reaction to this development, and exploited it by holding mass protest rallies despite a ban on such rallies by the local police.

The Nazi party began drawing thousands of new members, many of whom were victims of hyper-inflation and found comfort in blaming the Jews for this trouble. The price of an egg, for example, had inflated to 30 million times its original price in just 10 years. Economic upheaval generally breeds political upheaval, and Germany in the 1920s was no exception.

The Munich Putsch

The Bavarian government defied the Weimar Republic, accusing it of being too far left. Hitler endorsed the fall of the Weimar Republic, and declared at a public rally on October 30, 1923 that he was prepared to march on Berlin to rid the government of the Communists and the Jews. On November 8, 1923, Hitler held a rally at a Munich beer hall and proclaimed a revolution. The following day, he led 2,000 armed “brown-shirts” in an attempt to take over the Bavarian government. This putsch was resisted and put down by the police, after more than a dozen were killed in the fighting. Hitler suffered a broken and dislocated arm in the melee, was arrested, and was imprisoned at Landsberg. He received a five-year sentence.

MI lucha

Hitler served only nine months of his five-year term. While in prison, he wrote the first volume of Mein Kampf. It was partly an autobiographical book (although filled with glorified inaccuracies, self-serving half-truths and outright revisionism) which also detailed his views on the future of the German people. There were several targets of the vicious diatribes in the book, such as democrats, Communists, and internationalists. But he reserved the brunt of his vituperation for the Jews, whom he portrayed as responsible for all of the problems and evils of the world, particularly democracy, Communism, and internationalism, as well as Germany’s defeat in the War. Jews were the German nation’s true enemy, he wrote. They had no culture of their own, he asserted, but perverted existing cultures such as Germany’s with their parasitism. As such, they were not a race, but an anti-race.

“[The Jews’] ultimate goal is the denaturalization, the promiscuous bastardization of other peoples, the lowering of the racial level of the highest peoples as well as the domination of his racial mishmash through the extirpation of the folkish intelligentsia and its replacement by the members of his own people,” he wrote. On the contrary, the German people were of the highest racial purity and those destined to be the master race according to Hitler. To maintain that purity, it was necessary to avoid intermarriage with subhuman races such as Jews and Slavs.

Germany could stop the Jews from conquering the world only by eliminating them. By doing so, Germany could also find Lebensraum, living space, without which the superior German culture would decay. This living space, Hitler continued, would come from conquering Russia (which was under the control of Jewish Marxists, he believed) and the Slavic countries. This empire would be launched after democracy was eliminated and a “FÅhrer” called upon to rebuild the German Reich.

A second volume of Mein Kampf was published in 1927. It included a history of the Nazi party to that time and its program, as well as a primer on how to obtain and retain political power, how to use propaganda and terrorism, and how to build a political organization.

While Mein Kampf was crudely written and filled with embarrassing tangents and ramblings, it struck a responsive chord among its target those Germans who believed it was their destiny to dominate the world. The book sold over five million copies by the start of World War II.

Hitler’s Rise to Power

Once released from prison, Hitler decided to seize power constitutionally rather than by force of arms. Using demagogic oratory, Hitler spoke to scores of mass audiences, calling for the German people to resist the yoke of Jews and Communists, and to create a new empire which would rule the world for 1,000 years.

Hitler’s Nazi party captured 18% of the popular vote in the 1930 elections. In 1932, Hitler ran for President and won 30% of the vote, forcing the eventual victor, Paul von Hindenburg, into a runoff election. A political deal was made to make Hitler chancellor in exchange for his political support. He was appointed to that office in January 1933.

Upon the death of Hindenburg in August 1934, Hitler was the consensus successor. With an improving economy, Hitler claimed credit and consolidated his position as a dictator, having succeeded in eliminating challenges from other political parties and government institutions. The German industrial machine was built up in preparation for war. By 1937, he was comfortable enough to put his master plan, as outlined in Mein Kampf, into effect. Calling his top military aides together at the “FÅhrer Conference” in November 1937, he outlined his plans for world domination. Those who objected to the plan were dismissed.

