¿Cuándo podrían los sacerdotes de misión de California realizar la confirmación?

¿Cuándo podrían los sacerdotes de misión de California realizar la confirmación?

Los sacerdotes franciscanos en las misiones de California fueron empoderados con las facultades para realizar sacramentos como el bautismo y el matrimonio. Se aplica una norma más estricta en el caso de la facultad de confirmación: que sea realizada por obispos. El obispo de California estaba inaccesiblemente lejos en Sonora.

En la era de Serra y Lasuen los sacerdotes disfrutaban de una facultad de confirmación que de alguna manera expiró en 1795. Payeras se quejó de su ausencia de veinticinco años en 1820. ¿Se volvió a conceder la facultad antes de la creación de la diócesis de Monterey en 1840?


Según Zephyrin Engelhardt, Lasuén escribió que "la facultad de administrar el Sacramento de la Confirmación" se concedió a algunos de los padres durante diez años y luego se renovó por diez más (pero que más de la mitad del tiempo transcurrido se desperdició esperando documentos) . Lasuén está de acuerdo con Payeras en que la facultad caducó en 1795, por lo que puede haber comenzado en 1775. Sin embargo, según Bolton Guía de materiales para la historia de los Estados Unidos, en 1787 la facultad fue conferida a Lasuén.

En 1820 las confirmaciones aún eran imposibles, según Payeras. A partir de 1835 el "vicecomisario" P. Moreno pudo confirmar a la gente. California obtuvo su primer obispo (intrínsecamente capaz de realizar la confirmación), García Diego, en 1840. Recorrió el estado administrando la confirmación y no visitó Baja California, pero nombró a algunos de los últimos misioneros vicarios para que ellos también pudieran ejercer el sacramento.

Así que puede haber habido una brecha de cuarenta años sin confirmaciones en California; la brecha duró al menos veinticinco años. La falta de óleos sagrados válidos fue otro obstáculo importante para realizar la confirmación.


El rey español vio las misiones como la forma más fácil, rápida y barata de asentar la frontera. En lugar de pagar mucho dinero por soldados y colonos de España y México, el gobierno quería que las misiones transformaran a los indios en súbditos españoles leales que pudieran conservar California para España. Sin embargo, la Iglesia Católica y los misioneros consideraron la conversión de los indios al cristianismo como su principal objetivo.

Los españoles obligaron a los indios que encontraron a mudarse a las misiones donde los sacerdotes los convirtieron al cristianismo, les enseñaron español y los capacitaron en la agricultura y la artesanía al estilo europeo. La vida en la misión fue dura. Los sacerdotes establecen rutinas estrictas para trabajar, asistir a la iglesia y comer. También emplearon una dura disciplina por romper las reglas. Según el Centro de Recursos de Misiones de California, entre el 10 y el 15 por ciento de los indígenas se escapó. Los sacerdotes veían a los indios como niños que necesitaban orientación en las formas de comportamiento civilizado. Por lo general, eran los soldados guarnecidos en las misiones los que trataban a los indios con crueldad, tratando de robarles a sus esposas y golpeándolas.


Dirección

500 E. Camino Real
Santa Clara, CA 95053
Estados Unidos

Sitio (s) web
Teléfono
Horas
Excursiones

Autoguiado. La quinta iglesia de la misión, construida en 1825, fue completamente destruida en un incendio en 1926. La iglesia actual se completó en 1929 y sirve a la comunidad universitaria.

Servicios religiosos

Domingo 10:00 a.m. Lunes a Viernes 12:05 p.m.

Bodas y otros servicios especiales

sábados
10:00 a.m. 12:30 p.m.
3:00 pm. 6:00 p.m.

Domingos
13:00.

Las bodas deben programarse llamando a la oficina de la Misión al 408-554-4023.

Se recomienda encarecidamente un aviso de año y medio. Este es un lugar popular para las bodas de aquellos que han asistido a la Universidad de Santa Clara, y se les da preferencia.

Atracciones únicas

Santa Clara es la universidad más antigua de California y se desarrolló a partir de la misión fundada en 1777.

La iglesia es una atractiva "interpretación moderna" de la iglesia de 1825.

Hay un jardín de rosas atractivo y bien cuidado a la derecha de la iglesia. Este fue el sitio de un cementerio desde 1820-1846.

Hay una pequeña sección de uno de los muros de adobe originales de la misión cerca de la iglesia. Un cartel informativo proporciona detalles.

Una cruz alta, erigida en 1777, y ahora en una carcasa protectora, se encuentra frente a la entrada de la iglesia.

Consejos para visitantes

Disfrute de Santa Clara por su historia única, sus jardines bien cuidados y el espíritu vibrante de una gran universidad católica donde una iglesia misionera es el centro de la vida del campus.

Esta misión puede ser interesante para visitar durante la semana de Navidad, otras fiestas religiosas y recuerdos especiales como el Día de los Difuntos.

La librería del campus tiene una pequeña colección de material sobre la misión. Esta no es una tienda de regalos de misión.

Si bien se puede visitar la misión y sus terrenos bien cuidados en una hora, explorar esta gran universidad puede llevar mucho más tiempo. Merece la pena visitar el Museo de Saisset, situado cerca de la iglesia.

Otras atracciones históricas

Es posible visitar las Misiones Santa Clara, San José y Santa Cruz en un día completo si comienza temprano.


¿Cuándo podrían los sacerdotes de misión de California realizar la confirmación? - Historia

Introducción

La Fundación de Misiones de California está comprometida con la descripción completa y precisa de la historia de los primeros años de California. CMF continuará trabajando con académicos, líderes y expertos culturales indígenas de California para convertir este sitio en una fuente sólida de información sobre las experiencias de los indígenas de California. En el futuro, este sitio incluirá enlaces a recursos históricos y conectará a los visitantes con las comunidades indígenas de California contemporáneas. Lo que sigue es una breve introducción a las experiencias de los indígenas de California antes, durante y después de la era de la Misión.

Indios de California antes de la colonización

California siempre ha sido una de las áreas del mundo con mayor diversidad cultural. El término indio de California es una simplificación excesiva. Los grupos tribales que han vivido en California, desde tiempos inmemoriales, no se llamaban a sí mismos indios de California. En cambio, se conocían a sí mismos por incontables aldeas y afiliaciones familiares.

Los primeros exploradores europeos describieron a California como un paraíso terrenal donde los habitantes nativos simplemente "sobrevivían" de lo que la naturaleza les proporcionaba. Pero los indios de California nunca dejaron su sustento al destino. En todo el estado, los nativos californianos administraron cuidadosamente sus entornos. A través de la quema controlada, limpiaron la maleza y promovieron el nuevo crecimiento de plantas importantes. Levantaron el suelo al cosechar bulbos, lo que provocó que dicha vegetación se multiplicara. Recolectaron semillas de pastos y, al hacerlo, involuntariamente, y en ocasiones intencionalmente, esparcieron especies de plantas en nuevas áreas. Tales prácticas no solo aseguraron una abundancia de alimentos, sino que también proporcionaron la materia prima para instrumentos de utilidad y arte, como insignias, cestas y artículos para el hogar.

A pesar de las opiniones europeas en sentido contrario, los indios de California desarrollaron culturas y tradiciones complejas milenios antes de la llegada de los misioneros españoles.

Misiones: una época de pocas opciones

Aunque Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo reclamó California para España en 1542, España no intentó ocupar la tierra hasta finales del siglo XVIII. La ocupación de Nueva España irradió hacia el exterior de la ciudad de México. La estrategia principal de la colonización española fue convertir a los pueblos nativos en ciudadanos españoles leales. La misión, el acto de convertir a los nativos americanos a través de la instrucción cultural y religiosa, fue fundamental para la estrategia colonial española.

A mediados de la década de 1700, España ya había fundado misiones en Baja California. Sintiendo la presión de imperios rivales, como Rusia y Gran Bretaña, España se preocupó por mantener su reclamo sobre la tierra en los confines del norte de Nueva España. Los tramperos rusos se abrieron camino hacia el sur a lo largo de la costa del Pacífico y los barcos británicos reconocieron Alta California. En 1769, España ordenó una expedición militar para explorar y ocupar Alta California. Dirigida por el Capitán Gaspar Portola y el Padre Junipero Serra, esta exploración inicial se conocería como la Expedición Sagrada. La expedición resultó en la fundación de Mission San Diego, la primera en la cadena de 21 misiones que eventualmente se extenderían hasta Sonoma.