Hitler Launches the War

Hitler ordered the annexation of Austria and the Sudetenland in 1938. Hitler’s army invaded Poland on September 1, 1939, sparking France and England to declare war on Germany. A Blitzkrieg (lightning war) of German tanks and infantry swept through most of Western Europe as nation after nation fell to the German war machine.

In 1941, Hitler ignored a non-aggression pact he had signed with the Soviet Union in August 1939. Several early victories after the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, were reversed with crushing defeats at Moscow (December 1941) and Stalingrad (winter, 1942-43). The United States entered the war in December 1941. By 1944, the Allies invaded occupied Europe at Normandy Beach on the French coast, German cities were being destroyed by bombing, and Italy, Germany’s major ally under the leadership of Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini, had fallen.

Hitler’s Last Days

Several attempts were made on Hitler’s life during the war, but none was successful. As the war appeared to be inevitably lost and his hand-picked lieutenants, seeing the futility, defied his orders, he killed himself on April 30, 1945. His long-term mistress and new bride, Eva Braun, joined him in suicide. By that time, one of his chief objectives was achieved with the annihilation of two-thirds of European Jewry.

VOCABULARY

– The absence of government or law in a society.

– A person who gains power through impassioned public appeals to the emotions and prejudices of a group by speaking or writing. Free Corps – A paramilitary organization of German World War I veterans who organized to oppose Communist insurgency.

– A leader, especially one exercising the absolute power of a tyrant. Hitler’s title as leader of the Nazi party, and Chief of the German state.

– A foreign policy which includes the taking of territory by force or coercion.

Lebensraum (Living Space) – A German term indicating the Germans’ imperialistic designs on Europe. It also refers to the additional territory deemed necessary to the nation for its economic well-being.

– “My Struggle” in German. A book written by Hitler while in prison which became the standard work of Nazi political doctrine.

– The abbreviation for National Socialist German Worker’s Party. The fascist dictatorship under Adolf Hitler in Germany from 1933-1945.

– Describing an organization which operates in the style of an army, but in an unofficial capacity, and often in secret, such as the S.A. Putsch – A revolt or uprising.

– Payments made by a defeated country to the victors to make amends for losses suffered.

– The Sturmabteilung (Stormtroopers), also known as the “brown-shirts.” It was the Nazi paramilitary arm under the command of Ernst Rîhm. It was active in the Nazi battle for the streets against members of other German political parties and was notorious for its violent and terroristic methods.

– An ancient symbol in the form of a twisted cross which was adopted by the Nazi party as its logo in the 1920s.

Third Reich – The Third Empire. It refers to Hitler’s name for his German Empire as a successor to the 1st Empire of the Roman Emperors (First Reich) and the Empire of Bismarck in 19th century Germany (Second Reich).

Weimar Republic – The German democratic government from 1919-1934 formed after Germany’s defeat in World War I. Its capital was located in Berlin.

ACTIVITIES

  • Research the early childhood of several left-wing and right-wing dictators. Are there any similarities?
  • Compile a list of demagogues in U.S. history. What issues were they promoting, and to what prejudices did they appeal?
  • Research Hitler’s family tree. How valid are the views of some historians that Hitler had Jewish ancestors who did not pass Hitler’s test for being of “pure Aryan” stock?
  • View a videotape of a speech by Hitler with English subtitles. Would the content of this speech have any relevance today? Follow this speech with an “instant analysis” network TV broadcast. If television had been available and had covered Hitler’s speeches, how different would the coverage have been in Hitler’s Germany compared to that which would occur in the United States today?

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

  • If Hitler were alive and able to visit your classroom today, what questions would you ask him? How would you think he would have answered these questions?
  • Why did ex-soldiers join the Free Corps?
  • Why was it significant that Hitler and the German Workers’ Party were able to purchase a newspaper?
  • Why was it significant that The Protocols were published in a newspaper?
  • Who owns the various newspapers which are available in your community, including those distributed for free?
  • How influential are newspapers in shaping the opinions of those who read them?