Además de los padres y el personal militar, las misiones fueron comunidades nativas americanas cerradas. Los padres generalmente ubicaron las misiones cerca de las comunidades nativas americanas existentes. Los nativos americanos llegaron a estas comunidades por diversas razones. Estudios históricos recientes sugieren que las enfermedades españolas y la rápida degradación ambiental, causada por especies invasoras traídas por los españoles, cambiaron drásticamente el medio ambiente y las estructuras sociales tradicionales. A medida que las fuentes de alimentos nativos se volvieron menos confiables y las enfermedades devastaron las comunidades indígenas de California, las misiones presentaron una opción en un momento de gran agitación.

Las misiones crearon nuevos tipos de comunidades, aunque a menudo inquietas. Era una vida controlada por los padres. En las misiones, los nativos americanos recibieron instrucción religiosa y se esperaba que realizaran labores, como la construcción y la agricultura para el mantenimiento de la comunidad. Era una vida que era dramáticamente diferente de la vida que conocían antes de la era de la Misión. El Sistema de Misiones era altamente coercitivo y una vez que los indígenas de California ingresaban a la comunidad, se esperaba que vivieran de una manera que los padres y los oficiales militares consideraran aceptables. Los misioneros desalentaron aspectos de la religión y la cultura nativas. A los nativos americanos que habían entrado en las comunidades de la misión a través del bautismo no se les permitía salir sin permiso. El castigo corporal, como azotes, para los nativos americanos que desobedecían las reglas era frecuente y, en ocasiones, severo. Aunque tales castigos no eran infrecuentes en la sociedad española contemporánea, se alejaban bastante de las prácticas tradicionales de los nativos americanos.

No todos los pueblos indígenas de Alta California vinieron a las misiones y no todos los que lo hicieron experimentaron la vida misionera de la misma manera. Los españoles establecieron las misiones a lo largo de una gran distancia geográfica y durante un largo período de tiempo. Junipero Serra fundó la primera misión en San Diego en 1769. El padre José Altimira fundó la última Misión de Alta California, San Francisco de Solano, en 1823. Aunque había un sistema de misiones y los Padres que lo administraban lo hacían bajo pautas establecidas, había mucha variación regional. Esta variación reflejaba a los nativos americanos que formaban las comunidades misioneras y las personalidades de los misioneros.

Cualquiera que sea la visión moderna de las misiones, una cosa está clara: los indios de California construyeron cada misión y fueron los indios de California quienes vivieron, trabajaron y murieron en ellas. Está claro que la vida en las misiones a menudo era difícil. Las enfermedades asolaban con frecuencia las comunidades misioneras. Pero incluso en estos tiempos de grandes dificultades, los indios de California vivieron lo mejor que pudieron. Se casaron y tuvieron hijos, transmitieron tradiciones y conocimientos culturales y vivieron momentos de gran alegría, por breves que fueran. Sobre todo, no eran “indios de misión”, eran personas.

Continuidad cultural indígena de California

Aunque la misión alteró para siempre las culturas indígenas de California, no pudo borrarlas. Los indígenas de California son fundamentales para la vida contemporánea. Son dueños de negocios, trabajan como servidores públicos y ocupan cargos políticos en todo el estado. Pero muchos también continúan con aspectos de sus tradiciones culturales anteriores a la colonización. Los ancianos enseñan a las generaciones más jóvenes cómo tienden las plantas a producir alimentos tradicionales y materiales para tejer cestas. Varias generaciones de familias continúan bailando y cantando de maneras que son anteriores a la colonización española. Donde el hilo de la memoria se ha roto, los indios de California están reviviendo tradiciones a través de la investigación y la práctica. De hecho, las culturas indígenas de California son imborrables.

Bibliografía seleccionada

Anderson, M. Kat, Cuidando lo salvaje (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006).

Hackel, Steven, Hijos de Coyote, Misioneros de San Francisco: Relaciones indio-español en la California colonial, 1769-1850 (Williamsburg, Virginia: Instituto Omohundro de Historia y Cultura Temprana de Estados Unidos, 2005).

Jackson, Robert H. y Edward Castillo, Indios, franciscanos y colonización española: el impacto del sistema de misiones en los indios de California (Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 1995).

Margolin, Malcolm, "Introducción", en La vida en una misión de California (Berkeley: Heyday Press, 1989).

Milliken, Randall, Un tiempo de pocas opciones: la desintegración de la cultura tribal en el área de la bahía de San Francisco, 1769-1810 (Banning, CA: Ballena Press, 1995).


Aumenta en nueve el número de sacerdotes franciscanos acusados ​​de abuso

Aquí se muestra una docena de sacerdotes anteriormente conocidos como presuntos abusadores. (De izquierda a derecha, de arriba a abajo) Bernard Connelly, Gus Krumm, Owen Da Silva, Gerald Chumik, Robert Van Handel, Marty Gates, Josef Prochnow, Mario Cimmarrusti, David Johnson, Sam Cabot, Stephen Kain, Tom Thing

Compartir este:

Por primera vez públicamente, los Frailes Franciscanos de la Provincia de Santa Bárbara han identificado a 50 sacerdotes acusados ​​de abusar sexualmente de niños en sus ministerios desde 1950. Más de la mitad - 26 - fueron asignados al Seminario de San Antonio o la Misión Vieja de Santa Bárbara en en algún momento de sus carreras, a menudo después de haber sido acusados ​​de abuso sexual en otro ministerio, y luego reasignados al área de Santa Bárbara.

Si bien muchos de esos 26 sacerdotes eran conocidos anteriormente por los abogados, las fuerzas del orden y los defensores de las víctimas, nunca antes se habían informado nueve nombres, según el abogado Tim Hale, quien ganó un caso histórico contra los franciscanos en 2006 y ha seguido de cerca los casos posteriores. así como divulgaciones recientes de la Iglesia Católica. Los nueve sacerdotes han muerto. Sus nombres y las ubicaciones y fechas de sus publicaciones en Santa Bárbara son los siguientes:

Nota: Estas fechas no reflejan necesariamente cuándo ocurrió el presunto abuso, solo cuando los sacerdotes acusados ​​fueron asignados aquí.

Camillus Cavagnaro - Antigua misión de Santa Bárbara, 2005-2006

Philip Colloty - Antigua misión de Santa Bárbara, 1973-1975

Adrian Furman - Antigua misión de Santa Bárbara, 1989-2001

Martin Gates - Seminario de San Antonio, 1965-1966

Gus Hootka - Antigua misión de Santa Bárbara, 1993-2006

Mark Liening - Antigua misión de Santa Bárbara, 1941-1942, 1985

Finbar Kenneally - Old Mission Santa Barbara, 1939-1940 Seminario de San Antonio, 1977-1991

Felix "Raymond" Calonge - Seminario de San Antonio, 1965

Felipe Baldonado - Múltiples misiones de CA (Oakland, Stockton, Santa Bárbara, Los Ángeles y San Francisco), 1953-1964

El padre David Gaa, líder de la provincia de Santa Bárbara, emitió un comunicado junto con la lista completa, que se publicó discretamente en el sitio web de la orden a última hora del viernes pasado. "La lista se publica como parte de nuestro compromiso continuo con la transparencia y la responsabilidad", escribió. "Estamos decididos a demostrar, a través de esta acción, que estamos comprometidos a ayudar a los sobrevivientes y sus familias a sanar".

Hale, entre otros, sostiene que la liberación es en realidad una estrategia egoísta de los franciscanos para proteger preventivamente la orden de una posible responsabilidad penal después de que un Gran Jurado de Pensilvania publicó un informe abrasador contra la Iglesia Católica en agosto pasado. Fue la investigación más amplia hasta ahora realizada por una agencia del gobierno de EE. UU. Sobre abusos dentro de la organización. “Todas las diócesis católicas de todo el país temen el informe del Gran Jurado y lo que podría significar para ellos”, dijo Hale.

En diciembre pasado, de manera similar a los franciscanos, la Arquidiócesis de Los Ángeles y la provincia jesuita occidental de la Iglesia Católica publicaron por su cuenta una lista de 200 clérigos acusados ​​de abuso de menores, 12 de los cuales ocuparon largos cargos en Santa Bárbara que se remontan a la década de 1950. .

Gaa dijo que la mayor conciencia pública sobre la actividad delictiva dentro de su orden "se produjo a principios de la década de 1990 desde St. Anthony's, nuestro seminario menor en Santa Bárbara. Desde esos primeros días, los frailes han trabajado para ayudar con el proceso de curación de los que fueron abusados ​​y para la protección de los niños ”. La orden supervisa actualmente a 136 sacerdotes en ministerios en todo California, Arizona, Nuevo México, Oregón y el estado de Washington. Tiene su sede en Oakland.

& # 8216 Estoy seguro de que esta no es la historia completa. & # 8221 —Attorney Tim Hale

La orden, que no devolvió las llamadas para hacer comentarios, consideró una acusación creíble si había "una preponderancia de pruebas de que la acusación [era] más probable que no" después de una investigación interna, según su sitio web. También se nombró a los sacerdotes que habían sido condenados en los tribunales o admitidos en los crímenes. Se identificaron más de 120 víctimas, dijeron los frailes. En muchos casos, afirmaron, las acusaciones se hicieron varios años o décadas después de que ocurriera el presunto abuso, muchas veces después de la muerte del sacerdote.

La lista, publicada en su totalidad a continuación, ilumina cuándo ciertos sacerdotes fueron acusados ​​de abusar sexualmente de menores y cuándo fueron colocados en Santa Bárbara. Gerald Chumik, por ejemplo, fue asignado a la misión de Santa Bárbara en 2003 a pesar de haber sido acusado en 1990 de obligar a un niño a practicarle sexo oral. Los franciscanos admitieron haber recibido por primera vez un informe de la mala conducta de Gus Krumm en 1980, pero le permitieron continuar sirviendo en Santa Bárbara hasta 1982, y nuevamente desde 1985-88.

De los 50 sacerdotes nombrados en total, solo cuatro están vivos. Tres de ellos, Chumik, Stephen Kain y Josef Prochnow, ocuparon cargos en Santa Bárbara. Kain fue nombrado en una demanda de 2004 por agredir al menos a un estudiante mientras trabajaba en el Seminario St. Anthony a mediados de la década de 1980. Fue nombrado nuevamente en Los Altos en 2001. Prochnow está acusado de abusar de menores en el Seminario de San Antonio de 1971 a 1978. Los tres, afirma la orden, ahora viven en "instalaciones de cuidado de ancianos" bajo lo que llama un Plan de Seguridad, una especie de libertad condicional supervisada para los sacerdotes infractores administrada por la Junta de Revisión interna de la orden. La orden no ha dicho dónde se encuentran estas instalaciones.

Hale dijo que tiene motivos para creer que al menos uno de ellos está ubicado en un vecindario residencial de California "con familias cercanas que no tienen forma de saber quiénes son estos hombres o el riesgo que representan para los niños". Hale dijo: "La única razón por la que los franciscanos pueden salirse con la suya es porque nunca denunciaron a los perpetradores a la policía, o si lo hicieron, fue mucho después de que expiró el estatuto de prescripción penal". Como resultado, dijo, los hombres escaparon del enjuiciamiento y tuvieron que registrarse como delincuentes sexuales. La descripción de un "centro de atención para ancianos" también puede ser engañosa, dijo Hale. "Crea la falsa impresión de que estos hombres tienen problemas de salud y tal vez sean menos peligrosos". Pero el mes pasado, se enteró, Prochnow estaba ministrando al otro lado de la calle de una escuela. "Me encantaría ver al fiscal general del estado intervenir y ver si los franciscanos incumplieron sus deberes como reporteros obligatorios", dijo Hale. "Puede que sea demasiado tarde, pero vale la pena investigarlo".

Hale dijo que si bien los nuevos nombres ayudarán al público a comprender mejor el alcance del abuso perpetrado por los franciscanos, probablemente omita cualquier información que pueda exponerlos a responsabilidades legales. “Estos son los franciscanos protegiendo a los suyos”, dijo. “Sus pies están pegados al fuego, y esa es la única razón por la que están divulgando esta información. Pero estoy seguro de que esta no es la historia completa ". Ahora, según su recuento, dijo Hale, "37 depredadores franciscanos han sido asignados, en residencia o han realizado su ministerio de manera recurrente en Santa Bárbara". Los franciscanos disputan ese número, dijo.


¿Cómo elijo un patrocinador?

Piense detenidamente en alguien que conozca que cumpla con los criterios anteriores. La Iglesia nos anima a considerar a nuestros padrinos como patrocinadores de la confirmación. La fuerte conexión de la confirmación con el bautismo hace que el padrino sea una elección natural si esta persona cumple con los requisitos anteriores. Si no conoce a alguien que cumpla con los criterios anteriores o si no puede patrocinarlo, discuta sus opciones con el coordinador de confirmación de su parroquia para ver si pueden encontrar a alguien adecuado. A menudo, los miembros de la parroquia se ofrecen como voluntarios para aquellos que no pueden encontrar un patrocinador adecuado.

El sacramento de la confirmación es la forma en que un católico puede alcanzar la membresía plena en la Iglesia Católica. Es un hermoso sacramento que inculcará la gracia de Dios dentro de usted para fortalecerlo y sostenerlo en su camino de fe.


Los sacramentos del bautismo y la confirmación

Desde los albores de la historia cristiana, el Bautismo y la Confirmación han estado estrechamente asociados.

Hasta el día de hoy, los católicos pertenecientes al rito oriental reciben ambos sacramentos en la infancia. El Papa San León I deja muy clara esta relación. Compara la vida natural de nuestros cuerpos con la vida sobrenatural de nuestras almas. El bautismo, dice, corresponde a nuestro nacimiento corporal. La confirmación corresponde a nuestro crecimiento corporal.

Para hacer justicia a cada uno de estos dos sacramentos y resaltar cómo están interrelacionados, los trataremos en secuencia, primero el Bautismo y luego la Confirmación. Siempre hay que tener en cuenta que tenemos dos niveles de vida como cristianos creyentes y católicos. Tenemos la vida natural del cuerpo, cuando Dios crea un alma inmortal e infunde esta alma en el cuerpo que recibimos de nuestro padre y nuestra madre. Tenemos la vida sobrenatural del alma cuando en el Bautismo Dios crea la gracia santificante e infunde esta alma del alma, en el lenguaje de San Agustín, el anima animae, en el espíritu inmortal recibido en el momento de nuestra concepción corporal en el vientre de nuestra madre.

Pero esta vida sobrenatural del alma necesita ser fortalecida para hacer frente a las pruebas que Dios nos envía para crecer en su gracia, durante nuestra estancia en este valle de lágrimas.

El bautismo, sacramento de la regeneración sobrenatural

Hay más que un valor pasajero al señalar que hay una creciente difusión de errores en los círculos profesos católicos sobre el significado del sacramento del bautismo. Sobre la base de que ha habido un desarrollo de la doctrina en la Iglesia, el autor de Puertas a lo Sagrado afirma que, los textos de la teología contemporánea y la educación religiosa ahora hablan del Bautismo como la incorporación de una persona a la vida de Cristo que se continúa en la Iglesia. , y hablar de que está causando el perdón del pecado original está desapareciendo lentamente.

A medida que avancemos en nuestras reflexiones sobre el bautismo, veremos cómo lidiar con estos críticos domésticos y extranjeros de lo que creemos que es el sacramento de la regeneración y la vida sobrenatural.

El bautismo no es solo el primero de los siete sacramentos, también es el sacramento básico. ¿Cómo? A menos que una persona sea bautizada, no se puede recibir ninguno de los otros seis sacramentos. Solo una persona bautizada puede ser confirmada. Solo una persona bautizada puede recibir la absolución en el sacramento de la confesión. Solo una persona bautizada puede recibir el sacramento del matrimonio. Sólo un hombre bautizado puede ser ordenado sacerdote válidamente.

El bautismo primero le da a la persona la vida sobrenatural, mientras que los otros sacramentos proveen para la restauración, el crecimiento, la curación o la comunicación de la vida sobrenatural. Como veremos, en el momento en que somos concebidos en el vientre de nuestra madre, recibimos el principio de la vida natural de nuestro cuerpo, llamado alma. Cuando nos bautizamos, nuestra alma recibe su principio de vida sobrenatural. El fundamento de la existencia sobrenatural lo confiere el Sacramento del Bautismo.