EVALUATION

  1. swastika
  2. fuhrer
  3. MI lucha
  4. Demagogue
  5. Lebensraum
  6. putsch
  7. S.A.

2. What was the Third Reich, and what were the first two “Reichs”?

3. What was the Weimar Republic, and how did its type of government differ from what succeeded it under Adolf Hitler?

4 What was the “Free Corps” and what role did it play during the political upheavals in post-World War I Germany?

5. What were the economic conditions in Germany during Hitler’s rise to power?

6. Name three of Hitler’s foreign policy goals, as outlined in Mein Kampf.

7. What did Hitler discuss at the “FÅhrer Conference” in November 1937?

8. What were Hitler’s first three territorial objectives? Describe whether they were taken politically or militarily.

9. How and when did Hitler die, and what was the status of the Third Reich at the time?

10. Describe Hitler’s views about the Jews and how he came to hold these views.


The Führer

Before Adolph Hitler claimed it as his personal title, Führer simply meant “leader” or “guide” in German. It was also used as a military title for commanders who lacked the qualifications to hold permanent command. Since its connotation to Nazi Germany, führer is not used in political context anymore, but may be combined with other words to mean “guide.” For instance, a mountain guide would be called a Bergführer, with “berg” meaning “mountain.”

Führer as Hitler’s Title

Adolph Hitler claimed the word “Führer” as an unique name for himself and started using it when he became chairman of the Nazi Party. It was at the time not uncommon to call party leaders “Führer” but usually the word had an addition to indicate which party the leader belonged to. When adopting it as a single title, Hitler may have been inspired by Austrian politician, Georg von Schonerer who also used the word without a qualification and whose followers also made use of the “Sieg Heil” greeting.

After the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act which gave Hitler absolute power for four years, he dissolved the president’s office and made himself the successor of Paul von Hindenburg. This was however in breach of the Enabling Act, and Hitler did not use the title as “president” but called himself “Führer and Chancellor of the Reich.” He would, after that often make use of the title in combination with other political leadership positions he took, for instance ” Germanic Führer” or “Führer and Supreme Commander of the Army”


President and Führer

In 1932, Hitler acquired German citizenship and ran for president, coming in second to von Hindenburg. Later that year, the Nazi party acquired 230 seats in the Reichstag, making them the largest party in Germany. At first, Hitler was refused the office of Chancellor by a president who distrusted him, and a continued snub might have seen Hitler cast out as his support failed. However, factional divisions at the top of government meant that, thanks to conservative politicians believing they could control Hitler, he was appointed chancellor of Germany on January 30, 1933. Hitler moved with great speed to isolate and expel opponents from power, shutting trade unions and removing communists, conservatives, and Jews.

Later that year, Hitler perfectly exploited an act of arson on the Reichstag (which some believe the Nazis helped cause) to begin the creation of a totalitarian state, dominating the March 5 elections thanks to support from nationalist groups. Hitler soon took over the role of president when Hindenburg died and merged the role with that of chancellor to become führer ("leader") of Germany.


The Early Life of Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler, seated on the left with a thick moustache, was an obscure personality in 1919. (Image: Everett Collection/Shutterstock)

There was absolutely nothing in the background of Adolf Hitler to lead one to suspect that this was a man with any special talents or any particular claim on the public’s attention.

He happened to attend a meeting of the DAP as a young corporal of the German army. The speech in this meeting left a great impression on the young man, and within a short amount of time, he joined the DAP.

Hitler’s Birth and Family

Adolf Hitler was born in 1889 in the town of Braunau am Inn. His father, Alois Hitler, was the illegitimate son of a woman named Schicklgruber, and before Adolf’s birth, he changed his name to Hitler.

It was probably one of the best things that happened to Hitler’s political career, since “Hail Schicklgruber” would not have had quite the same political clout.

There was a good deal of speculation during the Third Reich by enemies of Hitler, and then later, speculation that Alois Schicklgruber’s father was Jewish. But there’s no evidence to substantiate this.