El bautismo muestra claramente lo que la Iglesia Católica entiende por sacramentos. En realidad, dan, porque si se quiere, la gracia que significan. No es necesario que haya una contribución deliberada de un niño recién nacido. El sacramento mismo confiere la gracia de Dios solo porque el infante es bautizado.

El bautismo se puede definir como el sacramento del renacimiento o la regeneración sobrenatural. Debemos enfatizar el prefijo re cuando hablamos del bautismo como un renacimiento o regeneración. Esto pone de manifiesto el asombroso hecho de que, aunque de hecho somos engendrados o nacidos naturalmente de nuestros padres humanos, el bautismo nos da una nueva vida. Esta es una vida superior, la vida sobrenatural que necesitamos por encima de nuestra existencia natural. ¿Por qué necesitamos esta vida? Porque esperamos llegar al cielo después de que nuestra vida natural expire cuando muramos. Absolutamente hablando, ninguno de nosotros morirá jamás. Lo que comúnmente llamamos muerte es simplemente la separación de nuestra alma inmortal de nuestro cuerpo. Pero el alma está destinada a estar viva dos veces. Como realidad espiritual, nuestra alma nunca dejará de existir. Pero si nuestra alma no está animada por la gracia que recibimos en el Bautismo, moriremos la doble muerte de cuerpo y alma.

Jesucristo nos habló del bautismo durante su conversación con Nicodemo. Este fariseo acababa de felicitar a Jesús. El Salvador respondió diciendo: Nadie puede ver el reino de Dios a menos que sea engendrado de arriba. A lo que Nicodemo objetó: ¿Cómo puede un hombre nacer de nuevo? ¿Puede volver al vientre de su madre y nacer de nuevo? Esta fue una pregunta perfecta para presentar la enseñanza revelada de Cristo sobre el bautismo. Dijo: Les aseguro solemnemente que nadie puede entrar en el reino de Dios sin ser engendrado por agua y el Espíritu.

Durante no menos de quince versículos, Jesús explica el significado de lo que acababa de decirle a Nicodemo. La enseñanza de Cristo subyacente es el hecho de que el bautismo es necesario. Tan cierto es esto que la Iglesia Católica reconoce el rito del Bautismo practicado por otras iglesias cristianas, siempre que el sacramento sea conferido por inmersión en agua o el vertido o rociado de agua, mientras la misma persona pronuncia las palabras, te bautizo en el nombre del Padre, del Hijo y del Espíritu Santo.

¿Qué tan necesario es el bautismo? Es absolutamente necesario recibir el bautismo de agua o al menos de deseo, que puede estar implícito, siempre que la persona crea al menos en Dios y en su bondad y sea fiel a las gracias que Dios le da.

Según el Catecismo de la Iglesia Católica, en cuanto a los infantes que han muerto sin el Bautismo, la Iglesia sólo puede confiarlos a la misericordia de Dios, como lo hace en los ritos funerarios por ellos. En efecto, la gran misericordia de Dios que desea que todos los hombres se salven, y la ternura de Jesús hacia los infantes que le hizo decir: Dejad que los pequeños vengan a mí, no se los estorbe, permítannos esperar que haya un camino de vida. salvación para los niños que han muerto sin el bautismo. Tanto más urgente es el llamado de la Iglesia a no impedir que los niños vengan a Cristo mediante el don del santo Bautismo.

Todos los efectos del bautismo son sobrenaturales, como deberíamos esperar. Estos efectos son principalmente cinco y pueden resumirse en cinco palabras: pecado, vida, poder, Iglesia y carácter.

Eliminación de la culpa y pena por el pecado]

El primer y más práctico efecto del bautismo es eliminar la culpa del pecado original y restaurar el título correspondiente a la gloria celestial. ¿Qué significa esto? Significa que se quita toda la culpa de todo el pecado que una persona pueda tener en su alma. Un niño bautizado que no ha alcanzado la edad de razón, si muere, tiene derecho inmediato a la visión beatífica. Después de la edad de la razón, una persona bautizada es liberada no solo del pecado original, sino de todos los pecados cometidos y de todo el castigo debido incluso a una vida de pecados personales.

Sin embargo, debemos agregar inmediatamente que el bautismo no elimina dos penas por el pecado original. Nuestros primeros padres perdieron para ellos y para toda su posteridad el don de la inmortalidad corporal y la libertad de los deseos irracionales. El bautismo no restaura ninguno de estos, lo que llamamos, dones sobrenaturales que hubiéramos heredado si no hubiéramos heredado una naturaleza humana caída.

Por el pecado de Adán, la humanidad perdió su participación en la vida divina. Por la muerte de Cristo, el segundo Adán, esta vida ahora puede ser restaurada. El bautismo restaura lo que llamamos nuestra vida sobrenatural.

Este es el nuevo nacimiento del que Cristo le habló a Nicodemo, cuando dijo que debemos nacer de nuevo del agua y del Espíritu Santo.

Esta es la vida de la que escribe San Juan en el capítulo inicial de su Evangelio, cuando dice que somos hijos de Dios, que no somos engendrados por sangre, ni por deseo carnal ni por hombres que lo deseen, sino por Dios (Juan 1 : 13). Debido a que tenemos esta vida de Dios en nuestras almas, nos convertimos en herederos del cielo.

La única condición que Dios requiere es que permanezcamos espiritualmente vivos cuando nuestros cuerpos mueran. Siempre que estemos en la gracia de Dios cuando, como decimos, muramos, nuestras almas no solo sobrevivirán, sino que tendrán derecho a la gloria celestial. En otras palabras, esta vida sobrenatural recibida en el Bautismo está destinada a continuar, más allá de nuestra muerte corporal, en una eternidad celestial.

Tenemos un nombre para la fuente de esta vida sobrenatural. Lo llamamos gracia santificante. San Agustín lo llama el alma del alma. Lo que nuestra alma es para nuestro cuerpo, dándole vida natural, la gracia santificante es para el alma, dándole vida sobrenatural.

Sin embargo, debe notarse que la gracia santificante ya es el efecto creado de la morada de la Santísima Trinidad. Por tanto, podemos decir que el efecto más importante del sacramento del Bautismo es que la Santísima Trinidad, Padre, Hijo y Espíritu Santo moren en nuestras almas. Esta morada en nosotros se llama la gracia increada que hemos recibido cuando fuimos bautizados y que debemos retener cuando el Señor nos llame a nuestro destino eterno.

El bautismo no solo le da vida sobrenatural al alma, sino que también le da poderes, instintos y gozos sobrenaturales que comúnmente identificamos como las virtudes, dones y frutos del Espíritu Santo.

Otro nombre para las virtudes infundidas en el Bautismo es poderes sobrenaturales para hacer lo que es imposible para la naturaleza humana por sí sola. Los tres más importantes de estos poderes son las virtudes de la fe, la esperanza y la caridad.

Por la fe tenemos el poder de creer todo lo que Dios ha revelado: que Dios es la Comunidad eterna de la Santísima Trinidad, Padre, Hijo y Espíritu Santo que Dios se hizo hombre en la persona de Jesucristo, el Hijo de María que Jesucristo, el Godman, sufrió y murió por nuestros pecados que Jesucristo está ahora presente, real y verdaderamente, real y corporalmente en la tierra en la Sagrada Eucaristía que la Iglesia que Cristo fundó es nuestro camino a la salvación, y que la cabeza visible de esta Iglesia es el Obispo de Roma, sucesor de San Pedro, a quien Cristo hizo la roca, para que lo que el Papa enseñe a la Iglesia universal, sea la enseñanza de Cristo mismo.

Por la esperanza tenemos el poder de confiar en que todas las cosas buenas que Dios nos prometió obtendremos, que nunca estaremos sin la luz y la fuerza que necesitamos para cumplir la voluntad de Dios, que ninguna prueba que Dios nos envíe será mayor que, con Su gracia, podemos soportar que siempre que cooperemos con la gracia de Dios, el cielo es nuestro. Confiamos en Su misericordia, no importa cuán pecaminosas hayan sido nuestras vidas. La única condición es que nos arrepintamos, hagamos una buena confesión y decidamos enmendar nuestras vidas.

By charity we are empowered to love God above all things to love Him more than ourselves to love Him even, or especially when He sends us sufferings and the cross to love Him in all the circumstances of life, no matter how demanding His love may be.

By charity we are empowered to love others not only as much as we love ourselves. We are enabled to love others more than ourselves to love others even as Christ has loved us, by suffering and dying on our cross out of love for others to love others out of love for God constantly, patiently and generously beyond all human power and expectation.

Membership in the Church

The Sacrament of Baptism incorporates a person into the Church founded by Christ. ¿Qué significa esto? In the words of the Second Vatican Council, it means that All who have been justified by faith in Baptism are incorporated into Christ they therefore have a right to be called Christians, and with good reason are accepted as brothers by the children of the Catholic Church.

Here we must distinguish. Every validly baptized person belongs to the Catholic Church no matter how unaware the person may be of belonging to the Mystical Body of Christ, which is the Church militant here on earth. However, we distinguish between belonging to the Church and being a member of the Church founded by Jesus Christ. To be an actual member of the Catholic Church, the baptized person must also be ready to profess what the Catholic Church teaches, and accept her laws and obligations with an open heart.

To belong to the Catholic Church further means that Baptism is the door to obtaining such graces as only baptized persons have a claim to. Certainly the Church is the universal sacrament of salvation and sanctification. All the graces that anyone receives from God are channeled through the Catholic Church. Those who are baptized have a special right to these graces to which no one else has a claim.

The final and most mysterious effect of Baptism is to receive a permanent, irremovable character or seal. Baptism imparts a likeness to Christ, especially to Christ the priest. The seal will remain throughout our lives on earth and into the endless reaches of eternity. The baptismal character grafts a person into Christ the

Vine so that all the baptized share in a unique way in the graces of Christs humanity. As a result, Jesus Christ has a claim on the baptized that no one else enjoys and they have a claim on Him that no one else on earth can share.

The baptismal character is permanent because it is timeless it is indelible because nothing, not even the loss of faith can remove it. Therefore a baptized person always remains a Christian. ¿Por qué? Because the baptismal seal confers a permanent relationship with Christ.

How to Grow in the Gifts of Baptism

Gone is the day when a Catholic can simply possess the gifts of grace received at Baptism. These gifts must grow and develop at the risk of losing the divine blessings which Baptism confers. I would single out especially the need for growing in the most fundamental gift we received when we were baptized, namely the gift of faith. Either we grow in our faith or we risk losing not only the virtue of believing in Gods revealed truth, but even the prospect of eternal salvation.

We are living in the most critical century of Christian history. Only firm believers who have grown in their faith will survive. Only firm believers will be used by Christ as channels of His grace to others.

How do we grow in our faith? We grow in our faith by studying our faith, by praying our faith and by putting what we believe into generous, even heroic practice.

By studying the faith, I mean that no Catholic today, no matter what his age or state in life or previous education, can be excused from learning more and more deeply what Christ has revealed and what the Church He founded teaches about the faith.

A word of warning, however make absolutely sure that in studying the faith you read authors who support the faith, and consult people who themselves are staunchly Catholic, and listen to speakers and attend conferences and discuss with those who will fortify what you believe. Let their faith nourish yours and your faith nourish theirs. Never has it been more necessary to choose your close friends and companions. Studying the faith must be done with faithful persons, using faithful sources, and its purpose should be to acquire a clearer understanding, a deeper certitude and a greater appreciation of what the Holy Spirit has revealed. He wants the seed of His Word to grow. The first means for assuring that growth is study.

Study has to be joined with prayer. This can be meditation on the mysteries of faith, or petition for more light on the meaning of faith. It should always be a humble recourse to God if only with a moments aspiration whenever a difficulty in the faith arises or when, as so often happens these days, we are faced with malicious attacks against our beliefs or forced to witness some conduct or read some writing or hear some statement that betrays the true faith.

In order to grow in the faith, we must use it. The duty is that simple, but also that necessary. Let me illustrate we believe that nothing happens by chance, but that everything that occurs is part of the mysterious Providence of God. If we believe it, and we do, let us act on our belief no matter how painful the things God sends us ah, but we must believe that God sends it or (how painfully) He takes pleasant things away. And no matter how unwelcome a duty, we do it doing it infallibly strengthens the faith. We believe that Christ is really, truly and entirely present in the Holy Eucharist. We should act accordingly by visiting Him often in the Blessed Sacrament where we adore Him, telling Him how much we love Him and asking Him for whatever we need. That is why He is there, the same Jesus who raised the dead.

If He worked miracles then, trust Him, He will work miracles now.

Confirmation, the Sacrament of Spiritual Strengthening

When the Roman Catechism was published in 1566, the faithful were warned regarding the Sacrament of Confirmation, There are found in the holy Church of God many by whom this sacrament is altogether omitted while very few seek to obtain from it the fruit of divine grace which they should derive from its participation.

The same could be said today. Only the Lord really knows, but in my judgment, Confirmation is the most ignored sacrament of our faith.

The biblical grounds for our faith in Confirmation are Christs promise to send the Holy Spirit on the apostles. Not surprisingly, it is the evangelist St. Luke who records the Saviors promise. Just before His ascension, Jesus told His disciples, I am sending down to you what the Father has promised. Stay in the city, then, until you are clothed with the power from on high (Lk 24:49). On the same occasion, the Lord promised His followers, You will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes on you, and then you will be my witnesses, not only in Jerusalem, but throughout Judea and Samaria, and indeed to the ends of the earth (Acts 1:8).

In the same context, we are told that converts to the faith were first baptized, and then the Apostles laid hands on them, and they received the Holy Spirit (Acts 8:17).

Immediately we see that the basic reason why Christ instituted the Sacrament of Confirmation was that His followers would witness to Him, even to the ends of the earth. The original revealed Greek term for witnesses, as quoted by St. Luke, is martyrs. Jesus sent the Holy Spirit on Pentecost Sunday to enable His disciples to be His martyrs until the end of time.

Divinely Conferred Effects

There is a mountain of implications hidden in this precious sacrament. We shall therefore concentrate on the effects of Confirmation and our responsibility to live as not only baptized, but confirmed Christians in our day.

We define Confirmation as the sacrament of spiritual strengthening, in Latin, roboratio spiritualis. Our English word robust comes from the Latin robur, which means oak wood or hardwood.

More concretely, Confirmation strengthens the supernatural life we receive in Baptism. Confirmation increases our sanctifying grace in every way, but mainly in deepening our capacity to remain spiritually alive. It gives us the power of resistance, the ability to resist dangers, and the strength to become more Christ?like until the dawn of eternity.

Confirmation gives us, even before the age of reason, the title to such fortitude as no one else except confirmed believers can claim. It does nothing less than provide us with superhuman strength against hostile forces from within our own fallen nature and from the world and the evil spirit who is literally hell-bent to destroy us.

There are three sacraments that give a person what we call an indelible character. They are Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders. Confirmation confers the character of assimilation to Jesus Christ, the priest, teacher, and king.

On each of these levels, the assimilation is associated with Christs role as Savior. As we know, the priesthood of Jesus is the mission that He came into the world to fulfill by offering Himself in sacrifice on the cross. We cannot repeat too often what sacrifice means. Sacrifice is the voluntary surrender of something precious to God. On Calvary, Jesus offered His human life for our salvation. But the heart of His bloody sacrifice was in His human will, freely surrendering Himself to the Father.

On this first level of assimilation to Jesus Christ the priest, Confirmation gives us the strength to bear suffering (passively) in union with Him and the courage to sacrifice pleasant things (actively) out of love for the One who died on the first Good Friday out of love for us.

Confirmation assimilates us to Christ the teacher. We acquire a strong will in adhering to the faith in the face of obstacles, a strong mind in not doubting the truths of faith, a strong humility of spirit in professing the faith, and a strong wisdom that knows how to communicate the faith to others effectively.

Finally, Confirmation assimilates us to Christ the King. It gives us a quality of leadership that can direct others on the path of salvation. It gives us a strong character that can withstand the ravages of bad example or the snares of seduction, and a strong personality that will attract even the enemies of Christ to His standard.

We might describe the sacramental character of Confirmation by calling it the sacrament of witness to Christ, in the Church and before the world.