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A Deep Bond between Mother and Son

Adolf Hitler’s mother cultivated his interest in art. (Image: Unknown author/Public domain)

Adolf Hitler had a typical sort of Austrian upbringing. His father was a minor bureaucrat in the old Austrian system. He was a distant father who liked to spend most of his time down at the pub enjoying a beer with his fellows.

He would come home—Hitler had a younger sister—but he didn’t spend very much time with the children, certainly not with Adolf.

Hitler formed a very strong attachment to his mother, who was everything his father wasn’t. She was loving and giving, spent time with him, and cultivated his and his sister’s interest in art.

He carried a photograph of his mother with him when he went off to Vienna, when he went in the army, and all the way through the war. The photograph of his mother was still on his desk in the bunker when he committed suicide in 1945.

Hitler and the Loss of His Mother

His mother’s death in 1907 was a great blow to the young Hitler. She had supported him in many ways and she had cultivated his interest in going to the Viennese Academy of Art. Shortly after his mother died he did, in fact, attempt to enroll in the academy.

In a series of competitive examinations, he was not admitted. Probably, he’d never really considered the possibility that his artwork would be turned down at the academy. It’s significant that one of the things the instructors at the academy noted was that he seemed to have trouble drawing people.

Hitler’s As a Young Artist in Vienna

In Vienna, he adopted the lifestyle of a young artist. He spent most of his days hanging around the cafes in Vienna drinking coffee. Hitler was a teetotaler and a vegetarian.

He sat around there’s no indication that he read in any systematic fashion. His reading seems to have been comprised of pamphlets—political agitation of the sort that was found in Vienna in those pre-World War I days. One of the central themes of Viennese politics in this period was anti-Semitism.

The Milieu of Anti-Semitism and Hitler

The old Austrian Empire was a hotbed of anti-Semitism, with its Polish population, its Czech population, and into the southeast, it had a much larger Jewish presence than in Germany proper.

Certainly, the mayor of Vienna, Karl Lueger, was a major anti-Semite and had organized anti-Semitism in Vienna. Hitler seems to have been quite impressed with him and with this sort of milieu of anti-Semitism.

He developed characteristics there, too, that would be typical of him for the rest of his career: a kind of indolence, this sense of—even though he wasn’t an artist—wanting the lifestyle of one with these bizarre hours, staying up very late, sleeping until noon, and going to the cafes.

Hitler During the Great War

Then in 1914 came the event that would change his life and would have the greatest effect on his political ideas and his future—the outbreak of the Great War.

Hitler wrote Mein Kamph when he was in prison in 1924. (Image: Unknown author/Public domain)

Hitler described in MI lucha, the book that he wrote in prison in 1924, of being there in front of the Rathaus in Munich when the declaration of war was read out, and that he was wild with enthusiasm. He said it was the happiest day of his life.

The war would bring Hitler, as he said, the happiest years of his life. For the first time, he felt that he belonged he was committed he was involved in a society of peers. His fellows saw him as something of an oddball.

He didn’t visit the houses of prostitution in France, where he was stationed, as most of them did. He never seemed to receive mail from home, they said. He was a loner, read things—pamphlets and so on.

He was quiet, and would be furious with them for their going off to be with French women of ill repute: he said the nationality was as important as the breach of traditional morality.

Hitler Decides to Join Politics

In August 1918, Hitler won the Iron Cross First Class for bravery in action. He was a runner, he carried messages between the trenches which was a very dangerous job. Then in 1918, he was wounded in a mustard gas attack on Ypres and temporarily blinded. He was sent back to a hospital in northern Germany for recovery.

He was still blinded at this point, and it was there, while he was recovering, that he heard the announcement that Germany had signed an armistice, that the war was over, and that Germany was defeated. He claimed in the writing of MI lucha that, then and there, he decided to become a politician.

Common Questions about the Early Life of Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler won the Iron Cross First Class for bravery in action in August 1918.

Adolf Hitler didn’t pass the series of competitive examinations at the academy. The instructors at the academy noted that he seemed to have trouble drawing people.

Adolf Hitler was a runner, he carried messages between the trenches which was a very dangerous job.