In other words, Confirmation is the sacrament of fearless apostolic zeal. Having said this, we are ready to spell out in as clear words as possible what this sacrament gives us the grace to do. In the words of the new canon of law, issued by Pope Jolu1 Paul II on the first Sunday of Advent in 1983, we are told that by the sacrament of Confirmation, the baptized are made strong and more firmly obliged by word and deed to witness to Christ and to spread and defend the faith.

Immediately we see that Confirmation is exactly what its name implies. It is the supernatural, which means superhuman, courage we receive to be apostles of Jesus Christ.

To witness means to testify to others of what we are absolutely sure is true. It is no mere cliché to say that not every believing Catholic is unqualifyingly sure of what he believes. To be sure of the faith means to be certain that what God has revealed is unchangeably true. Certitude of faith is in the mind, convinced that the mysteries of our faith cannot be questioned because they are revealed by the all?wise and truthful God.

We get some idea of what Confirmation does by what happened on Pentecost Sunday. In the Churchs tradition, it was on Pentecost that the disciples received the graces of their Confirmation when the Holy Spirit descended on the disciples, gathered with Mary, awaiting the coming of the power that Jesus had promised to send them.

Remember, it was just over fifty days before that Peter, the coward, three times denied that he even knew Jesus Christ. Yet now he stood before several thousand people in Jerusalem and spoke to them with such courageous conviction as he never had before.

Men of Israel, listen to what I am going to say: Jesus the Nazarene was a man sent to you by God. Miracles and portents and signs God worked through Him when He was among you, as you all know. This man, who was put into your power by the deliberate intention and foreknowledge of God, you took and had Him crucified by men outside the law. You killed Him, but God raised Him to life (Acts 2:22-24).

The result was that some three thousand Jews were baptized that very day.

The lesson is obvious. No less than what the Holy Spirit did to Peter on Pentecost Sunday, the same Spirit has done to us when we were confirmed on our Pentecost day. We have received nothing less than miraculous power to witness to Jesus Christ.

Confirmation develops our sense of mission and inflames our desire to share with others what others had so generously shared with us.

According to St. John Chrysostom, on the Last Day, we shall be judged mainly on our practice of charity in spreading the faith. The number of ways of spreading the faith is beyond human reckoning. But the one way that has been most effective from the dawn of Christian history has been by living a life of selfless charity. The charity of which we are speaking is not only, or even mainly, the charity of the corporal works of mercy. Certainly, as Christ tells us, we are to do everything we can to feed the hungry, give drink to the thirsty, clothe the naked, visit the sick, and care for those who are in physical need. However, the principal form of charity, which is nothing less than a miraculous means of spreading the faith, is the interior charity of selfless love for others. No one has improved on the description of charity of Pope Clement I, writing in 90 AD. Charity, he says, bears all things. Charity is longsuffering in all things. There is nothing mean in charity, nothing arrogant. Charity knows no schism, does not rebel, does all things in concord. In charity, all the elect of God have been made perfect.

Is it any wonder that by the end of the first century of Christianity, over one hundred dioceses were established along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea? Without exception, the Church spread because Christians were confirmed by the Holy Spirit to love others with heroic charity. They loved those who hated them. They loved those who persecuted them. Like Jesus, they even loved those who crucified them.

We are talking about spreading the Faith as one of the gifts of the sacrament of Confirmation. It is especially by our love of others that we communicate our Faith to them. This spreading of the Faith is not only evangelizing unbelievers or converting sinners estranged from God. Confirmation so deepens the faith of a sincerely believing Catholic that he is the conduit for deepening and strengthening the faith of others in the measure of his own practice of self-sacrificing love.

How misguided we can be! We see all around us millions who either do not believe in Christ at all, or whose Christianity is confused, or whose faith in the Churchs teaching is shallow at best and make?believe at worst.

How to bring to this ocean of souls the fullness of the true faith? Surely, our understanding of the faith is important. Our ability to prove the truth of our faith is imperative. But, the infallible talisman for spreading the faith, far beyond our wildest dreams, is living a life of loving surrender to the will of God and of selfless generosity in our dealings with everyone who enters our lives.

In one sentence, the key to putting the gift of our Confirmation into practice is to share with others the treasure of our Catholic Faith.

Here we could begin all over again. The Sacrament of Confirmation provides us with nothing less than miraculous power to defend the faith that we profess.

We cannot defend what we do not understand. Nor can we defend what we are not ourselves convinced is true. On this basic level of defending the Catholic Faith, there is no substitute for knowing what we believe.

But, to know what we believe means more than just understanding what God has revealed. Strange to say, we must also know how to cope with the prevalence of so much erroneous teaching that pervades our society like the air we breathe.

In an age like our own, when heresy is so pervasive and error has been elevated as master of human thought, we confirmed Catholics had better know why God permits heresy in the first place and how we are to benefit from the prevalent errors in faith and morals.

There are two statements of St. Cyprian, bishop and martyr of the third century, that deserve to be memorized. The first statement is his description of heretics. Says Cyprian: Whoever has been separated from the Church is yoked with an adulteress, is separated from the promises made to the Church. Nor shall he who leaves Christs Church arrive at Christs rewards. He is a stranger, he is sacrilegious, he is an enemy. He who has not the Church for mother can no longer have God for his Father.

But then Cyprian goes on. Nevertheless, he explains, the Lord allows and suffers these (errors and evils) to be, while each .mans will remains free. ¿Por qué? So that while our minds and hearts are tested in the crucible of truth, the sound faith of those who are approved may shine forth more clear and undimmed (On the Unity of the Catholic Church, 6, 10).

What are we being told? We are being told that heretics and enemies of the Church, dare I say it, are necessary. Strengthened by the Sacrament of Confirmation, we are enabled to become more convinced of the truth of our faith, because we have to defend what we believe against the errors among which we live.

Once again, what are we being told? We are being told that hostility to our faith convictions is Gods mysterious way of making us more firm in holding on to what we believe, even though this perseverance may cost us our blood.

Confirmation is the Saviors great blessing for both our minds and wills. Our minds become more convinced that what we believe is really true. And our wills become more courageous in protecting this truth, even with our bodily lives.

The Churchs literature is filled with statements that might be called aphorisms. In every language since the dawn of Christianity, believing Catholics are encouraged to imitate the saints whom we honor as martyrs. Let me just mention a few of these mottos: The ashes of martyrs drive away demons. The blood of martyrs is the seed of Christians. Heaven is opened to martyrs. All times are the age of martyrs. The martyrs were bound, imprisoned, scourged, burnt, rent, butchered and they multiplied. The death of the martyrs blossoms in the faith of the living. The Lord has willed that we should rejoice even over persecutions because, when persecutions occur, then the faith is crowned.

So the litany of these proverbs could go on. They teach us one thing, the most important thing we need to believe in this valley of tears. Christ instituted the sacrament of spiritual strengthening so that His followers might follow Him on the road to Calvary. The Savior is now glorified, but only because He had been crucified. Our own glorious eternity depends on the courageous witness of our faith, made possible by our Confirmation by the Holy Spirit.


Baptism

Baptism by immersion in water by one having authority is necessary for a person to become a member of the Church and receive the Holy Ghost. All who seek exaltation must follow the example of the Savior by receiving these ordinances. (See Matthew 3:13–17 John 3:3–7 Acts 2:37–38 2 Nephi 31:5–10.)

Approval for a Person to Be Baptized and Confirmed

Children Who Are Members of Record

The bishop holds the priesthood keys for baptizing 8-year-old members of record in a ward. These children should be baptized and confirmed on or as soon after their 8th birthday as is reasonable (see Doctrine and Covenants 68:27). These are children for whom Church membership records already exist (see 33.6.2). When they reach age 8, the bishop makes sure they have every opportunity to accept the gospel and be baptized and confirmed.

For information about baptizing and confirming a person who has an intellectual disability, see 38.2.1.8 and 38.2.3.5.

The bishop or an assigned counselor conducts interviews for the baptism and confirmation of:

Children age 8 who are members of record.

Children age 8 who are not members of record but have at least one parent or guardian who is a member.

Members of record ages 9 and older whose baptism was delayed due to intellectual disabilities.

Instructions for interviews are provided in 38.2.3.3. For information about filling out the Baptism and Confirmation Record, see 18.8.3.

Bishops give special attention to 7-year-old children in the ward, ensuring that their parents, their Primary leaders and teachers, and those who minister to their families help them prepare for baptism and confirmation. Elders quorum and Relief Society leaders also encourage parents to prepare their children for these ordinances.

Converts

The mission president holds the priesthood keys for baptizing converts in a mission. Convert baptisms are defined as baptisms of:

Persons ages 9 and older who have never been baptized and confirmed. See 18.7.1.1 for an exception for those with intellectual disabilities.

Children ages 8 and older whose parents (1) are not members or (2) are being baptized and confirmed at the same time as the children.

Full-time missionaries interview converts for baptism and confirmation. Instructions are provided in 38.2.3.3. For information about filling out the Baptism and Confirmation Record, see 18.8.3.

Baptismal Services

A baptismal service should be simple, brief, and spiritually uplifting. It may include the following:

A brief welcome from the brother who is conducting the service

An opening hymn and prayer

One or two short messages on gospel subjects, such as baptism and the gift of the Holy Ghost

A time of reverence while those who participated in the baptism change into dry clothes (hymns or Primary songs may be played or sung during this time)

The confirmation of 8-year-old members of record the confirmation of converts if determined by the bishop (see 38.2.3.2)

Bearing of testimonies by new converts, if desired

A closing hymn and prayer

When a baptismal service for 8-year-old children who are members of record involves only one ward, a member of the bishopric plans and conducts it. He may ask Primary leaders to help with planning.

When a baptismal service for these children involves more than one ward, a member of the stake presidency or an assigned high councilor plans and conducts it. He may ask Primary leaders to help with planning. A member of the bishopric from each ward with a child being baptized should attend.

Members should not request individual times for the baptism of a child. Nor should they prescribe the content of the service.

Baptismal services for converts should be scheduled as soon as they have met the qualifications in 38.2.3.3. Baptism of a family member should not be delayed until a father can receive the priesthood and perform the baptism himself.

Under the bishopric’s guidance, the ward mission leader (if one is called) or the member of the elders quorum presidency who leads missionary work in the ward plans and conducts baptismal services for converts.

Who Performs the Ordinance

The ordinance of baptism is performed by a priest or Melchizedek Priesthood holder. The person who performs a baptism must be approved by the bishop (or by the mission president if a full-time missionary is performing the baptism).

A bishop may allow a father who is a priest or a Melchizedek Priesthood holder to baptize his child even if the father is not fully temple worthy (see 18.3). Bishops encourage fathers to prepare themselves to baptize their own children.

To perform a baptism, a person who is outside his own ward must show a current temple recommend to the presiding leader. Or he may show a Recommend to Perform an Ordinance signed by a member of his bishopric.

Where to Perform the Ordinance

Baptisms should be performed in a baptismal font if one is available. If there is not a font, a safe body of water may be used. It should be large enough for both the person performing the ordinance and the person being baptized to stand in. Water is not dedicated for baptisms.

If a font is used, it is scheduled through an assigned member in the agent bishop’s ward.

For safety, a responsible adult must be present while a font is being filled and remain until it is drained, cleaned, and secured. The font should be drained immediately after each baptismal service. The doors to the font should be locked when it is not in use.

Ropa

A person who performs a baptism and a person who is being baptized wear white clothing that is not transparent when wet. An endowed person wears the temple garment under this clothing while performing a baptism. Local units purchase baptismal clothing with budget funds and do not charge for its use.

Baptismal clothing may be ordered at store.ChurchofJesusChrist.org.

Witnesses

Two witnesses, approved by the presiding leader, observe each baptism to make sure it is performed properly. Baptized members of the Church, including children and youth, may serve as witnesses.

A baptism must be repeated if the words are not spoken exactly as given in Doctrine and Covenants 20:73. It must also be repeated if part of the person’s body, hair, or clothing is not completely immersed.

Instructions

To perform the ordinance of baptism, a priest or Melchizedek Priesthood holder:

Stands in the water with the person being baptized.

Holds the person’s right wrist with his left hand (for convenience and safety). The person being baptized holds the priesthood holder’s left wrist with his or her left hand.

Raises his right arm to the square.

States the person’s full name and says, “Having been commissioned of Jesus Christ, I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen” (Doctrine and Covenants 20:73).

Has the person hold his or her nose with the right hand (for convenience) then places his right hand high on the person’s back and immerses the person completely, including clothing. Immersion is easier if the person bends his or her knees.

Helps the person to come up out of the water.

Baptism Record

For information about making a record of a baptism, see 18.8.3.


When could California mission priests perform confirmation? - History

The Spanish eventually realized that the Valley of the Bears had a large amount of food and other natural resources and that the local tribe, the Chumash, were friendly. They decided that it would be a good location for another Mission. The Mission is located a few miles from the coast in a protected valley with good land for farming.

After a chapel or church was finished where the Fathers and Neophytes could hold Mass they would start building the Convento. The Convento was where the Fathers would live. Next would come workshops and the Monjerio. The Monjerio was where unmarried girls and women would live and be locked in at night. The Fathers didn’t think that unmarried girls and women should live near single men. Eventually there would be enough buildings for four sides of a square or quadrangle. The Mission complexes weren’t perfect squares because the Fathers didn’t have a way to measure distance other than walking off distances. Most Missions included a fountain. The fountain was used for washing, laundry, and water. The more fancy the fountain the more successful the Mission.

The Mission prospered and became quite large with many work areas and sleeping rooms. The Mission also had aqueducts to carry water to the gardens, ranchos for farming and keeping livestock, and two smaller branch churches or asistencias. The Mission has suffered damage from earthquakes in the past, including one in 1830.

Father Cavaller died in 1789 and Father Miguel Giribet was appointed to take his place. Eventually Father Luis Antonio Martinez joined Father Giribet. Father Martinez was well liked by the Chumash but not well liked by the military. In 1830 the military decided they had had enough and accused him of treason. He was forced to leave Alta California.

Those that lived at the Mission went by a strict schedule. The Fathers were used to this type of lifestyle, but the neophytes were not. The structure of Mission life was one of the reasons many Native Californians tried to leave. A French explorer, Jean Fran ois de La P rouse, visited Mission San Carlos is 1786 and wrote a detailed account of what he observed. Events at the Mission were signaled by the ringing of the Mission bells. Each day started around sunrise (about 6am). The Mission bells would ring to wake everyone and summon them to Mass and morning prayers. Prayer lasted for about an hour and then everyone would go to breakfast. Atole, a type of soup made from barley and other grains, would be served. Breakfast took about 45 minutes and then it was time for everyone to go to work.

The Fathers were responsible for running the Mission and instructing the new converts and children in the Catholic faith. Most of the men went to the fields to tend to the crops or to help with the animals while women stayed at the Mission and worked on domestic chores such as weaving cloth and making clothes, boiling down fat to make soap and candles, and tending to the vegetable gardens. Children often helped at these chores around the Mission once their religious instruction was over. Depending on the particular industry at the Mission there also might be neophytes leatherworking, metalworking, wine making, and pressing olives for olive oil.

At noon the bells would ring again for everyone to gather for dinner, what we would call lunch. Lunch was normally pozole, another thick soup with beans and peas. After an afternoon break everyone returned to their work for another two to four hours depending on how much work there was to be done. A last bell would be rung to end the work day. Another serving of Atole would be served and the neophytes would be able to rest until it was time for bed (Margolin, Pg. 85). Women were usually expected to go to bed by 8pm and men by 9pm. Most of the Fathers allowed their neophytes to continue to hunt and gather additional foods and to cook some of their traditional dishes.

Living at the Mission was often difficult for new converts. They were used to working when work needed to be done and resting when they were tired. The Mission lifestyle was different. The Neophytes were the main source of labor for the Missions. It was their hard work along with the soldiers’ and Fathers’ that built the Missions and their outbuildings. Agriculture and ranching required constant tending to the crops and animals. Without this labor the Missions would not have been able to survive. Many neophytes missed the freedom of their tribal life and would try to leave the Mission. The Fathers wouldn’t allow neophytes to leave and would send soldiers to search for them and bring them back. Runaways were usually punished for breaking the rules.

The Chumash didn’t like the Spanish Missionaries taking their land and telling them how to live. The Spanish found it difficult to convince the Chumash to convert to Christianity and live at the Mission. Unlike at other missions, the Chumash that had converted were allowed to visit their families and friends at the village about once every 5 weeks. The Fathers hoped that the visitors would convince other tribe members to come to the Mission, but the Chumash didn’t need the Mission’s help to survive.

By 1780 the Spanish decided to allow the Natives to appoint an alcade. The alcade, a Native tribe member, talked to both sides and tried to help settle disputes.


Junípero Serra's brutal story in spotlight as pope prepares for canonisation

Generations of American schoolchildren have been taught to think of Father Junípero Serra as California’s benevolent founding father, a humble Franciscan monk who left a life of comfort and plenty on the island of Mallorca to travel to the farthest reaches of the New World and protect the natives from the worst abuses of the Spanish imperial army.

Under Serra’s leadership, tens of thousands of Native Americans across Alta California, as the region was then known, were absorbed into Catholic missions – places said by one particularly rapturous myth-maker in the 19th century to be filled with “song, laughter, good food, beautiful languor, and mystical adoration of the Christ”.

What this rosy-eyed view omits is that these natives were brutalized – beaten, pressed into forced labour and infected with diseases to which they had no resistance – and the attempt to integrate them into the empire was a miserable failure. The journalist and historian Carey McWilliams wrote almost 70 years ago the missions could be better conceived as “a series of picturesque charnel houses”.

Little wonder, then, that Pope Francis’s decision to elevate Serra to sainthood during his visit to Washington this week has revived longstanding controversies and enraged representatives of California’s last surviving Native American populations. There have been protests outside some of California’s most heavily visited Missions, petitions, open letters written both to the pope and to California’s political leaders, and even an attempt by members of the state legislature to have Serra replaced as one of California’s two representative figures in Washington’s National Statuary Hall. Natives travelled to California and Washington this week to protest against Serra’s elevation in person.

Opponents point out that, from the time Serra arrived in 1769, the native population was ravaged by European diseases, including syphilis spread by marauding Spanish soldiers. Indians brought into the missions were not allowed to leave, and if they tried they were shackled and severely beaten.

They were used as forced labour to build out the Mission’s farming projects. They were fed atrociously, separated from close family members and packed into tight living quarters that often became miasmas of disease and death.

When the Native Americans rebelled, which they did on at least two occasions, their rebellions were put down in brutal fashion. When Native American women were caught trying to abort babies conceived through rape, the mission fathers had them beaten for days on end, clamped them in irons, had their heads shaved and forced them to stand at the church altar every Sunday carrying a painted wooden child in their arms.

Passions are riding high on both sides. While Serra’s critics say he was responsible for the near-eradication of California’s native peoples, the state’s governor, Jerry Brown, has defended him as “a very courageous man”, an innovator and a pioneer, and vowed that his statue will stay in Washington “until the end of time”.

In many ways, the issue is reminiscent of the Vatican’s campaign a few years ago to canonise Pius XII, the wartime pope accused in many quarters of failing to stand up to the Nazis and helping in their rise to power, but defended in others as a holy man who did his part to save many hundreds of thousands of Jews.

The push to canonise Pius XII (now on hold) came in the wake of a 1998 papal document that sought to atone for the church’s silence in the face of the Holocaust. Likewise, Serra’s sainthood follows an apology issued by Pope Francis in Bolivia this summer for the “grave sins … committed against the native peoples of America in the name of God”.

That, however, has only further raised the hackles of Serra critics, who say the apology means nothing if the Vatican simultaneously seeks to canonise a person exemplifying the actions for which the apology was issued. “Apologies that aren’t followed by a change of behaviour, in general, don’t carry a lot of weight,” Deborah Miranda of Washington and Lee University, who is of California Native American descent, said in a recent magazine interview.

Even mainstream Catholics have been surprised that Pope Francis has championed Serra without going through the usual four-step review process, including verification of two miracles. Serra has been credited with only one.

The cause of his sainthood, which was first proposed in 1930, was long ago assumed to have stalled because of the controversies surrounding his legacy.

But Francis, as the first Latin American pope, has an obvious interest in creating a role model for Latinos in the United States and the rest of the American continent – an interest echoed by the state of California, which can now look forward to a global wave of Serra-related tourism. The pope also appears to have an interesting theological take on Serra’s imperfections. Kevin Starr, widely regarded as California’s pre-eminent state historian, summarised the Vatican’s view this way: “Saints do not have to be perfect. Nobody is perfect. Sanctity is just another mode of imperfection.”

In other words, it is enough to state that the good outweighs the bad. José Gómez, the first Latino archbishop of Los Angeles and an enthusiastic Serra champion, wrote recently: “Whatever human faults he may have had and whatever mistakes he may have made, there is no questioning that he lived a life of sacrifice and self-denial.”

Gómez also argued that we cannot judge 18th-century behaviour by 21st-century standards – a form of historical relativism that the Serra critics find particularly galling. John Cornwell, a British journalist turned academic who has written extensively about the Vatican, including an acclaimed book about Pius XII, said the argument also clouded the important question of whether Serra was an appropriate exemplar for today’s faithful.

“For those who argue that we should not judge the values of the past by those of the present,” Cornwell told the Guardian, “one could, and should, object that it’s important to learn the lessons of history.”

To Native Americans like Valentin Lopez, the chairman of the Amah Mutsun Tribal Band based in Sacramento, those lessons are not complicated. Serra, in his view, was part of a colonial enterprise whose goal was the complete subjugation of California’s native peoples. The mission system he set up was based on coercion, punishment and indifference to Indian suffering, against which his expressions of piety were no more than window-dressing.

“It’s amazing to me this is even a debate,” Lopez told the Guardian. “There is no debate – it’s like debating the pros and cons of the genocide of the Jewish people in world war two. The only reason this is not treated as a black and white issue is because of the lies that the church and the state of California have perpetuated from the time of the missions.”

Helen Hunt Jackson’s 1884 bestselling novel Ramona set the tone for a mythologised history of the Missions, giving the impression Spanish colonialism had been an idyll for settlers and Native Americans alike and that the natives only suffered after the gringos began arriving. Even the most ardent Catholic historians now accept this is flat-out wrong.

A flurry of recent Serra scholarship, however, suggests the politics of the Spanish conquest were complicated. Missions were established with much greater success and lesser suffering in other parts of the American continent – particularly by the Jesuits. Serra’s mandate only arose because the Vatican temporarily disbanded the Jesuits in 1767, and many of the mistakes he and the Franciscans made were the result of inexperience, according to Professor Starr.

“The perspective of Franciscans and Dominicans of that era was: God will punish us for the way we treat the Indians, so we’ve got to protect them as some kind of atonement,” Starr told the Guardian. “Serra knew he couldn’t keep California a Franciscan mission protectorate forever. He hoped that by the time Spaniards came in large numbers, Native Americans would be educated and competent to deal with it. That was the dream, but the dream never came true.”

The biggest philosophical divide among serious historians is whether Serra’s initiative was worth undertaking in the first place. Catholic scholars – including Professor Starr – tend to take an indulgent view of the church’s evangelizing mission, while Native American advocates like Lopez view the imposition of Catholicism as a violation of the Indians’ longstanding spiritual traditions, just as the Spanish conquest disrupted and violated their way of life more generally.

The Vatican would like to believe that Serra and the missionaries were somehow separate from the Spanish colonial enterprise, and that the army’s abuses should not in any way be laid at Serra’s door. Pope Francis said in May that Serra was one of a generation of missionaries “who … defended the indigenous peoples against abuses by the colonisers”.

Most historians, however, dismiss that interpretation as fanciful. While it’s true that Serra was often at odds with military commanders in the region, he travelled to the New World at the behest and direction of the same Spanish crown in command of the army. He couldn’t be against the colonisers, because he was one himself.

“The church and the army were partners,” Lopez said. “Junípero Serra’s own handwriting details the cruelties. His policy was to enslave the Indians – he didn’t let them leave the missions. You can’t blame that on Spanish soldiers.”

Out of deference to the papal visit, the push to have Serra’s statue in Washington replaced with the late astronaut Sally Ride – championed by LGBT advocacy groups as well as fans of space exploration – has been deferred until after Francis is back in Rome. But the sponsors of the measure, including a Latino state senator from Los Angeles and the speaker of the state assembly, have vowed to reintroduce it thereafter – paving the way for yet more showdowns over Serra in the foreseeable future.


Ver el vídeo: El papa Francisco explica la Confirmación